GovTrack’s Bill Summary
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Library of Congress Summary
The summary below was written by the Congressional Research Service, which is a nonpartisan division of the Library of Congress.
4/11/2013--Reported to House amended.
Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2013 -
Research and Development
Directs specified federal agencies participating in the National High-Performance Computing Program to:
(1) transmit to Congress a cybersecurity strategic research and development plan and triennial updates, and
(2) develop and annually update an implementation roadmap for such plan.
Instructs the participating agencies, in developing and updating the strategic plan, to solicit recommendations and advice from the advisory committee on high-performance computing and a wide range of specified stakeholders.
Directs such agencies to establish a mechanism to track ongoing and completed federal cybersecurity research and development projects and associated funding.
Requires such information to be made available to the public.
Provides for the award of computer and network security research grants by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the research areas of social and behavioral factors, including human-computer interactions, identity management, as well as the detection, investigation, and prosecution of cyber-crimes involving organized crime and crimes against children. Authorizes appropriations for FY2014-FY2016 for such grants.
Requires applications for the establishment of Computer and Network Security Research Centers to include a description of how such Centers will partner with government laboratories, for-profit entities, other institutions of higher education, or nonprofit research institutions.
Authorizes appropriations for FY2014-FY2016 for such Centers. Authorizes appropriations to NSF for FY2014-FY2016 for:
(1) computer and network security capacity building grants,
(2) grants under the Scientific and Advanced Technology Act for the national advanced scientific and technical education program and national centers of scientific and technical education, and
(3) grants for graduate traineeships programs in computer and network security research.
Repeals the Cyber Security Faculty Development Traineeship Program.
Requires the NSF Director to continue carrying out a Scholarship for Service program under the Cyber Security Research and Development Act to recruit and train the next generation of federal cybersecurity professionals and to increase the capacity of the higher education system to produce an information technology workforce with the skills necessary to enhance the security of the nation's communications and information infrastructure.
Requires the program to:
(1) provide scholarships for tuition, fees, and a stipend for up to two years to students pursuing a bachelor's or master's degree and up to three years to students pursuing a doctoral degree in a cybersecurity field upon condition that a scholarship recipient, upon the completion of the degree, serves as a cybersecurity professional within the federal workforce (or in another specified cybersecurity capacity) for a specified period of time;
(2) provide scholarship recipients with summer internships or other temporary appointments in the federal information technology workforce; and
(3) increase, through competitive grants, the capacity of U.S. higher education institutions to produce highly qualified cybersecurity professionals.
Directs the President to transmit a report to Congress addressing the cybersecurity workforce needs of the federal government.
Requires the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy to convene a cybersecurity university-industry task force to explore mechanisms for carrying out collaborative research, development, education, and training activities through a consortium or other appropriate entity. Terminates the task force upon transmittal of a report to Congress.
Revises provisions under the Cyber Security Research and Development Act concerning the development and dissemination by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of security risk checklists associated with computer systems that are, or are likely to become, widely used within the federal government.
Requires the NIST Director to establish priorities for the development, and revision as necessary, of security automation standards, associated reference materials (including protocols), and checklists associated with such systems in order to enable standardized and interoperable technologies, architectures, and frameworks to continuously monitor information security within the federal government.
Instructs the NIST Director to ensure that federal agencies are informed of the availability of any standard, reference material, checklist, or other item developed pursuant to this section.
Requires NIST to conduct intramural security research activities under its computing standards program.
Directs NSF and NIST to support research that will lead to the development of a scientific foundation for the field of cybersecurity, including research that increases understanding of securing complex networked systems, enables repeatable experimentation, and creates quantifiable security metrics.
Advancement of Cybersecurity Technical Standards
Requires the NIST Director to ensure the coordination of federal agencies engaged in the development of international technical standards related to information system security. Requires the development and transmittal to Congress of a plan to ensure coordination by such federal agencies. Instructs the Director to ensure consultation with appropriate private sector stakeholders.
Requires the NIST Director, in collaboration with the federal Chief Information Officers Council, to continue to develop and encourage implementation of a comprehensive strategy for the use and adoption of cloud computing services by the federal government.
Requires consideration to be given to activities that:
(1) accelerate the development, in collaboration with the private sector, of standards that address the interoperability and portability of cloud computing services;
(2) advance the development of conformance testing performed by the private sector in support of cloud computing standardization; and
(3) support, in consultation with the private sector, the development of appropriate security frameworks and reference materials, and the identification of best practices, for federal agencies to use in addressing security and privacy requirements.
Requires the NIST Director, in collaboration with the National Coordination Office of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development program, to continue the coordination of a cybersecurity awareness and education program for increasing the knowledge, skills, and awareness of cybersecurity risks, consequences, and best practices through:
(1) the widespread dissemination of cybersecurity technical standards and best practices identified by NIST;
(2) efforts to make cybersecurity best practices usable by individuals, small to medium-sized businesses, state, local, and tribal governments, and educational institutions;
(3) improving the state of cybersecurity education at all educational levels; and
(4) efforts to attract, recruit, and retain qualified professionals to the federal cybersecurity workforce and improve the skills and training of such workforce.
Requires the NIST Director to implement and transmit a strategic plan to Congress to guide federal programs and activities in support of a specified comprehensive cybersecurity awareness and education program.
Requires the NIST Director to continue a program to support the development of technical standards, metrology, testbeds, and conformance criteria with regard to identity management research and development.
Prohibits the authorization of any additional funds to carry out this Act and the amendments made by this Act. Requires this Act and the amendments made by this Act to be carried out using otherwise authorized or appropriated amounts.
House Republican Conference Summary
The summary below was written by the House Republican Conference, which is the caucus of Republicans in the House of Representatives.
This summary can be found at http://www.gop.gov/bill/113/1/hr756.
Increased reliance on information technology in the federal, private, and public sectors has amplified the vulnerabilities of these systems. Cyber criminals and state-sponsored entities increasingly seek access to America’s sensitive information and critical infrastructures. According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), federal agencies have experienced a “dramatic increase in reports of security incidents,” with the total number of reported cybersecurity incidents increasing by 782 percent from 2006 to 2012. In FY 2010, federal agencies spent $8.6 billion on cybersecurity and the federal government spends more than $400 million on cybersecurity R&D annually. However, in 2009 GAO found the Nation’s information technology (IT) infrastructure was vulnerable to attack, as the federal agencies responsible for protecting the Nation’s IT infrastructure were not fulfilling their responsibilities. Responsibility for protecting U.S. cyber infrastructure is shared by various federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Currently, the federal agencies involved in cybersecurity efforts operate without a coordinated and comprehensive strategy or plan. H.R. 756 primarily addresses and enhances important cybersecurity research efforts conducted by NSF and NIST.
The House passed similar legislation in the 111th and 112th Congresses (H.R. 4061 and H.R. 2096 respectively), but these measures were not taken up by the Senate. In the 112th Congress, the bill passed on April 27, 2012 by a vote of 395-10 (roll no. 193).
 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Cybersecurity: National Strategy, Roles, and Responsibilities Need to Be Better Defined and More Effectively Implemented, Feb. 2013, http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/652170.pdf.
 See House Science Committee report 113-33.
H.R. 756 requires the development of a strategic plan to guide cybersecurity research and development (R&D) across the federal government. In developing the plan, advice will be solicited from federal and private stakeholders, including industry, academia, and other relevant organizations. H.R. 756 also requires the President to submit to Congress an assessment of the federal government’s cybersecurity workforce needs, including the needs of each agency and department, the skills sought by the federal government and the private sector in this field, and the capacity of institutions of higher education to meet the workforce needs.
H.R. 756 reauthorizes funding for established cybersecurity basic research and education grants at the National Science Foundation. Authorizations for the programs expired in 2007, but NSF has been utilizing appropriations to conduct them under their general authorities. In FY 2012, NSF estimates that it spent $185.6 million on these activities. H.R. 756 authorizes these activities for three years, FY 2014-FY2016, at $185 million per year, for a total authorization of $555 million.
In addition, H.R. 756 continues and enhances the Scholarship for Service program designed to recruit and train the next generation of cybersecurity professionals. Scholarship recipients will be given internships in the federal information technology workforce, and following graduation, will serve as cybersecurity professionals in the federal workforce for a prescribed period of time. Additionally, H.R. 756 establishes a university-industry task force to address grand cybersecurity research challenges and to explore mechanisms and models for carrying out public-private cybersecurity research partnerships. H.R.756 also strengthens the development of security automation standards and checklists for government systems, and ensures that federal agencies are informed of the availability of these security standards and related reference materials. Finally, H.R. 756 continues the coordination of cybersecurity awareness and education programs.
According to CBO, “implementing H.R. 756 would cost $504 million over the 2014-2018 period and $52 million after 2018. Enacting the legislation would not affect direct spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.” For more information, see CBO’s cost estimate on H.R. 756.
House Democratic Caucus Summary
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