H.R. 1804 (103rd): Goals 2000: Educate America Act

103rd Congress, 1993–1994. Text as of Feb 23, 1994 (Passed the House (Engrossed) with an Amendment).

Status & Summary | PDF | Source: GPO

HR 1804 EAH

In the House of Representatives, U. S.,

February 23, 1994.

Resolved, That the House agree to the amendment of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 1804) entitled ‘An Act to improve learning and teaching by providing a national framework for education reform; to promote the research, consensus building, and systemic changes needed to ensure equitable educational opportunities and high levels of educational achievement for all American students; to provide a framework for reauthorization of all Federal education programs; to promote the development and adoption of a voluntary national system of skill standards and certifications, and for other purposes’, with the following

AMENDMENT:

In lieu of the matter inserted by said amendment, insert:

SECTION 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

TITLE I--GOALS 2000: EDUCATE AMERICA ACT

      Sec. 101. Purpose.

Part A--National Education Goals

      Sec. 111. Purpose.

      Sec. 112. National education goals.

Part B--National Education Reform, Leadership, Standards, and Assessments

SUBPART 1--NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS PANEL

      Sec. 121. Purpose.

      Sec. 122. National Education Goals Panel.

      Sec. 123. Duties.

      Sec. 124. Powers of the Goals Panel.

      Sec. 125. Administrative provisions.

      Sec. 126. Director and staff; experts and consultants.

      Sec. 127. Early childhood assessment.

SUBPART 2--NATIONAL EDUCATION STANDARDS AND IMPROVEMENT COUNCIL

      Sec. 131. Purpose.

      Sec. 132. National Education Standards and Improvement Council.

      Sec. 133. Duties.

      Sec. 134. Annual reports.

      Sec. 135. Powers of the Council.

      Sec. 136. Publication for public comment.

      Sec. 137. Administrative provisions.

      Sec. 138. Director and staff; experts and consultants.

      Sec. 139. Opportunity-to-learn development grant.

      Sec. 140. Assessment development and evaluation grants.

      Sec. 141. Evaluation.

SUBPART 3--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

      Sec. 145. Authorization of appropriations.

Part C--State and Local Education Systemic Improvement

      Sec. 151. Congressional findings.

      Sec. 152. Purpose.

      Sec. 153. Authorization of appropriations.

      Sec. 154. Allotment of funds.

      Sec. 155. State applications.

      Sec. 156. State improvement plans.

      Sec. 157. Secretary’s review of applications; payments.

      Sec. 158. State use of funds.

      Sec. 159. Subgrants for local reform and professional development.

      Sec. 160. Availability of information and training.

      Sec. 161. Waivers of statutory and regulatory requirements.

      Sec. 162. Progress reports.

      Sec. 163. National leadership.

      Sec. 164. Assistance to the outlying areas and to the Secretary of the Interior.

Part D--National Skill Standards Board

      Sec. 171. Purpose.

      Sec. 172. Establishment of National Board.

      Sec. 173. Functions of the National Board.

      Sec. 174. Deadlines.

      Sec. 175. Reports.

      Sec. 176. Authorization of appropriations.

      Sec. 177. Definitions.

Part E--Miscellaneous

      Sec. 181. Definitions.

      Sec. 182. Limitations.

      Sec. 183. Assessment of educational progress activities.

      Sec. 184. Compliance with Buy American Act.

      Sec. 185. Sense of Congress; requirement regarding notice.

      Sec. 186. Prohibition of contracts.

Part F--Parental Information and Resources

      Sec. 191. Parental information and resources

      Sec. 192. Eligibility.

      Sec. 193. Uses of funds.

      Sec. 194. Technical assistance.

      Sec. 195. Experimental centers.

      Sec. 196. Reports.

      Sec. 197. Authorization of appropriations.

TITLE II--EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DISSEMINATION EXCELLENCE ACT

      Sec. 201. Findings.

Part A--General Provisions Regarding Office of Educational Research and Improvement

      Sec. 211. General provisions.

      Sec. 212. Assistant Secretary for Educational Research and Improvement.

      Sec. 213. Savings provision.

      Sec. 214. Existing grants and contracts.

Part B--National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board

      Sec. 221. Establishment within Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Part C--National Research Institutes

      Sec. 231. Establishment within Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Part D--National Education Dissemination System

      Sec. 241. Establishment within Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Part E--National Library of Education

      Sec. 251. Establishment within Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

TITLE III--SAFE SCHOOLS ACT OF 1994

      Sec. 301. Safe schools program authorized.

      Sec. 302. Eligible applicants.

      Sec. 303. Applications and plans.

      Sec. 304. Grants and use of funds.

      Sec. 305. National leadership.

      Sec. 306. Reports.

      Sec. 307. Definitions.

TITLE I--GOALS 2000: EDUCATE AMERICA ACT

SEC. 101. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this Act is to provide a framework for meeting the National Education Goals established by title I of this Act by--

      (1) promoting coherent, nationwide, systemic education reform;

      (2) improving the quality of learning and teaching in the classroom and in the workplace;

      (3) defining appropriate and coherent Federal, State, and local roles and responsibilities for education reform and lifelong learning;

      (4) establishing valid, reliable, and fair mechanisms for--

        (A) building a broad national consensus on American education reform;

        (B) assisting in the development and certification of high-quality, internationally competitive content and student performance standards;

        (C) assisting in the development and certification of opportunity-to-learn standards; and

        (D) assisting in the development and certification of high-quality assessment measures that reflect the internationally competitive content and student performance standards;

      (5) supporting new initiatives at the Federal, State, local, and school levels to provide equal educational opportunity for all students to meet high standards and to succeed in the world of employment and civic participation;

      (6) providing a framework for the reauthorization of all Federal education programs by--

        (A) creating a vision of excellence and equity that will guide all Federal education and related programs;

        (B) providing for the establishment of high-quality, internationally competitive content and student performance standards that all students will be expected to achieve;

        (C) providing for the establishment of high quality, internationally competitive opportunity-to-learn standards that all States, local educational agencies, and schools should achieve;

        (D) encouraging and enabling all State educational agencies and local educational agencies to develop comprehensive improvement plans that will provide a coherent framework for the implementation of reauthorized Federal education and related programs in an integrated fashion that effectively educates all children enabling them to participate fully as workers, parents, and citizens; and

        (E) providing resources to help individual schools, including those serving students with high needs, develop and implement comprehensive improvement plans;

      (7) stimulating the development and adoption of a voluntary national system of skill standards and certification to serve as a cornerstone of the national strategy to enhance workforce skills; and

      (8) assisting every elementary and secondary school that receives funds under this Act to actively involve parents and families in supporting the academic work of their children at home and in providing parents with skills to advocate for their children at school.

PART A--NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS

SEC. 111. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this title is to establish national education goals.

SEC. 112. NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS.

    The Congress declares that the National Education Goals are the following:

      (1) SCHOOL READINESS- (A) By the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) all children will have access to high-quality and developmentally appropriate preschool programs that help prepare children for school;

        (ii) every parent in America will be a child’s first teacher and devote time each day to helping his or her preschool child learn, and parents will have access to the training and support they need; and

        (iii) all children will receive the nutrition and health care needed to arrive at school with healthy minds and bodies, and to maintain the mental alertness necessary to be prepared to learn, and the number of low-birthweight babies will be significantly reduced through enhanced prenatal health systems.

      (2) SCHOOL COMPLETION- (A) By the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90 percent.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) the Nation must dramatically reduce its dropout rate, and 75 percent of those students who do drop out will successfully complete a high school degree or its equivalent; and

        (ii) the gap in high school graduation rates between American students from minority backgrounds and their non-minority counterparts will be eliminated.

      (3) STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND CITIZENSHIP- (A) By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) the academic performance of all students at the elementary and secondary level will increase significantly in every quartile, and the distribution of minority students in each level will more closely reflect the student population as a whole;

        (ii) the percentage of all students who demonstrate the ability to reason, solve problems, apply knowledge, and write and communicate effectively will increase substantially;

        (iii) all students will be involved in activities that promote and demonstrate good citizenship, community service, and personal responsibility;

        (iv) all students will have access to physical education and health education to ensure they are healthy and fit;

        (v) the percentage of all students who are competent in more than one language will substantially increase; and

        (vi) all students will be knowledgeable about the diverse cultural heritage of this Nation and about the world community.

      (4) TEACHER EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT- (A) By the year 2000, the Nation’s teaching force will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills and the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to instruct and prepare all American students for the next century.

      (B) The objectives of this goal are that--

        (i) every State will establish opportunity-to-learn standards and create an integrated strategy to attract, recruit, prepare, retrain, and support the continued professional development of teachers, administrators, and other educators, so that there is a highly talented workforce of professional educators to teach challenging standards;

        (ii) subgrants for preservice teacher education and professional development activity will be made to local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, private nonprofit organizations, or consortia of such organizations, to support continuing, sustained, professional development activities for all educators; and

        (iii) partnerships shall be established, whenever possible, between local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, local labor, business, and professional associations to provide and support programs for the professional development of educators, particularly in the area of emerging new technologies in education.

      (5) MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE- (A) By the year 2000, United States students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) math and science education, including the metric system of measurement, will be strengthened throughout the system, especially in the early grades;

        (ii) the number of teachers with a substantive background in mathematics and science, including the metric system of measurement, will increase by 50 percent; and

        (iii) the number of United States undergraduate and graduate students, especially women and minorities, who complete degrees in mathematics, science, and engineering will increase significantly.

      (6) ADULT LITERACY AND LIFELONG LEARNING- (A) By the year 2000, every adult American will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) every major American business will be involved in strengthening the connection between education and work;

        (ii) all workers will have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills, from basic to highly technical, needed to adapt to emerging new technologies, work methods, and markets through public and private educational, vocational, technical, workplace, or other programs;

        (iii) the number of quality programs, including those at libraries, that are designed to serve more effectively the needs of the growing number of part-time and midcareer students will increase substantially;

        (iv) the proportion of those qualified students, especially minorities, who enter college, who complete at least two years, and who complete their degree programs will increase substantially;

        (v) the proportion of college graduates who demonstrate an advanced ability to think critically, communicate effectively, and solve problems will increase substantially; and

        (vi) schools, in implementing comprehensive parent involvement programs, will offer more adult literacy, parent training and life-long learning opportunities to improve the ties between home and school, and enhance parents’ work and home lives.

      (7) SAFE, DISCIPLINED, AND DRUG-FREE SCHOOLS- (A) By the year 2000, every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) every school will implement a firm and fair policy on use, possession, and distribution of drugs and alcohol;

        (ii) parents, businesses, and community organizations will work together to ensure the rights of students to study in a safe and secure environment that is free of drugs and crime;

        (iii) every school district will develop a comprehensive K-12 drug and alcohol prevention education program. Drug and alcohol curricula should be taught as an integral part of health education. In addition, community-based teams should be organized to provide all students and teachers with needed support; and

        (iv) every school district will develop and implement a policy to ensure that all schools are free of weapons and violence.

      (8) SCHOOL AND HOME PARTNERSHIP- (A) By the year 2000, every school and home will engage in partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children.

      (B) The objectives for this goal are that--

        (i) every State will develop policies to assist local schools and local educational agencies to establish programs for increasing partnerships that respond to the varying needs of parents and the home, including parents of children who are disadvantaged, bilingual, or disabled;

        (ii) every school will actively engage parents and families in a partnership which supports the academic work of children at home and shared educational decision making at school;

        (iii) every home will be responsible for creating an environment of respect for education and providing the physical and emotional support needed for learning; and

        (iv) parents and families will help to ensure that schools are adequately supported and will hold schools and teachers to high standards of accountability.

PART B--NATIONAL EDUCATION REFORM, LEADERSHIP, STANDARDS, AND ASSESSMENTS

Subpart 1--National Education Goals Panel

SEC. 121. PURPOSE.

    It is the purpose of this part to establish a bipartisan mechanism for--

      (1) building a national consensus for education improvement;

      (2) reporting on progress toward achieving the National Education Goals; and

      (3) reviewing the voluntary national content and student performance standards and opportunity-to-learn standards certified by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council, as well as the criteria for their certification, and the criteria for the certification of State assessments by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council with the option of disapproving such standards and criteria not later than 60 days after receipt from such Council.

SEC. 122. NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS PANEL.

    (a) ESTABLISHMENT- There is established in the executive branch a National Education Goals Panel (referred to in this Act as the ‘Goals Panel’) to advise the President, the Secretary, and the Congress.

    (b) COMPOSITION- The Goals Panel shall be composed of eighteen members (referred to in this part as ‘members’), including--

      (1) two members appointed by the President;

      (2) eight members who are Governors, three of whom shall be from the same political party as the President and five of whom shall be of the opposite political party of the President, appointed by the Chairperson and Vice Chairperson of the National Governors’ Association, with each appointing representatives of his or her respective political party, in consultation with each other;

      (3) four Members of Congress appointed as follows--

        (A) one member appointed by the majority leader of the Senate from among the Members of the Senate;

        (B) one member appointed by the minority leader of the Senate from among the Members of the Senate;

        (C) one member appointed by the majority leader of the House of Representatives from among the Members of the House of Representatives; and

        (D) one member appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives from among the Members of the House of Representatives; and

      (4) four members of State legislatures appointed by the President of the National Conference of State Legislatures, of whom not more than two may be of the same political party as the President of the United States.

    (c) SPECIAL APPOINTMENT RULES- (1) The members appointed pursuant to subsection (b)(2) shall be appointed as follows:

      (A) If the Chairperson of the National Governors’ Association is from the same political party as the President, the Chairperson shall appoint three individuals and the Vice Chairperson shall appoint five individuals.

      (B) If the Chairperson of the National Governors’ Association is from the opposite political party as the President, the Chairperson shall appoint five individuals and the Vice Chairperson shall appoint three individuals.

    (2) If the National Governors’ Association has appointed a panel that meets the requirements of subsections (b) and (c), except for the requirements of subsection (b)(4), prior to the date of enactment of this title, then the members serving on such panel shall be deemed to be in compliance with subsections (b) and (c) and shall not be required to be reappointed pursuant to such subsections.

    (3) To the extent feasible, the membership of the Goals Panel shall be geographically representative and reflect the racial, ethnic, and gender diversity of the United States.

    (d) TERMS- The terms of service of members shall be as follows:

      (1) Members appointed under subsection (b)(1) shall serve at the pleasure of the President.

      (2) Members appointed under subsection (b)(2) shall serve a two-year term, except that the initial appointments under such paragraph shall be made to ensure staggered terms with one-half of such members’ terms concluding every two years.

      (3) Members appointed under subsection (b) (3) and (4) shall serve a term of two years.

    (e) DATE OF APPOINTMENT- The initial members shall be appointed not later than sixty days after the date of enactment of this Act.

    (f) INITIATION- The Goals Panel may begin to carry out its duties under this part when ten members of the Goals Panel have been appointed.

    (g) VACANCIES- A vacancy on the Goals Panel shall not affect the powers of the Goals Panel, but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

    (h) TRAVEL- Each member may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for each day the member is engaged in the performance of duties away from the home or regular place of business of the member.

    (i) CHAIRPERSON- From among the members, the President shall appoint the Chairperson who shall serve a one-year term and shall alternate between political parties.

    (j) CONFLICT OF INTEREST- A member of the Goals Panel who is an elected official of a State which has developed content, student performance, or opportunity-to-learn standards may not participate in Goals Panel consideration of such standards.

    (k) EX OFFICIO MEMBER- If the President has not appointed the Secretary of Education as 1 of the 2 members he appoints pursuant to subsection (b)(1), then the Secretary shall serve as a nonvoting ex officio member of the Goals Panel.

SEC. 123. DUTIES.

    (a) DUTIES- The Goals Panel shall--

      (1) report to the President, the Secretary, and the Congress regarding the progress the Nation and the States are making toward achieving the National Education Goals established under title I of this Act, including issuing an annual report;

      (2) report on State opportunity-to-learn standards and the progress of States in meeting such standards;

      (3) review, after taking into consideration the public comments received pursuant to section 136, with the option of disapproving by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of the--

        (A) criteria developed by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council for the certification of content and student performance standards, assessments, and opportunity-to-learn standards; and

        (B) voluntary national content and student performance standards and opportunity-to-learn standards certified by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council;

      (4) report on promising or effective actions being taken at the national, State, and local levels, in the public and private sectors, to achieve the National Education Goals; and

      (5) help build a nationwide, bipartisan consensus for the reforms necessary to achieve the National Education Goals.

    (b) REPORT- (1) The Goals Panel shall annually prepare and submit to the President, the Secretary, the appropriate committees of Congress, and the Governor of each State a report that shall--

      (A) report on the progress of the United States toward achieving the National Education Goals;

      (B) identify actions that should be taken by Federal, State, and local governments to enhance progress toward achieving the National Education Goals and State opportunity-to-learn standards; and

      (C) report on State opportunity-to-learn standards and the progress of States in meeting such standards.

    (2) Reports shall be presented in a form, and include data, that is understandable to parents and the general public.

SEC. 124. POWERS OF THE GOALS PANEL.

    (a) HEARINGS- (1) The Goals Panel shall, for the purpose of carrying out this part, conduct such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence, as the Goals Panel considers appropriate.

    (2) In carrying out this part, the Goals Panel shall conduct hearings to receive reports, views, and analyses of a broad spectrum of experts and the public on the establishment of voluntary national content and student performance standards, assessments, and opportunity-to-learn standards.

    (b) INFORMATION- The Goals Panel may secure directly from any department or agency of the United States information necessary to enable the Goals Panel to carry out this part. Upon request of the Chairperson of the Goals Panel, the head of a department or agency shall furnish such information to the Goals Panel to the extent permitted by law.

    (c) POSTAL SERVICES- The Goals Panel may use the United States mail in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.

    (d) USE OF FACILITIES- The Goals Panel may, with consent, use the research, equipment, services, and facilities of any agency or instrumentality of the United States, or of any State or political subdivision thereof.

    (e) ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS AND SUPPORT- (1) The Secretary shall provide to the Goals Panel, on a reimbursable basis, such administrative support services as the Goals Panel may request.

    (2) The Secretary shall, to the extent appropriate, and on a reimbursable basis, make contracts and other arrangements that are requested by the Goals Panel to help it compile and analyze data or carry out other functions necessary to the performance of such responsibilities.

SEC. 125. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

    (a) MEETINGS- The Goals Panel shall meet on a regular basis, as necessary, at the call of the Chairperson of the Goals Panel or a majority of its members.

    (b) QUORUM- A majority of the members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

    (c) VOTING- No individual may vote, or exercise any of the powers of a member, by proxy.

    (d) PUBLIC ACCESS- The Goals Panel shall ensure public access to its proceedings (other than proceedings, or portions of proceedings, relating to internal personnel and management matters) and make available to the public, at reasonable cost, transcripts of such proceedings.

SEC. 126. DIRECTOR AND STAFF; EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS.

    (a) DIRECTOR- The Chairperson of the Goals Panel shall, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, relating to the appointment and compensation of officers or employees of the United States, appoint a Director to be paid at a rate not to exceed the rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule.

    (b) APPOINTMENT AND PAY OF EMPLOYEES- (1)(A) The Director may appoint not more than four additional employees to serve as staff to the Goals Panel without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service.

    (B) The employees appointed under paragraph (1)(A) may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of that title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, but shall not be paid a rate that exceeds the maximum rate of basic pay payable for GS-15 of the General Schedule.

    (2) The Director may appoint additional employees to serve as staff to the Goals Panel consistent with title 5, United States Code.

    (c) EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS- The Goals Panel may procure temporary and intermittent services of experts and consultants under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code.

    (d) STAFF OF FEDERAL AGENCIES- Upon the request of the Goals Panel, the head of any department or agency of the United States may detail any of the personnel of such agency to the Goals Panel to assist the Goals Panel in its duties under this part.

SEC. 127. EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT.

    (a) GENERAL- (1) The Goals Panel shall support the work of its Resource and Technical Planning Groups on School Readiness (referred to in this section as the Groups) to improve the methods of assessing the readiness of children for school that would lead to alternatives to currently used norm-referenced early childhood assessments.

    (2) The Groups shall--

      (A) create clear guidelines regarding the nature, functions, and uses of early childhood assessments, including a model of school readiness that addresses a broad range of early childhood developmental needs;

      (B) monitor and evaluate early childhood assessments, including the ability of existing assessments to provide valid information on the readiness of children for school; and

      (C) monitor and report on the long-term collection of data on the status of young children to improve policy and practice, including the need for new sources of data necessary to assess the broad range of early childhood developmental needs.

    (b) ADVICE- The Groups shall advise and assist the Congress, the Secretary, the Goals Panel, and others regarding how to improve the assessment of young children and how such assessments can improve services to children.

    (c) REPORT- The Goals Panel shall provide reports on the work of the Groups to the Congress, the Secretary, and the public.

Subpart 2--National Education Standards and Improvement Council

SEC. 131. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this part is to establish a mechanism to--

      (1) certify and regularly review voluntary national content and student performance standards that define what all students should know and be able to do;

      (2) certify content and student performance standards submitted by States on a voluntary basis, if such standards are of equal or higher quality to the voluntary national content and student performance standards certified by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council;

      (3) certify and regularly review voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards that describe the conditions of teaching and learning necessary for all students to have a fair opportunity to achieve the knowledge and skills described in the voluntary national content and student performance standards certified by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council;

      (4) certify opportunity-to-learn standards submitted by States on a voluntary basis, if such standards are of equal or higher quality as compared with the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards; and

      (5) certify assessment systems submitted by States on a voluntary basis, if such systems are aligned with State content standards certified by the National Education Standards and Improvement Council and if such systems are valid, reliable, and consistent with relevant, nationally recognized, professional and technical standards for assessment when used for their intended purposes.

SEC. 132. NATIONAL EDUCATION STANDARDS AND IMPROVEMENT COUNCIL.

    (a) ESTABLISHMENT- There is established in the executive branch a National Education Standards and Improvement Council (referred to in this title as the ‘Council’).

    (b) COMPOSITION- The Council shall be composed of twenty members (referred to in this part as ‘members’) who shall be appointed as follows:

      (1) 8 members (2 from each of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (c)(1)) shall be appointed by the President;

      (2) 4 members (1 from each of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (c)(1)) shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the majority and minority leaders of the House;

      (3) 4 members (1 from each of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (c)(1)) shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, in consultation with the minority leader of the Senate; and

      (4) 4 members (1 from each of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (c)(1)) shall be appointed by the National Education Goals Panel.

    (c) QUALIFICATIONS- (1) The members of the Council shall include--

      (A) 5 professional educators, including elementary and secondary classroom teachers, preschool educators and other school-based professionals, local district or State administrators, related service personnel, and other educators;

      (B) 5 representatives of business and industry, organized labor, and postsecondary educational institutions, including at least 1 representative of postsecondary educational institutions, at least 1 representative of organized labor, and at least 1 representative of business who is also a member of the National Skill Standards Board;

      (C) 5 representatives of the public, including representatives of advocacy, civil rights and disability groups, parents, civic leaders, and local and State education policymakers (including State, local, or tribal school boards); and

      (D) 5 education experts, including experts in measurement and assessment, curriculum, school finance and equity, and school reform.

    (2) To the extent feasible, the membership of the Council shall be geographically representative of the United States and reflect the diversity of the United States with regard to race, ethnicity, gender, and disability characteristics.

    (3) One-third of the Council shall consist of individuals with expertise in the educational needs of children who are from low-income families, minority backgrounds, have limited-English proficiency, or have disabilities.

    (d) TERMS- (1) Members shall be appointed for 3-year terms, with no member serving more than 2 consecutive terms.

    (2) The Council shall establish by lot initial terms for individuals of one, two, or three years in order to establish a rotation in which one-third of the members are selected each year.

    (e) DATE OF APPOINTMENT- The initial members shall be appointed not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act.

    (f) INITIATION- The Council shall begin to carry out the duties of the Council under this part when all 20 members have been appointed.

    (g) RETENTION- In order to retain an appointment to the Council, a member must attend at least two-thirds of the scheduled meetings of the Council in any given year.

    (h) VACANCY- A vacancy on the Council shall not affect the powers of the Council, but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

    (i) COMPENSATION- Members of the Council who are not regular full-time employees of the United States may, while attending meetings or hearings of the Council, be provided compensation at a rate fixed by the Secretary, but not exceeding the maximum rate of basic pay payable for GS-15 of the General Schedule.

    (j) CONFLICT OF INTEREST- (1) A member of the Council may not concurrently serve as a member of the Goals Panel.

    (2) Section 208 of title 18 of the United States Code shall apply to members of the Council except that, for the purposes of making written determinations under subsection (b)(1), the Government official responsible for the appointment of any member of the Council is deemed to be the Director of the Office of Government Ethics.

    (3) A member of the Council who resides in a State which has developed standards and assessments may not participate in Council consideration of such standards and assessments.

    (k) TRAVEL- Each member of the Council may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for each day the member is engaged in the performance of duties away from the home or regular place of business of the member.

    (l) OFFICERS- The members of the Council shall select officers from among its members. The officers of the Council shall serve for one-year terms.

SEC. 133. DUTIES.

    (a) VOLUNTARY NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS- (1) The Council shall--

      (A) identify areas in which voluntary national content standards need to be developed;

      (B) certify voluntary national content and student performance standards using the criteria developed under paragraph (2)(A)(i), that define what all students should know and be able to do;

      (C) forward such voluntary national content and student performance standards to the Goals Panel for review, except that the Goals Panel shall have the option of disapproving such standards by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of such standards; and

      (D) develop a process for regularly reviewing any national voluntary content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards that have been certified.

    (2)(A) The Council shall--

      (i) identify and develop criteria to be used for certifying the voluntary national content and student performance standards; and

      (ii) before applying such criteria, forward them to the Goals Panel for review, except that the Goals Panel shall have the option of disapproving such criteria by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of such criteria.

    (B) The criteria developed by the Council shall address--

      (i) the extent to which the proposed standards are internationally competitive and comparable to the best in the world;

      (ii) the extent to which the proposed content and student performance standards reflect the best available knowledge about how all students learn and about how the content area can be most effectively taught;

      (iii) the extent to which the proposed content and student performance standards have been developed through an open and public process that provides for input and involvement of all relevant parties, including teachers, related services personnel, and other professional educators, employers and postsecondary education institutions, curriculum and subject matter specialists, parents, advocacy groups, and the public; and

      (iv) other factors that the Council deems appropriate.

    (C) In developing the criteria, the Council shall work with entities that are developing, or have already developed, content and student performance standards, and any other entities that the Council deems appropriate, to identify appropriate certification criteria.

    (b) VOLUNTARY STATE CONTENT STANDARDS- The Council may certify content and student performance standards presented on a voluntary basis by States, using the criteria developed under subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), if such standards are of equal or higher quality to the voluntary national content and student performance standards certified by the Council.

    (c) VOLUNTARY NATIONAL OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN STANDARDS- (1) The Council shall certify exemplary, voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards that will establish a basis for providing all students a fair opportunity to achieve the knowledge and skills set out in the voluntary national content standards certified by the Council.

    (2) The voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards certified by the Council shall address--

      (A) the quality and availability of curricula, instructional materials, and technologies, including distance learning, to all students;

      (B) the capability of teachers to provide high-quality instruction to meet diverse learning needs in each content area to all students;

      (C) the extent to which teachers, principals, and administrators have ready and continuing access to professional development, including the best knowledge about teaching, learning, and school improvement;

      (D) the extent to which curriculum, instructional practices, and assessments are aligned to content standards;

      (E) the extent to which school facilities provide a safe and secure environment for learning and instruction and have the requisite libraries, laboratories, and other resources necessary to provide an opportunity to learn;

      (F) the extent to which schools utilize policies, curricula, and instructional practices which ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of gender; and

      (G) other factors that the Council deems appropriate to ensure the students receive a fair opportunity to achieve the knowledge and skills described in the voluntary content and student performance standards certified by the Council.

    (3) In carrying out this subsection, the Council shall--

      (A) identify what countries with rigorous content standards do to--

        (i) provide their children with opportunities to learn;

        (ii) prepare their teachers; and

        (iii) provide continuing professional development opportunities for their teachers; and

      (B) develop criteria to be used for certifying the voluntary national and State opportunity-to-learn standards and, before applying such criteria, forward them to the Goals Panel for review, except that the Goals Panel shall have the option of disapproving such standards by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of such criteria.

    (4) The Council shall assist in the development of the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards developed by the consortium under section 139 by--

      (A) making recommendations to the Secretary regarding priorities and selection criteria for the award made under section 139 and

      (B) coordinating with the consortium receiving an award under section 139 to ensure that the opportunity-to-learn standards the consortium develops are appropriate for the needs of all students, are of high quality, and are consistent with the criteria developed by the Council for the certification of such standards.

    (5) The Council shall forward the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards it certifies to the Goals Panel for review, except that the Goals Panel shall have the option of disapproving such standards by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of such standards.

    (d) VOLUNTARY STATE OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN STANDARDS- The Council may certify opportunity-to-learn standards submitted voluntarily by a State, using the criteria developed under subsection (c)(3)(B), if such standards are of equal or higher quality as compared to the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards.

    (e) GENERAL PROVISION REGARDING VOLUNTARY NATIONAL STANDARDS- The Council may certify voluntary national content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards if such standards are sufficiently general to be used by any State without restricting State and local control of curriculum and prerogatives regarding instructional methods to be employed.

    (f) ASSESSMENTS- (1)(A) The Council may certify an assessment system that is submitted voluntarily by a State, using the criteria developed under paragraph (2)(A), if such system is aligned with the State’s content standards certified by the Council.

    (B) Assessment systems shall be certified by the Council for the purposes of--

      (i) informing students, parents, teachers, and related services personnel about the progress of all students toward the standards;

      (ii) improving classroom instruction and improving the learning outcomes for all students;

      (iii) exemplifying for students, parents, and teachers the kinds and levels of achievement that should be expected of all students, including the identification of student performance standards;

      (iv) measuring and motivating individual students, schools, districts, States, and the Nation to improve educational performance; and

      (v) assisting education policymakers in making decisions about education programs.

    (C) The Council shall certify an assessment system only if--

      (i) the State has established or adopted opportunity-to-learn standards;

      (ii) such system will not be used to make decisions regarding graduation, grade promotion, or retention of students for a period of five years from the date of enactment of this Act; and

      (iii) the State has submitted--

        (I) a description of the purposes for which the assessment system has been designed;

        (II) the methodologies and process used to develop, select, validate, and use such assessment systems;

        (III) a copy of the test instrument and, as appropriate, other measures that will make up the system; and

        (IV) evidence that the test or tests which are part of the assessment system are valid, reliable measures of their intended purposes, are aligned with the State content standards, are capable of assessing the progress of all students toward learning the material in the State content standards, and are consistent with relevant nationally recognized professional and technical standards.

    (D) The Council shall, at the request of a State prior to developing an assessment system for a proposed use, review and provide guidance to such State on a proposed package of measures, including tests that would be included in such a system.

    (2)(A) The Council shall develop and, no sooner than three years or later than four years after the enactment of this Act, begin utilizing criteria for the certification of assessment systems for the purposes indicated in paragraph (1)(B). Before using such criteria, the Council shall forward the criteria to the Goals Panel for review, except that the Goals Panel shall have the option of disapproving such criteria by a two-thirds majority vote of the full membership not later than 60 days after receipt of such criteria.

    (B) The certification criteria developed by the Council shall address the extent to which the assessment system--

      (i) is aligned with State content standards certified by the Council; and

      (ii) is to be used for a purpose for which it is valid, reliable, free of discrimination, and is consistent with relevant, nationally recognized professional and technical standards for assessment.

    (C) In determining appropriate certification criteria, the Council shall--

      (i) consider standards and criteria being developed by other national organizations, research on assessment, and emerging new State and local assessments;

      (ii) recommend needed research;

      (iii) encourage the development and field testing of assessment systems; and

      (iv) provide a public forum for discussing, debating, and building consensus for the criteria to be used for the certification of assessment systems.

    (D) Prior to determining the certification criteria, the Council shall seek public comment regarding the proposed criteria.

    (E) The Council shall certify an assessment system only if such system includes all students.

    (g) PERFORMANCE OF DUTIES- In carrying out its responsibilities under this title, the Council shall--

      (1) provide for a process of broad public input as part of the process of developing criteria for standards and assessments;

      (2) work with Federal and non-Federal agencies and organizations which are conducting research, studies, or demonstration projects to determine internationally competitive standards and assessments, and may establish subject matter and other panels to advise it on particular content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards and on assessments;

      (3) establish cooperative arrangements with the National Skill Standards Board to promote the coordination of the development of content and student performance standards under this title with the development of skill standards under title IV of this Act;

      (4) recommend studies to the Secretary that are necessary to carry out the Council’s responsibilities;

      (5) inform the public about what constitutes high quality, internationally competitive, content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards, and assessment systems;

      (6) on a regular basis, review and update criteria for certifying content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards, and assessment systems; and

      (7) periodically recertify, as appropriate, the voluntary national content and student performance standards, and the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards and the assessments that it certifies under this section.

    (h) UNCONDITIONED STATE PARTICIPATION- No State shall be required to obtain certification of standards or assessments developed under subsection (b), (d), or (f) of this section or to participate in programs under title III of this Act, as a condition of participating in any Federal education program under this or any other Act.

SEC. 134. ANNUAL REPORTS.

    Not later than one year after the date the Council concludes its first meeting, and in each succeeding year, the Council shall prepare and submit a report to the President, the Secretary, the appropriate committees of Congress, the Governor of each State, and the Goals Panel regarding its work.

SEC. 135. POWERS OF THE COUNCIL.

    (a) HEARINGS- (1) The Council shall, for the purpose of carrying out its responsibilities, conduct such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence, as the Council considers appropriate.

    (2) In carrying out this part, the Council shall conduct public hearings in different geographic areas of the United States, both urban and rural, to receive the reports, views, and analyses of a broad spectrum of experts and the public on the establishment of voluntary national content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards, and assessment systems.

    (b) INFORMATION- The Council may secure directly from any department or agency of the United States information necessary to enable the Council to carry out this part. Upon request of the Chairperson of the Council, the head of a department or agency shall furnish such information to the Council to the extent permitted by law.

    (c) POSTAL SERVICES- The Council may use the United States mail in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.

    (d) USE OF FACILITIES- The Council may, with their consent, use the research, equipment, services, and facilities of any agency or instrumentality of the United States, or of any State or political subdivision thereof.

    (e) ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS AND SUPPORT- (1) The Secretary shall provide to the Council, on a reimbursable basis, such administrative support services as the Council may request.

    (2) The Secretary shall, to the extent appropriate, and on a reimbursable basis, make contracts and other arrangements that are requested by the Council to help it compile and analyze data or carry out other functions necessary to the performance of its responsibilities.

SEC. 136. PUBLICATION FOR PUBLIC COMMENT.

    (a) TRANSMITTAL- For the purpose of obtaining public comment through publication in the Federal Register, the Council shall transmit to the Secretary--

      (1) proposed criteria for certifying national and State content and performance standards;

      (2) proposed criteria for certifying national and State opportunity-to-learn standards;

      (3) proposed criteria for certifying State assessment systems; and

      (4) proposed national content, performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards.

    (b) PUBLICATION- The Secretary shall publish such proposed procedures, standards, and criteria in the Federal Register.

SEC. 137. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

    (a) MEETINGS- The Council shall meet on a regular basis, as necessary, at the call of the Chairperson of the Council, or a majority of its members.

    (b) QUORUM- A majority of the members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

    (c) VOTING- The Council shall take all action of the Council by a majority vote of the total membership of the Council, ensuring the right of the minority to issue written views. No individual may vote or exercise any of the powers of a member by proxy.

    (d) PUBLIC ACCESS- The Council shall ensure public access to its proceedings (other than proceedings, or portions of proceedings, relating to internal personnel and management matters) and make available to the public, at reasonable cost, transcripts of such proceedings.

SEC. 138. DIRECTOR AND STAFF; EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS.

    (a) DIRECTOR- The Chairperson of the Council shall, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, relating to the appointment and compensation of officers or employees of the United States, appoint a Director to be paid at a rate not to exceed the rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule.

    (b) APPOINTMENT AND PAY OF EMPLOYEES- (1)(A) The Director may appoint not more than four additional employees to serve as staff to the Council without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service.

    (B) The employees appointed under subparagraph (A) may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of that title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, but shall not be paid a rate that exceeds the maximum rate of basic pay payable for GS-15 of the General Schedule.

    (2) The Director may appoint additional employees to serve as staff of the Council consistent with title 5, United States Code.

    (c) EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS- The Council may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3019(b) of title 5, United States Code.

    (d) STAFF OF FEDERAL AGENCIES- Upon the request of the Council, the head of any department or agency of the United States may detail any of the personnel of such department or agency to the Council to assist the Council in its duties under this part.

SEC. 139. OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN DEVELOPMENT GRANT.

    (a) OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN DEVELOPMENT GRANT- (1) The Secretary is authorized to make a grant, on a competitive basis, to a consortium of individuals and organizations to develop voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards consistent with the provisions of section 123(c).

    (2) To the extent possible, such consortium shall include the participation of--

      (A) State-level policymakers, such as Governors, State legislators, chief State school officers, and State school board members;

      (B) local policymakers and administrators, such as local school board members, superintendents, and principals;

      (C) teachers (especially teachers involved in the development of content standards);

      (D) parents and individuals with experience in promoting parental involvement in education;

      (E) representatives of business;

      (F) experts in vocational-technical education;

      (G) representatives of regional accrediting associations;

      (H) individuals with expertise in school finance and equity, the education of at-risk students, and the preparation and training of teachers and school administrators;

      (I) curriculum and school reform experts;

      (J) student and civil rights advocacy groups;

      (K) representatives of higher education; and

      (L) secondary school students.

    (3) In developing voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards, such consortium shall--

      (A) draw upon current research about student achievement and the necessary conditions for effective teaching and learning; and

      (B) provide for the development of several consecutive drafts of standards which incorporate the comments and recommendations of educators and other knowledgeable individuals across the Nation.

    (4) One-third of the consortium shall consist of individuals with expertise in the educational needs and assessment of children who are from low-income families, minority backgrounds, have limited-English proficiency, or have disabilities.

    (5) The membership of the consortium shall be geographically representative and reflect the racial, ethnic, and gender diversity of the United States.

    (b) APPLICATIONS- (1) Any consortium that desires to receive a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information and assurances as the Secretary may require.

    (2) In awarding such grant, the Secretary shall give priority to applications from consortia which involve individuals and organizations with the greatest diversity of perspectives and points of view.

    (3) In establishing additional priorities and selection criteria for such grant, the Secretary shall give serious consideration to the recommendations made by the Council pursuant to section 123(c)(4)(A).

    (c) REPORT- After the development of the voluntary national opportunity-to-learn standards, the consortium funded under this section shall submit a report to the Secretary which discusses the background, important issues, and rationale regarding such standards.

SEC. 140. ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION GRANTS.

    (a) GENERAL- (1) The Secretary is authorized to make grants to States and local educational agencies or consortia of such agencies to help defray the cost of developing, field testing, and evaluating assessment systems, to be used for some or all of the purposes indicated in section 123(f)(1)(B), that are aligned to State content standards certified by the Council.

    (2) The Secretary shall reserve a portion of the funds authorized under section 141(d) for grants to State educational agencies and local educational agencies for purposes of developing such assessments in languages other than English.

    (b) APPLICATIONS- A State, local educational agency, or consortium of such agencies that desires to receive a grant under subsection (a)(1) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information and assurances as the Secretary may require.

    (c) REQUIREMENTS- (1) A recipient of a grant under this section shall--

      (A) examine the validity and reliability of an assessment system for the particular purposes for which such assessment system was developed;

      (B) ensure that an assessment system is consistent with relevant, nationally recognized professional and technical standards for assessments; and

      (C) devote special attention to how an assessment system, treats all students, especially with regard to the race, gender, ethnicity, disability, and language proficiency.

    (2) An assessment system developed and evaluated with funds under this section may not be used for decisions about individual students relating to program placement, promotion, or retention, graduation, or employment for a period of five years from the date of enactment of this Act.

SEC. 141. EVALUATION.

    (a) GRANT- From funds reserved under section 154(a)(2), the Secretary annually shall make a grant, in an amount not to exceed $500,000, to the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Academy of Sciences or to the National Academy of Education to--

      (1) evaluate--

        (A) the technical quality of the work performed by the Goals Panel and the Council;

        (B) the process the Council uses to develop criteria for certification of standards and assessments;

        (C) the process the Council uses to certify voluntary national standards as well as standards and assessments voluntarily submitted by States; and

        (D) the process the Goals Panel uses to approve certification criteria and voluntary national standards;

      (2) periodically provide to the Goals Panel and the Council, as appropriate, information from the evaluation under paragraph (1); and

      (3) report on the activities authorized under sections 139 and 140.

    (b) REPORT- The grant recipient shall periodically report to the Congress, the Secretary, and the public regarding findings and shall make a final report not later than January 1, 1998.

Subpart 3--Authorization of Appropriations

SEC. 145. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) NATIONAL EDUCATION GOALS PANEL- There are authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the four succeeding fiscal years to carry out part A of this title.

    (b) NATIONAL EDUCATION STANDARDS AND IMPROVEMENT COUNCIL- There are authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 to carry out part B of this title.

    (c) OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN DEVELOPMENT GRANT- There are authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1995 to carry out the Opportunity-to-Learn Development Grant Program established under section 139 of this title.

    (d) ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION GRANTS- There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 to carry out the Assessment Development and Evaluation Grants Program established under section 140 of this title.

PART C--STATE AND LOCAL EDUCATION SYSTEMIC IMPROVEMENT

SEC. 151. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS.

    The Congress finds that--

      (1) all students can learn and achieve high standards and must realize their potential if the United States is to prosper;

      (2) the reforms in education of the last 15 years have achieved some good results, but these efforts often have been limited to a few schools or to a single part of the educational system;

      (3) leadership must come both from teachers, related services personnel, principals, and parents in individual schools and from policymakers at the local, State, tribal, and national levels, in order for lasting improvements in student performance to occur;

      (4) simultaneous top-down and bottom-up education reform is necessary to spur creative and innovative approaches by individual schools to help all students achieve internationally competitive standards;

      (5) strategies must be developed by communities and States to support the revitalization of all local public schools by fundamentally changing the entire system of public education through comprehensive, coherent, and coordinated improvement in order to increase student learning;

      (6) parents, teachers, and other local educators, and business, community, and tribal leaders must be involved in developing systemwide improvement strategies that reflect the needs of their individual communities;

      (7) State and local education improvement efforts must incorporate strategies for providing all students and families with coordinated access to appropriate social services, health care, nutrition, and child care to remove preventable barriers to learning and enhance school readiness for all students;

      (8) States and local educational agencies, working together, must immediately set about developing and implementing such systemwide improvement strategies if the Nation is to educate all children to meet their full potential and achieve the National Education Goals listed in title I of this Act;

      (9) State and local systemic improvement strategies must provide all students with effective mechanisms and appropriate paths to the workforce as well as to higher education;

      (10) business should be encouraged to enter into partnerships with schools, provide information and guidance to schools on the needs of area business for properly educated graduates in general and on the need for particular workplace skills, that the schools may provide necessary material and support, and continue the lifelong learning process throughout the employment years of an individual, and schools should provide information to business regarding how the business community can assist schools in meeting the goals of this Act;

      (11) institutions of higher education should be encouraged to enter into partnerships with schools to provide information and guidance to schools on the skills and knowledge graduates need in order to enter and successfully complete postsecondary education, and schools should provide information and guidance to institutions of higher education on the skills, knowledge, and preservice training teachers need, and the types of professional development educators need in order to meet the goals of this Act;

      (12) the appropriate and innovative use of technology, including distance learning, can be very effective in helping to bring all students the opportunity to learn and meet high standards; and

      (13) Federal funds should be targeted to support local and State initiatives, and to leverage State and local resources for designing and implementing system-wide improvement plans.

SEC. 152. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this title is to improve the quality of education for all students by improving student learning through a long-term, broad-based effort to promote coherent and coordinated improvements in the system of education throughout the Nation at the local and State levels. This title provides new authorities and funding for the Nation’s school systems without replacing or reducing funding for existing Federal education programs. It is the intention of the Congress that no State or local educational agency will reduce its funding for education or for education reform on account of receiving any funds under this title.

SEC. 153. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    For the purpose of carrying out this title, there are authorized to be appropriated $393,000,000 for the fiscal year 1994, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998.

SEC. 154. ALLOTMENT OF FUNDS.

    (a) RESERVATIONS OF FUNDS- From funds appropriated under section 153, the Secretary--

      (1) shall reserve a total of one percent to provide assistance, in amounts determined by the Secretary--

        (A) to the outlying areas; and

        (B) to the Secretary of the Interior to benefit Indian students in schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (referred to in this Act as the ‘Bureau’); and

      (2) may reserve a total of up to 6 percent for--

        (A) national leadership activities under section 163;

        (B) the costs of peer review of State improvement plans and applications under this title; and

        (C) evaluation activities under section 141.

    (b) STATE ALLOTMENTS- The Secretary shall allot the remaining amount appropriated under section 153 for each fiscal year to the States (which for the purposes of this subsection does not include the outlying areas) as follows:

      (1) 50 percent of such remaining amount shall be allocated in accordance with the relative amounts such State received under chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 for the preceding fiscal year.

      (2) 50 percent of such remaining amount shall be allocated in accordance with the relative amounts each such State received under part A of chapter 2 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 for the preceding fiscal year.

    (c) REALLOTMENTS- If the Secretary determines that any amount of a State’s allotment for any fiscal year under subsection (b) will not be needed for such fiscal year by the State, the Secretary shall reallot such amount to other States that need additional funds, in such manner as the Secretary determines is appropriate.

SEC. 155. STATE APPLICATIONS.

    (a) GENERAL- (1) If a State desires to receive a grant under this title, the State educational agency shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may determine.

    (2) In addition to the information described in subsections (b) and (c), each such application shall include--

      (A) an assurance that the State educational agency will cooperate with the Secretary in carrying out the Secretary’s responsibilities under section 162, and will comply with reasonable requests of the Secretary for data related to the State’s progress in developing and implementing its State improvement plan under this title;

      (B) an assurance that State law provides adequate authority to carry out each component of the State’s improvement plan developed, or to be developed under section 156, or that such authority will be sought;

      (C) an assurance that the standards developed for student achievement are not less rigorous than student achievement standards used prior to the date of enactment of this Act;

      (D) an assurance that the State will provide for broad public participation in the planning process; and

      (E) such other assurances and information as the Secretary may require.

    (b) FIRST YEAR- A State’s application for the first year of assistance under this title shall--

      (1) describe the process by which the State will develop a school improvement plan that meets the requirements of section 156; and

      (2) describe how the State educational agency will use funds received under this title for such year, including how the State educational agency will make subgrants to local educational agencies and for teacher training.

    (c) SUBSEQUENT YEARS- A State’s second application under this title shall--

      (1) cover the second through fifth years of its participation;

      (2) include a copy of the State’s improvement plan that meets the requirements of section 156 or, if the State plan is not complete, a statement of the steps it will take to complete the plan and a schedule for doing so; and

      (3) include an explanation of how the State will use funds received under this title, including how it will make subgrants to local educational agencies and for teacher training under section 159(b)(1).

SEC. 156. STATE IMPROVEMENT PLANS.

    (a) BASIC SCOPE OF PLAN- Any State educational agency that wishes to receive a grant under this title after its first year of participation shall develop and implement a plan for the fundamental restructuring and improvement of elementary and secondary education in the State. This plan must address--

      (1) in accordance with subsection (c), the establishment or adoption of challenging content and student performance standards for all students and the use of curricula, instructional practices, assessments, technology, parental involvement programs, and professional preparation and development approaches appropriate to help all students reach such standards;

      (2) in accordance with subsection (d), the establishment or adoption of opportunity-to-learn standards that will define the conditions of teaching and learning that provide all students the opportunity to meet the challenging content and student performance standards;

      (3) in accordance with subsection (e), needed changes in the governance and management of the education system in order to effectively focus schools on, and assist them in, preparing all students to meet the challenging State standards;

      (4) in accordance with subsection (f), comprehensive strategies to involve communities, including parents, businesses, libraries, institutions of higher education, employment and training agencies, health and human service agencies, advocacy groups, cultural institutions, and other public and private agencies that provide social services, health care, child care, early childhood education, and nutrition to students, in helping all students meet the challenging State standards;

      (5) in accordance with subsection (g), strategies for ensuring that all local educational agencies and schools within the State are involved in developing and implementing needed improvements within a specified period of time;

      (6) in accordance with subsection (h), strategies for ensuring that comprehensive, systemic reform is promoted from the bottom up in communities, local educational agencies, and schools; and

      (7) the needs of the children, ages 5 through 18, who are out of school and the extent to which such children can be brought back into the education system and meet the standards set forth in this Act.

    (b) PLAN DEVELOPMENT- (1) A State improvement plan under this title must be developed by a broad-based panel (referred to in this title as the ‘panel’) in cooperation with the State educational agency and the Governor. The panel shall include--

      (A) the Governor and the chief State school officer, or their designees;

      (B) the chairman of the State board of education and the chairmen of the appropriate authorizing committees of the State legislature, or their designees;

      (C) teachers, principals, and administrators who have successfully improved student performance and deans of colleges of education;

      (D) representatives of teacher organizations, parents, institutions of higher education, business and labor leaders, community-based organizations, Indian tribes, local boards of education, State and local officials responsible for health, social services, and other related services, and others, as appropriate;

      (E) representatives from rural and urban local educational agencies in the State; and

      (F) experts in educational measurement and assessment.

    (2) The Governor and the chief State school officer shall each appoint half the members of the State panel. The full panel shall establish the procedures regarding the operation of the panel, including the designation of the panel chairperson.

    (3) To the extent feasible, the membership of the panel shall be geographically representative of the State and reflect the diversity of the population of the State with regard to race, ethnicity, gender, and disability characteristics.

    (4) One-third of the panel members shall be individuals with expertise in the educational needs and assessments of children who are from low-income families, minority group backgrounds, have limited-English proficiency, or have disabilities.

    (5) The panel shall consult the Governor, the chief State school officer, the State board of education, and relevant committees of the State legislature in developing the plan.

    (6) The panel shall be responsible for conducting a statewide, grassroots outreach process, including conducting public hearings, to involve educators, related services personnel, parents, secondary school students, local officials, private nonprofit elementary and secondary schools, community and business leaders, Indian tribes, citizens, children’s advocates, and others with a stake in the success of students and their education system, and who are representative of the diversity of the State and its student population, in the development of the State plan and in a continuing dialog regarding the need for and nature of challenging standards for all students and local and State responsibilities for helping all students achieve them.

    (7) The panel shall develop a continuing process for interacting with local educational agencies and individual schools engaged in systemic reform, especially including local educational agencies and schools which receive subgrants under section 159 of this Act, to ensure that the development and implementation of the State plan reflects their needs and experiences.

    (8) The panel shall develop a State plan, provide opportunity for public comment, and submit the State plan to the State educational agency for approval.

    (9) The State educational agency shall submit the original State improvement plan developed by the panel and the State improvement plan if modified by such agency, together with an explanation of any changes made by such agency to the plan developed by the panel, to the Secretary for approval.

    (10) If any portion of the State plan addresses matters that, under State or other applicable law, are not under the authority of the State educational agency, the State educational agency shall obtain the approval of, or changes to, such portion, with an explanation from the Governor or other official responsible for that portion before submitting the plan to the Secretary.

    (11) After approval of the State plan by the Secretary, the panel, in close consultation with teachers, principals, administrators, school boards, advocacy groups, advocates of children with disabilities and parents in local educational agencies and schools receiving funds under this title, shall monitor the implementation and effectiveness of the State plan to determine if revisions are appropriate, and shall periodically report its findings to the public.

    (c) TEACHING, LEARNING, STANDARDS, AND ASSESSMENTS- Each State plan shall establish strategies and a timetable for improving teaching and learning, including--

      (1) a process for developing or adopting challenging content and student performance standards for all students which includes coordinating the standards developed pursuant to section 115 of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990;

      (2) a process for providing assistance and support to local educational agencies and schools to give them the capacity and responsibility to provide all students the opportunity to increase education achievement and meet challenging State content and student performance standards;

      (3) assessing the effectiveness and equity of the school finance program of the State to identify disparities in the resources available to each local educational agency and school in such State and how such disparities affect the ability of the State educational agency and local educational agencies to develop and implement plans under this title;

      (4) a process for developing, adopting, or recommending instructional materials, including gender equitable and multicultural materials, and technology to support and assist local educational agencies and schools to provide all students the opportunity to meet the challenging State content and student performance standards;

      (5) a process for developing and implementing a valid and nondiscriminatory assessment system or set of locally-based assessment systems which are consistent with relevant, nationally recognized, professional and technical standards for assessment, and are capable of providing coherent information about student attainments relative to the State content standards;

      (6) a process for monitoring the implementation of such system or systems and the impact on improved instruction for all students;

      (7) a process for improving the State’s system of teacher and school administrator preparation, licensure, and continuing professional development so that all teachers, related services personnel, and administrators develop the subject matter and pedagogical expertise needed to prepare all students to meet the challenging standards under paragraph (1);

      (8) a process for providing appropriate and effective professional development, including the use of technology, distance learning, and gender-equitable methods, necessary for teachers, school administrators, and others to help all students meet the challenging standards under paragraph (1); and

      (9) a process to ensure widespread participation of classroom teachers in developing the portions of the plan described in this subsection.

    (d) OPPORTUNITY-TO-LEARN STANDARDS- Each State plan shall establish a strategy and timetable for--

      (1) adopting or establishing opportunity-to-learn standards that are consistent with the challenging content and student performance standards that have been adopted or established;

      (2) ensuring that every school in the State is making demonstrable progress toward meeting the State’s opportunity-to-learn standards;

      (3) ensuring that the State’s opportunity-to-learn standards address the need of all students;

      (4) providing for periodic assessments of the extent to which opportunity-to-learn standards are being met throughout the State; and

      (5) periodically reporting to the public on the extent of the State’s improvement in achieving such standards and providing all students with a fair opportunity to achieve the knowledge and skill levels that meet the State’s content and student performance standards.

    (e) GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT- Each State plan shall establish strategies for improved governance and management of its education system, such as--

      (1) aligning responsibility, authority, and accountability throughout the education system, so that decisions regarding content and student performance standards are coordinated and decisions regarding the means for achieving such standards are made closest to the learners;

      (2) creating an integrated and coherent approach to attracting, recruiting, preparing and licensing, appraising, rewarding, retaining, and supporting the continued professional development of teachers (including vocational teachers), administrators, and other educators, including bilingual educators and special education providers, so that there is a highly talented workforce of professional educators capable of preparing all students to reach challenging standards, with special attention to the recruitment, training, and retention of qualified minorities into the education profession within the State to ensure that the profession reflects the racial and ethnic diversity of the student population;

      (3) providing incentives for high performance, such as--

        (A) working with employers and institutions of higher education to devise strategies to reward student achievement;

        (B) incentives for classroom teachers, principals, and other professional educators to participate in professional development activities; and

        (C) school-based incentives for schools and local educational agencies to improve student performance;

      (4) increasing the proportion of State and local funds allocated to direct instructional purposes; and

      (5) increasing flexibility for local educational agencies and schools by, for example--

        (A) waiving State regulations and other requirements that impede educational improvement;

        (B) focusing accountability on educational outcomes rather than monitoring compliance with input requirements; and

        (C) fostering conditions that allow teachers, principals, and parents in the school community to be creative in helping all students meet challenging standards.

    (f) PARENTAL AND COMMUNITY SUPPORT AND INVOLVEMENT- Each State plan shall describe strategies for how the State will involve parents and other community members in planning, designing, and implementing its plan, including such strategies as--

      (1) educating the public about the need for higher standards, systemic improvement, and awareness of diverse learning needs;

      (2) involving parents, communities, and advocacy groups in the standard-setting and improvement process;

      (3) linking the family and school in supporting students to meet the challenging student content and performance standards established;

      (4) reporting, on an ongoing basis, to parents, educators, and the public on the progress in implementing the plan and improving student performance;

      (5) focusing public and private community resources and public school resources on prevention and early intervention to address the needs of all students by--

        (A) identifying and removing unnecessary regulations and obstacles to coordination;

        (B) improving communication and information exchange; and

        (C) providing appropriate training to agency personnel; and

      (6) increasing the access of all students to social services, health care, nutrition, related services, and child care services, and locating such services in schools, cooperating service agencies, community-based centers, or other convenient sites designed to provide ‘one-stop shopping’ for parents and students.

    (g) MAKING THE IMPROVEMENTS SYSTEMWIDE- To help provide all students throughout the State the opportunity to meet challenging State standards, each State plan shall describe strategies such as--

      (1) ensuring that the improvement efforts expand from the initial local educational agencies, schools, and educators involved to all local educational agencies, schools, and educators in the State education system through such approaches as teacher and administrator professional development, technical assistance, whole school projects, intensive summer training, and networking of teachers and other educators, consortia of schools, and local educational agencies undertaking similar improvements;

      (2) developing partnerships among preschools, elementary and secondary schools, institutions of higher education, cultural institutions, health and social service providers, and employers to improve teaching and learning at all levels of the education system for all students and to foster collaboration and continuous improvement;

      (3) developing strategies to provide for the close coordination of standards development and improvement efforts among institutions of higher education and secondary, and elementary schools;

      (4) conducting parental involvement activities and outreach programs aimed at parents whose language is a language other than English, individuals with disabilities, and other special populations, including American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians, to involve all segments of the community in the development of the State plan;

      (5) developing partnerships with Indian tribes and schools funded by the Bureau, where appropriate, to improve consistency and compatibility in curriculum among public and such schools funded by the Bureau at all grade levels;

      (6) allocating all available local, State, and Federal resources to achieve system-wide improvement;

      (7) providing for the development of objective criteria and measures against which the success of local plans will be evaluated;

      (8) providing for the availability of curricular materials, learning technologies, including distance learning, and professional development in a manner ensuring equal access by all local educational agencies in the State;

      (9) taking steps to ensure that all local educational agencies, schools, and educators in the State benefit from successful programs and practices supported by funds made available to local educational agencies and schools under this title; and

      (10) providing assistance to students, teachers, schools, and local educational agencies that are identified through the assessment system developed under subsection (c)(5) as needing such assistance.

    (h) PROMOTING BOTTOM-UP REFORM- Each State plan shall include strategies for ensuring that comprehensive, systemic reform is promoted from the bottom up in communities, local educational agencies, and schools, as well as guided by coordination and facilitation from State leaders, including strategies such as--

      (1) ensuring that the State plan is responsive to the needs and experiences of local educational agencies, schools, teachers, the community, and parents;

      (2) establishing mechanisms for continuous input from local schools, communities, advocacy groups, institutions of higher education, and local educational agencies into, and feedback on, the implementation of the State plan;

      (3) providing discretionary resources that enable teachers and schools to purchase needed professional development and other forms of assistance consistent with their improvement plan from high-quality providers of their choice;

      (4) establishing collaborative networks of teachers centered on content standards and assessments for the purpose of improving teaching and learning;

      (5) providing flexibility to individual schools and local educational agencies to enable them to adapt and integrate State content standards into courses of study appropriate for individual schools and communities;

      (6) facilitating the provision of waivers from State rules and regulations that impede the ability of local educational agencies or schools to carry out local education improvement plans; and

      (7) facilitating communication among educators within and between local educational agencies for the purpose of sharing innovative and effective practices, including, through the use of telecommunications, distance learning, site visits, and other means.

    (i) COORDINATION WITH SCHOOL-TO-WORK PROGRAMS- If a State has received Federal assistance for the purpose of planing for, expanding, or establishing a school-to-work program, then a State shall include in the State plan a description of how such school-to-work program will be incorporated into the school reform efforts of the State. In particular, the State plan shall include a description of how secondary schools will be modified in order to provide career guidance, the integration of academic and vocational education, and work-based learning, if such programs are proposed in the State’s school-to-work plan.

    (j) BENCHMARKS AND TIMELINES- Each State plan shall include specific benchmarks of improved student performance and of progress in implementing the improvement plan, and timelines against which the progress of the State in carrying out its plan, including the elements described in subsections (c) through (h), can be measured.

    (k) COORDINATING STRATEGIES- Each State plan shall include strategies for coordinating the integration of academic and vocational instruction pursuant to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act.

    (l) PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY- Each State shall describe--

      (1) how the State will monitor progress towards implementing the State and local plans; and

      (2) procedures the State will use to ensure schools and school districts meet State opportunity-to-learn and content standards within the established time lines.

    (m) PROHIBITION ON FEDERAL MANDATES, DIRECTION, AND CONTROL- Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize an officer or employee of the Federal Government to mandate, direct, or control a State, local educational agency, or school’s curriculum, program of instruction, or allocation of State and local resources.

    (n) PEER REVIEW AND SECRETARIAL APPROVAL- (1) The Secretary shall review each State improvement plan prepared under this section, and each application submitted under section 155, with the assistance and advice of State and local education policymakers, educators, classroom teachers, related services personnel, experts on educational innovation and improvement, parents, advocates for children with disabilities, representatives of other advocacy groups, and other appropriate individuals. The peer review process shall be performed by individuals representative of the diversity of the United States with regard to geography, race, ethnicity, gender, and disability. The review of each State plan shall include at least one site visit to each State.

    (2) The Secretary shall approve a State’s plan when the Secretary determines, after considering the peer reviewers’ comment, that it--

      (A) reflects a widespread commitment within the State;

      (B) holds reasonable promise of enabling all students to achieve at the high levels called for by this Act;

      (C) meets the requirements of subsections (a) through (k); and

      (D) allows local schools, local educational agencies and communities the flexibility to implement local improvement plans in a manner which reflects local needs and requirements in order to promote a ‘bottom up’ system of school reform.

    (3) The Secretary shall not decline to approve a State’s plan, or any State application submitted under section 155, before offering the State--

      (A) an opportunity to revise its plan or application; and

      (B) a hearing.

    (o) REGULAR REVIEW- Each State plan shall include a process for regularly reviewing and updating any State content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards and assessment systems.

    (p) AMENDMENTS TO PLAN- (1) Each State shall periodically review its plan and revise it, as appropriate, in accordance with the process described in subsection (b).

    (2) The Secretary shall review major amendments to a State’s plan through the same process, described in subsection (j), used to review the original plan.

    (q) PREEXISTING STATE PLANS AND PANELS- (1) If a State has developed a comprehensive and systemic improvement plan to help all students meet challenging standards, or any component of such a plan, that otherwise meets the requirements of this section, the Secretary may approve such plan or component notwithstanding that it was not developed in accordance with subsection (b), if the Secretary determines that such approval would further the purposes of State systemic education improvement.

    (2) If, before the enactment of this Act, a State has made substantial progress in developing a plan that otherwise meets, or is likely to meet, the requirements of this section, but was developed by a panel that does not meet the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b), the Secretary may, at the request of the Governor and the State educational agency, treat such panel as meeting the requirements of this title if the Secretary determines that there has been statewide involvement of educators, parents, students, advocacy groups, other interested members of the public in the development of the plan.

SEC. 157. SECRETARY’S REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS; PAYMENTS.

    (a) FIRST YEAR- The Secretary shall approve the initial year application of a State educational agency under section 155(b) if the Secretary determines that--

      (1) such application meets the requirements of this title; and

      (2) there is a substantial likelihood that the renewal application of the State will be able to develop and implement an education improvement plan that complies with section 156.

    (b) SECOND THROUGH FIFTH YEARS- The Secretary shall approve a renewal application of a State educational agency under section 155(c) for the second through fifth years only if--

      (1)(A) the Secretary has approved the State’s improvement plan under section 156(l); or

      (B) the Secretary determines that the State has made substantial progress in developing such plan; and

      (2) such application meets the other requirements of this title.

    (c) PAYMENTS- For any fiscal year for which a State has an approved application under this title, the Secretary shall make a grant to the State educational agency in the amount determined under section 154(b).

SEC. 158. STATE USE OF FUNDS.

    (a) FIRST YEAR- In the first year for which a State educational agency receives a grant under this title, the State--

      (1) shall use at least 75 percent of such funds to make subgrants, in accordance with section 159(a), to local educational agencies for the development or implementation of local improvement plans and to make subgrants, in accordance with section 159(b), to improve educator preservice programs and for professional development activities consistent with the State plan, if the amount allocated to States under section 154(b) for such year is at least $50,000,000. The State may use such funds for such subgrants if such amount is less than $50,000,000; and

      (2) shall use the remainder of such funds to develop, revise, expand, or implement an education improvement plan described in section 156.

    (b) SUCCEEDING YEARS- A State that receives assistance under this title for any year after the first year of participation shall--

      (1) use at least 90 percent of such assistance in each succeeding year to make subgrants--

        (A) to local educational agencies, in accordance with section 159(a), for the implementation of the State improvement plan and of local improvement plans; and

        (B) in accordance with section 159(b), to improve educator preservice programs and for professional development activities that are consistent with the State improvement plan; and

      (2) use the remainder of such assistance for State activities designed to implement its improvement plan, such as--

        (A) supporting the development or adoption of State content and student performance standards, State opportunity-to-learn standards, and assessments linked to the standards, including through consortia of States, and in conjunction with the National Education Standards and Improvement Council established under part B of title II of this Act;

        (B) supporting the implementation of high-performance management and organizational strategies, such as site-based management, shared decisionmaking, or quality management principles, to promote effective implementation of such plan;

        (C) supporting the development and implementation, at the local educational agency and school building level, of improved human resource development systems for recruiting, selecting, mentoring, supporting, evaluating, and rewarding educators;

        (D) providing special attention to the needs of minority, limited-English proficient, disabled, and female students, including instructional programs and activities that encourage such students in elementary and secondary schools to aspire to enter post secondary education or training;

        (E) supporting the development, at the State or local level, of performance-based accountability and incentive systems for schools;

        (F) outreach related to education improvement to parents, Indian tribal officials, classroom teachers, related services personnel, and other educators, and the public;

        (G) providing technical assistance and other services to increase the capacity of local educational agencies and schools to develop and implement local systemic improvement plans, implement new assessments, and develop curricula consistent with the content and student performance standards of the State;

        (H) promoting public magnet schools, public ‘charter schools’, and other mechanisms for increasing choice among public schools; and

        (I) collecting and analyzing data.

    (c) LIMIT ON ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS- In each year, a State may use not more than four percent of its annual allotment under this title, or $100,000, whichever is greater, for administrative expenses, not including the activities of the panel established under section 156(b)(1).

SEC. 159. SUBGRANTS FOR LOCAL REFORM AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

    (a) SUBGRANTS TO LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES- (1)(A) Each State educational agency shall make subgrants to local educational agencies (or consortia of such agencies) consistent with subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1)(A) of section 158 through a competitive process.

    (B) In making such subgrants, the State educational agency shall award not less than 1 subgrant in each fiscal year to an urban local educational agency and not less than 1 subgrant in each fiscal year to a rural local educational agency, except that this provision shall not apply to the District of Columbia. Rural local educational agencies may include or be represented as a fiscal agent by an education service agency.

    (C) Each subgrant shall be for a project of sufficient duration and of sufficient size, scope, and quality to carry out the purpose of this title effectively.

    (2) A local educational agency wishing to receive a subgrant under this title for the purpose of developing a comprehensive local plan shall submit an application to the State educational agency. Such application shall contain assurances that the local educational agency intends to develop a plan that meets the requirements of this section.

    (3) Each local educational agency wishing to receive a subgrant for the purpose of implementing a plan under this subsection shall submit a local plan to the State educational agency which--

      (A) is developed by a broad-based panel that--

        (i) is appointed by the local educational agency and is representative of the diversity of students and community with regard to race, language, ethnicity, gender, disability, and socioeconomic characteristics and includes teachers, parents, advocacy groups, school administrators, business representatives, and others, as appropriate; and

        (ii) shall, following the selection of its members, establish the procedures regarding the operation of the panel, including the designation of the chairperson;

      (B) includes a comprehensive local plan for districtwide education improvement, directed at enabling all students to meet the challenging content and student performance standards of the State, including specific goals and benchmarks, consistent with the State improvement plan (either approved or under development) and includes a strategy for--

        (i) implementing opportunity-to-learn standards;

        (ii) improving teaching and learning;

        (iii) improving governance and management;

        (iv) generating and strengthening parental and community involvement; and

        (v) expanding improvements throughout the local educational agency;

      (C) promotes the flexibility of local schools in developing plans which address the particular needs of their school and community and are consistent with the local plan;

      (D) describes a process of broad-based community participation in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the local plan;

      (E) describes how the local educational agency will encourage and assist schools to develop comprehensive school improvement plans that focus on helping all students reach challenging content and student performance standards and that address relevant elements of the improvement plan of the local educational agency identified in subparagraph (B);

      (F) describes how the local educational agency will implement specific programs aimed at ensuring improvements in school readiness and the ability of students to learn effectively at all grade levels by identifying the most pressing needs facing students and their families with regard to social services, health care, nutrition, and child care, and by entering into partnerships with public and private agencies to increase the access of students and families to coordinated services in a school setting or at a nearby site;

      (G) describes how the subgrant will be used by the local educational agency, and the procedures to be used to make funds available to schools in accordance with paragraph (6)(A);

      (H) identifies, with an explanation, any State or Federal requirements that the local educational agency believes impede educational improvement and that such local educational agency requests be waived in accordance with section 161 (such requests shall promptly be transmitted to the Secretary by the State educational agency); and

      (I) contains such other information as the State educational agency may reasonably require.

    (4) A local educational agency which has approved a local plan shall submit such plan to the State for approval together with a description of modifications to such plan and any comments from the local panel regarding such plan.

    (5) The panel appointed under paragraph (3)(A) shall, after approval by the State educational agency of the application of the local educational agency, monitor the implementation and effectiveness of the local improvement plan in close consultation with teachers, related services personnel, principals, administrators, community members, and parents from schools receiving funds under this title, to determine if revisions to the local plan should be recommended to the local educational agency. The panel shall make public its findings.

    (6)(A) A local educational agency that receives a subgrant under this subsection shall--

      (i) in the first year, use not more than 25 percent of subgrant funds to develop a local improvement plan or to implement any local educational activities approved by the State educational agency which are reasonably related to carrying out the State or local improvement plans, and not less than 75 percent of such funds to support individual school improvement initiatives directly related to providing all students in the school the opportunity to meet challenging State content and student performance standards; and

      (ii) in subsequent years, use subgrant funds for any activities approved by the State educational agency which are reasonably related to carrying out the State or local improvement plans, except that at least 85 percent of such funds shall be made available to individual schools to develop and implement comprehensive school improvement plans which are tailored to meet the needs of their particular student populations and are designed to help all students meet challenging State content standards.

    (B) At least 50 percent of the funds made available by a local educational agency to individual schools under this section in any fiscal year shall be made available to schools with a special need for such assistance, as indicated by a high number or percentage of students from low-income families, low student achievement, or other similar criteria developed by the local educational agency.

    (C) A local educational agency may not use more than five percent of its annual allotment under this Act for administrative expenses.

    (7) The State educational agency shall give priority in awarding a subgrant to--

      (A) a consortium of local educational agencies; or

      (B) a local educational agency that makes assurances that funds will be used to assist a consortium of schools that has developed a plan for school improvement.

    (b) SUBGRANTS FOR PRESERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES- (1)(A) Each State educational agency shall make subgrants to consortia of local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, private nonprofit organizations, or combinations thereof, consistent with subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) of section 158 through a competitive, peer-reviewed process to--

      (i) improve preservice teacher education programs consistent with the State plan, including how to work effectively with parents and the community; and

      (ii) support continuing, sustained professional development activities for educators which will increase student learning and are consistent with the State plan.

    (B)(i) In order to apply for a subgrant described in subparagraph (A)(i), a consortium must include at least one local educational agency and at least one institution of higher education.

    (ii) In order to apply for a subgrant described in subparagraph (A)(ii), a consortium must include at least one local educational agency.

    (2) A consortium that wishes to receive a subgrant under this subsection shall submit an application to the State educational agency which--

      (A) describes how the applicant will use the subgrant to improve teacher preservice and school administrator education programs or to implement educator professional development activities consistent with the State plan;

      (B) identifies the criteria to be used by the applicant to judge improvements in preservice education or the effects of professional development activities consistent with the State plan; and

      (C) contains any other information that the State educational agency determines is appropriate.

    (3) A recipient of a subgrant under this subsection shall use the subgrant funds for activities supporting--

      (A) the improvement of preservice teacher education and school administrator programs so that such programs equip educators with the subject matter and pedagogical expertise necessary for preparing all students to meet challenging standards; or

      (B) the development and implementation of new and improved forms of continuing and sustained professional development opportunities for teachers, principals, and other educators at the school or district level that equip educators with such expertise, and with other knowledge and skills necessary for leading and participating in continuous education improvement.

    (4) A recipient may use the subgrant funds under this subsection for costs related to release time for teachers to participate in professional development activities.

    (5) Professional development shall include related services personnel as appropriate.

    (6) In awarding subgrants under this subsection, the State educational agency shall give priority to local educational agencies that form partnerships with collegiate educators to establish professional development school sites.

    (c) SPECIAL AWARD RULE- (1) Each State educational agency shall award at least 50 percent of subgrant funds under subsection (a) in each fiscal year to local educational agencies that have a greater percentage or number of disadvantaged children than the statewide average percentage or number for all local educational agencies in the State.

    (2) The State educational agency may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) if such State does not receive a sufficient number of applications to comply with such requirement.

SEC. 160. AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND TRAINING.

    (a) INFORMATION AND TRAINING- Proportionate to the number of children in a State or in a local educational agency who are enrolled in private elementary or secondary schools--

      (1) a State educational agency or local educational agency which uses funds under this title to develop goals, content standards, curricular materials, and assessments shall, upon request, make information related to such goals, standards, materials, and assessments available to private schools; and

      (2) a State educational agency or local educational agency which uses funds under this title for teacher and administrator training shall provide in its plan for the training of teachers and administrators in private schools located in the geographical area served by such agency.

    (b) WAIVER- If, by reason of any provision of law, a State or local educational agency is prohibited from providing for the equitable participation of teachers and administrators from private schools in training programs assisted with Federal funds provided under this title, or if the Secretary determines that a State or local educational agency has substantially failed or is unwilling to provide for such participation, the Secretary shall waive such requirements and shall arrange for the provision of training consistent with State goals and content standards for such teachers and administrators. Such waivers shall be subject to consultation, withholding, notice, and judicial review in accordance with section 1017 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.

SEC. 161. WAIVERS OF STATUTORY AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS.

    (a) GENERAL- (1) Except as provided in subsection (c), the Secretary may waive any requirement of any statute listed in subsection (b) or of the regulations issued under such statute for a State educational agency, local educational agency, or school that requests such a waiver--

      (A) if, and only to the extent that, the Secretary determines that such requirement impedes the ability of the State, or of a local educational agency or school in the State, to carry out the State or local education improvement plan;

      (B) if the State educational agency has waived, or agrees to waive, similar requirements of State law; and

      (C) if, in the case of a Statewide waiver, the State educational agency--

        (i) provides all local educational agencies and parent organizations in the State with notice and an opportunity to comment on the proposal of the State educational agency to seek a waiver; and

        (ii) submits the comments of such agencies to the Secretary.

    (2) To request a waiver, a State educational agency, local educational agency, or school that receives funds under this Act or a local educational agency that does not receive funds under this Act but is undertaking school reform efforts that meet the objectives of the State plan, shall submit an application to the Secretary that includes--

      (A) the identification of statutory or regulatory requirements that are requested to be waived and the goals that the State local educational agency or school intends to achieve;

      (B) a description of the action that the State has undertaken to remove State statutory or regulatory barriers identified in the applications of local educational agencies;

      (C) a description of the goals of the waiver and the expected programmatic outcomes if the request is granted;

      (D) the numbers and types of students to be impacted by such waiver;

      (E) a timetable for implementing a waiver; and

      (F) the process the State will use to monitor, on a biannual basis, the progress in implementing a waiver.

    (3) The Secretary shall act promptly on a waiver request and state in writing the reasons for granting or denying such request. If a waiver is granted, the Secretary must also include the expected outcome of granting such waiver.

    (4) The Secretary’s decision shall be--

      (A) published in the Federal Register; and

      (B) disseminated by the State educational agency to interested parties, including educators, parents, students, advocacy and civil rights organizations, other interested parties, and the public.

    (5) Each such waiver shall be for a period not to exceed three years. The Secretary may extend such period if the Secretary determines that the waiver has been effective in enabling the State or affected local educational agencies to carry out reform plans.

    (b) INCLUDED PROGRAMS- The statutes subject to the waiver authority of this section are as follows:

      (1) Chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.

      (2) Part A of chapter 2 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.

      (3) The Dwight D. Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Education Act (part A of title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965).

      (4) The Emergency Immigrant Education Act of 1984 (part D of title IV of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965).

      (5) The Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986 (title V of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965).

      (6) The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act.

    (c) WAIVERS NOT AUTHORIZED- The Secretary may not waive any statutory or regulatory requirement of the programs listed in subsection (b) relating to--

      (1) maintenance of effort;

      (2) comparability of services;

      (3) the equitable participation of students and professional staff in private schools;

      (4) parental participation and involvement; or

      (5) the distribution of funds to State or to local educational agencies.

    (d) TERMINATION OF WAIVERS- The Secretary shall periodically review the performance of any State, local educational agency, or school for which the Secretary has granted a waiver and shall terminate the waiver if the performance of the State, the local educational agency, or the school in the area affected by the waiver has been inadequate to justify a continuation of the waiver.

SEC. 162. PROGRESS REPORTS.

    (a) STATE REPORTS TO THE SECRETARY- Each State educational agency that receives funds under this title shall annually report to the Secretary regarding--

      (1) progress in meeting State goals and plans;

      (2) proposed State activities for the succeeding year; and

      (3) in summary form, the progress of local educational agencies in meeting local goals and plans and increasing student learning.

    (b) SECRETARY’S REPORTS TO CONGRESS- By April 30, 1996, and every two years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate describing the activities and outcomes of grants under--

      (1) section 140 of this Act, including--

        (A) a description of the purpose, uses, and technical merit of assessments evaluated with funds under such section; and

        (B) an analysis of the impact of such assessments on the performance of all students, particularly students of different racial, gender, ethnic, language groups, or individuals with disabilities; and

      (2) this title, including a description of the effect of waivers granted under section 151.

SEC. 163. NATIONAL LEADERSHIP.

    (a) ACTIVITIES AUTHORIZED- From funds reserved each year under section 154(a)(2)(A), the Secretary shall, through the Office of Educational Research and Improvement in accordance with the provisions of sections 405 and 406 of the General Education Provisions Act, directly or through grants or contracts--

      (1) provide technical assistance to States and local educational agencies developing or implementing school improvement plans, in a manner that ensures that each such State has access to such assistance;

      (2) gather data on, conduct research on, and evaluate systemic education improvement, including the programs authorized by this title;

      (3) disseminate research findings and other information on systemic education improvement and how it affects student learning;

      (4) provide grants to tribal divisions of education for coordination efforts between school reform plans developed for schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and public schools described in section 156(g)(5), including tribal activities in support of plans; and

      (5) support national demonstration projects that unite local and State educational agencies, institutions of higher education, government, business, and labor in collaborative arrangements in order to make educational improvements systemwide.

    (b) RESERVATION OF FUNDS- (1) The Secretary shall use at least 50 percent of the funds reserved each year under section 154(a)(2)(A) to make grants, consistent with the provisions of section 159(a) that the Secretary finds appropriate, and provide technical and other assistance to urban and rural local educational agencies with large numbers or concentrations of students who are economically disadvantaged or who have limited English proficiency, to assist such agencies in developing and implementing local school improvement plans.

    (2) The Secretary shall use not less than $1,000,000 of the funds reserved the first year under section 154(a)(2)(A) to survey coordinated services programs that have been found to be successful in helping students and families and improving student outcomes, and shall disseminate information about such programs to schools that plan to develop coordinated services programs.

SEC. 164. ASSISTANCE TO THE OUTLYING AREAS AND TO THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.

    (a) OUTLYING AREAS- (1) Funds reserved for outlying areas under section 154(a)(1)(A) shall be distributed among such areas by the Secretary according to relative need.

    (2) The provisions of Public Law 95-134, permitting the consolidation of grants to the insular areas, shall not apply to funds received by such areas under this title.

    (b) SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR-

      (1) IN GENERAL- The funds reserved to the Secretary of the Interior under section 154 shall be made in a payment which shall be pursuant to an agreement between the Secretary and the Secretary of the Interior containing such assurances and terms as the Secretary determines shall best achieve the provisions of this section and this Act. The agreement shall, at a minimum, contain assurances that--

        (A) a panel, as set forth in paragraph (4) of this subsection, shall be established;

        (B) a reform and improvement plan, designed to increase student learning and assist students in meeting the National Education Goals, meeting the requirements pertaining to State improvement plans required in section 156 and providing for the fundamental restructuring and improvement of elementary and secondary education in schools funded by the Bureau, shall be developed by such panel; and

        (C) the provisions and activities required under State improvement plans, including the requirements for timetables for opportunity-to-learn standards, shall be carried out in the same time frames and under the same conditions stipulated for the States in sections 155 and 156, provided that for these purposes, the term ‘local educational agencies’ shall be interpreted to mean ‘schools funded by the Bureau’.

      (2) VOLUNTARY SUBMISSION- The provisions applicable to the States in section 123 of this Act shall apply to the Bureau plan with regard to voluntary submission of standards and assessment systems to the National Education Standards and Improvement Council for review and certification.

      (3) PLAN SPECIFICS- The reform and improvement plan shall include, in addition to the requirements referenced above, specific provisions for--

        (A) opportunity to learn standards pertaining to residential programs and transportation costs associated with programs located on or near reservations or serving students in off-reservation residential boarding schools;

        (B) review and incorporation of the National Education Goals and the voluntary national content, student performance, and opportunity-to-learn standards developed under part B of title II of this Act, provided that such review shall include the issues of cultural and language differences; and

        (C) provision for coordination of the efforts of the Bureau with the efforts for school improvement of the States and local educational agencies in which the schools funded by the Bureau are located, to include, but not be limited to, the development of the partnerships outlined in section 156(g)(5) of the Act.

      (4) PANEL- To carry out the provisions of this section, and to develop the plan for system-wide reform and improvement required under the agreement required under paragraph (1), the Secretary of the Interior shall establish a panel coordinated by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs. Such panel shall consist of--

        (A) the Director of the Office of Indian Education Programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and two heads of other divisions of such Bureau as the Assistant Secretary shall designate;

        (B) a designee of the Secretary of Education; and

        (C) a representative nominated by each of the following:

          (i) The organization representing the majority of teachers and professional personnel in schools operated by the Bureau.

          (ii) The organization representing the majority of nonteaching personnel in schools operated by the Bureau, if not the same organization as in clause (i).

          (iii) School administrators of schools operated by the Bureau.

          (iv) Education line officers located in Bureau area or agency offices serving schools funded by the Bureau.

          (v) The organization representing the majority of contract or grant schools funded by the Bureau not serving students on the Navajo reservation.

          (vi) The organization representing the majority of contract or grant schools funded by the Bureau serving students on the Navajo reservation.

          (vii) The organization representing the school boards required by statute for schools operated by the Bureau not serving students on the Navajo reservation.

          (viii) The organization representing the school boards required by statute for schools funded by the Bureau serving students on the Navajo reservation.

      Including the additional members required by paragraph (5), a majority of the members of such panel shall be from the entities designated under subparagraph (C).

      (5) ADDITIONAL MEMBERS- In addition, the members of the panel stipulated above shall designate for full membership four additional members--

        (A) one of whom shall be a representative of a national organization which represents primarily national Indian education concerns; and

        (B) three of whom shall be chairpersons (or their designees) of Indian tribes with schools funded by the Bureau on their reservations (other than those specifically represented by organizations referred to in paragraph (4)), provided that preference for no less than two of these members shall be given to Indian tribes with a significant number of schools funded by the Bureau on their reservations, or with a significant percentage of their children enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau.

    (c) BIA COST ANALYSIS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- (A) The Secretary of the Interior shall reserve from the first allotment made to the Department of the Interior pursuant to section 154 an amount not to exceed $500,000 to provide, through the National Academy of Sciences, for an analysis of the costs associated with meeting the academic and home-living/residential standards of the Bureau of Indian Affairs for each school funded by such Bureau. The purpose of such analysis shall be to provide the Bureau and the Panel with baseline data regarding the current state of operations funded by the Bureau and to provide a framework for addressing the implementation of opportunity-to-learn standards.

      (B) The results of such analysis shall be reported, in aggregate and school specific form, to the chairpersons and ranking minority members of the Committees on Education and Labor and Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Indian Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate, and to the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Education (who shall transmit the report to the proper entities under this Act), and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act.

      (2) CONTENT- Such analysis shall evaluate the costs of providing a program in each school for the next succeeding academic year and shall be based on--

        (A) the standards either published in the Federal Register as having effect in schools operated by the Bureau on the date of enactment of this Act or the standards incorporated into each grant or contract in effect on such date with a tribally controlled school funded under section 1128 of Public Law 95-561 (as amended);

        (B) the best projections of student counts and demographics, as provided by the Bureau and as independently reviewed by the Academy; and

        (C) the pay and benefit schedules and other personnel requirements for each school operated by the Bureau, as existing on the date of enactment.

    (d) SECRETARY OF DEFENSE- The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Defense to ensure that, to the extent practicable, the purposes of this title are applied to the Department of Defense schools.

PART D--NATIONAL SKILL STANDARDS BOARD

SEC. 171. PURPOSE.

    It is the purpose of this title to establish a National Board to serve as a catalyst in stimulating the development and adoption of a voluntary national system of skill standards and certification that will serve as a cornerstone of the national strategy to enhance workforce skills, and that can be used, consistent with Federal civil rights laws--

      (1) by the Nation, to ensure the development of a high skills, high quality, high performance workforce, including the most skilled front-line workforce in the world, and that will result in increased productivity, economic growth and American economic competitiveness;

      (2) by industries, as a vehicle for informing training providers and prospective employees of skills necessary for employment;

      (3) by employers, to assist in evaluating the skill levels of prospective employees and to assist in the training of current employees;

      (4) by labor organizations, to enhance the employment security of workers by providing portable credentials and skills;

      (5) by workers, to obtain certifications of their skills to protect against dislocation, to pursue career advancement, and to enhance their ability to reenter the workforce;

      (6) by students and entry level workers, to determine the skill levels and competencies needed to be obtained in order to compete effectively for high wage jobs;

      (7) by training providers and educators, to determine appropriate training services to offer;

      (8) by Government, to evaluate whether publicly-funded training assists participants to meet skill standards where they exist and thereby protect the integrity of public expenditures;

      (9) to facilitate the transition to high performance work organizations;

      (10) to increase opportunities for minorities and women, including removing barriers to the entry of women in non-traditional employment; and

      (11) to facilitate linkages between other components of the workforce investment strategy, including school-to-work transition, secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education, and job training programs.

SEC. 172. ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL BOARD.

    (a) IN GENERAL- There is established a National Skill Standards Board (in this title referred to as the ‘National Board’).

    (b) COMPOSITION-

      (1) IN GENERAL- The National Board shall be composed of 28 members, appointed in accordance with paragraph (3), of whom--

        (A) one member shall be the Secretary of Labor;

        (B) one member shall be the Secretary of Education;

        (C) one member shall be the Secretary of Commerce;

        (D) one member shall be the Chairperson of the National Education Standards and Improvement Council established pursuant to section 122(a);

        (E) eight members shall be representatives of small and large business and industry selected from among individuals recommended by recognized national business organizations and trade associations;

        (F) eight members shall be representatives of organized labor selected from among individuals recommended by recognized national labor federations; and

        (G) eight members shall be representatives from the following groups, with at least one member from each group:

          (i) Educational institutions.

          (ii) Community-based organizations.

          (iii) State and local governments.

          (iv) Nongovernmental organizations with a demonstrated history of successfully protecting the rights of racial, ethnic and religious minorities, women, persons with disabilities or older persons.

      (2) DIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS- The members described in subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1) shall have expertise in the area of education and training. The members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1) shall--

        (A) in the aggregate, represent a broad cross-section of occupations and industries; and

        (B) to the extent feasible, be geographically representative of the United States and reflect the racial, ethnic and gender diversity of the United States.

      (3) APPOINTMENT- The membership of the National Board shall be appointed as follows:

        (A) Twelve members (four from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be appointed by the President.

        (B) Six members (two from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, of whom three members (one from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be selected from recommendations made by the Majority Leader of the House of Representatives and three members (one from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be selected from recommendations made by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives.

        (C) Six members (two from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate, of whom three members (one from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be selected from recommendations made by the Majority Leader of the Senate and three members (one from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)) shall be selected from recommendations made by the Minority Leader of the Senate.

      (4) TERM- Each member of the National Board appointed under subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1) shall be appointed for a term of 4 years, except that of the initial members of the Board appointed under such paragraph--

        (A) twelve members shall be appointed for a term of 3 years (four from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)), of whom--

          (i) two from each class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(A);

          (ii) one from each such class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(B); and

          (iii) one from each such class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(C); and

        (B) twelve members shall be appointed for a term of 4 years (four from each class of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of paragraph (1)), of whom--

          (i) two from each such class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(A);

          (ii) one from each such class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(B); and

          (iii) one from each such class shall be appointed in accordance with paragraph (3)(C).

    (c) CHAIRPERSON AND VICE CHAIRPERSONS-

      (1) CHAIRPERSON- The National Board shall biennially elect a Chairperson from among the members of the National Board by a majority vote of such members.

      (2) VICE CHAIRPERSONS- The National Board shall annually elect 3 Vice Chairpersons (each representing a different class of the classes of members described in subparagraphs (E), (F), and (G) of subsection (b)(1)) from among its members appointed under subsection (b)(3) by a majority vote of such members, each of whom shall serve for a term of 1 year.

    (d) COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES-

      (1) COMPENSATION- Members of the National Board who are not regular full-time employees or officers of the Federal Government shall serve without compensation.

      (2) EXPENSES- The members of the National Board shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57, title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the National Board.

    (e) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND STAFF- The Chairperson of the National Board shall appoint an Executive Director, who shall be compensated at a rate determined by the National Board that shall not exceed the rate of pay for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code, and who shall appoint such staff as is necessary in accordance with title 5, United States Code. Such staff shall include at least one individual with expertise in measurement and assessment.

    (f) AGENCY SUPPORT-

      (1) USE OF FACILITIES- The National Board may use the research, equipment, services and facilities of any agency or instrumentality of the United States with the consent of such agency or instrumentality.

      (2) STAFF OF FEDERAL AGENCIES- Upon the request of the National Board, the head of any department or agency of the United States may detail to the National Board, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such department or agency to assist the National Board in carrying out this title.

    (g) CONFLICT OF INTEREST- An individual who has served as a member of the National Board may not have any financial interest in an assessment and certification system developed or endorsed under this title for a period of three years after the termination of service of such individual from the National Board.

SEC. 173. FUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL BOARD.

    (a) IDENTIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTERS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- Subject to paragraph (2), the National Board, after extensive public review and comment and study of the national labor market, shall identify broad clusters of major occupations that involve one or more than one industry in the United States.

      (2) PROCEDURES FOR IDENTIFICATION- Prior to identifying broad clusters of major occupations under paragraph (1), the National Board shall--

        (A) develop procedures for the identification of such clusters;

        (B) publish such procedures in the Federal Register; and

        (C) allow for extensive public review of and comment on such procedures.

    (b) VOLUNTARY PARTNERSHIPS TO DEVELOP STANDARDS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- For each of the occupational clusters identified pursuant to subsection (a), the National Board shall encourage and facilitate the establishment of voluntary partnerships to develop a skill standards system in accordance with subsection (d).

      (2) REPRESENTATIVES- Such voluntary partnerships shall include the full and balanced participation of--

        (A) representatives of business and industry who have expertise in the area of workforce skill requirements, including representatives of large and small employers, recommended by national business organizations and trade associations representing employers in the occupation or industry for which a standard is being developed, and representatives of trade associations that have received demonstration grants from the Department of Labor or the Department of Education to establish skill standards prior to the enactment of this title;

        (B) employee representatives who have expertise in the area of workforce skill requirements and who shall be--

          (i) individuals recommended by recognized national labor organizations representing employees in the occupation or industry for which a standard is being developed; and

          (ii) such other individuals who are nonmanagerial employees with significant experience and tenure in such occupation or industry as are appropriate given the nature and structure of employment in the occupation or industry;

        (C) representatives of--

          (i) educational institutions;

          (ii) community-based organizations;

          (iii) State and local agencies with administrative control or direction over education, vocational-technical education, or employment and training;

          (iv) other policy development organizations with expertise in the area of workforce skill requirements; and

          (v) non-governmental organizations with a demonstrated history of successfully protecting the rights of racial, ethnic, and religious minorities, women, individuals with disabilities, and older persons; and

        (D) individuals with expertise in measurement and assessment, including relevant experience in designing unbiased assessments and performance-based assessments.

      (3) EXPERTS- The partnerships described in paragraph (1) may also include such other individuals who are independent, qualified experts in their fields.

    (c) RESEARCH, DISSEMINATION, AND COORDINATION- In order to support the development of a skill standards system in accordance with subsection (d), the National Board shall--

      (1) conduct workforce research relating to skill standards (including research relating to how to use skill standards in compliance with civil rights laws) and make such research available to the public, including the partnerships described in subsection (b);

      (2) identify and maintain a catalog of skill standards used by other countries and by States and leading firms and industries in the United States;

      (3) serve as a clearinghouse to facilitate the sharing of information on the development of skill standards and other relevant information among representatives of occupations and industries identified pursuant to subsection (a), the voluntary partnerships recognized pursuant to subsection (b), and among education and training providers through such mechanisms as the Capacity Building and Information and Dissemination Network established under section 453(b) of the Job Training Partnership Act;

      (4) develop a common nomenclature relating to skill standards;

      (5) encourage the development and adoption of curricula and training materials for attaining the skill standards developed pursuant to subsection (d) that include structured work experiences and related study programs leading to progressive levels of professional and technical certification and postsecondary education;

      (6) provide appropriate technical assistance; and

      (7) facilitate coordination among voluntary partnerships that meet the requirements of subsection (b) to promote the development of a coherent national system of voluntary skill standards.

    (d) ENDORSEMENT OF SKILL STANDARDS SYSTEMS-

      (1) DEVELOPMENT OF ENDORSEMENT CRITERIA-

        (A) IN GENERAL- The National Board, after extensive public consultation, shall develop objective criteria for endorsing skills standards systems relating to the occupational clusters identified pursuant to subsection (a). Such criteria shall, at a minimum, include the components of a skill standards system described in subparagraph (B). The endorsement criteria shall be published in the Federal Register, and updated as appropriate.

        (B) COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM- The components of a skill standards systems shall include the following:

          (i) Voluntary skill standards, which at a minimum--

            (I) meet or exceed, to the extent practicable, the highest standards used in other countries and the highest international standards;

            (II) meet or exceed the highest applicable standards used in the United States, including apprenticeship standards registered under the National Apprenticeship Act;

            (III) take into account content and performance standards certified pursuant to title II;

            (IV) take into account the requirements of high performance work organizations;

            (V) are in a form that allows for regular updating to take into account advances in technology or other developments within the occupational cluster;

            (VI) are formulated in such a manner that promotes the portability of credentials and facilitates worker mobility within an occupational cluster or industry and among industries; and

            (VII) are not discriminatory with respect to race, color, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, disability, or national origin, consistent with Federal civil rights laws.

          (ii) A voluntary assessment system and certification of the attainment of skill standards developed pursuant to subparagraph (A), which at a minimum--

            (I) takes into account, to the extent practicable, methods of assessment and certification used in other countries;

            (II) utilizes a variety of evaluation techniques, including, where appropriate, oral and written evaluations, portfolio assessments and performance tests; and

            (III) includes methods for establishing that the assessment and certification system is not discriminatory with respect to race, color, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, disability, or national origin, consistent with Federal civil rights laws.

          (iii) A system to promote the use of and to disseminate information relating to skill standards, and assessment and certification systems developed pursuant to this paragraph (including dissemination of information relating to civil rights laws relevant to the use of such standards and systems) to entities such as institutions of postsecondary education offering professional and technical education, labor organizations, trade associations, employers providing formalized training and other organizations likely to benefit from such systems.

          (iv) A system to evaluate the implementation of the skill standards, and assessment and certification systems developed pursuant to this paragraph, and the effectiveness of the information disseminated pursuant to subparagraph (C) for informing the users of such standards and systems of the requirements of relevant civil rights laws.

          (v) A system to periodically revise and update the skill standards, and assessment and certification systems developed pursuant to this paragraph, which will take into account changes in standards in other countries.

      (2) ENDORSEMENT- The National Board, after extensive public review and comment, shall endorse those skill standards systems relating to the occupational clusters identified pursuant to subsection (a) that--

        (A) meet the objective endorsement criteria that are developed pursuant to paragraph (1); and

        (B) are submitted by partnerships that meet the representation requirements of subsection (b)(2).

    (e) RELATIONSHIP WITH ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAWS-

      (1) IN GENERAL- Nothing in this title shall be construed to modify or affect any Federal or State law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, ethnicity, national origin, gender, age, or disability.

      (2) EVIDENCE- The endorsement or absence of an endorsement by the Board of a skill standard or assessment and certification system under subsection (d) shall not be used in any action or proceeding to establish that the skill standard or assessment and certification system conforms or does not conform to the requirements of civil rights laws.

    (f) COORDINATION WITH EDUCATION STANDARDS- The National Board shall establish cooperative arrangements with the National Education Standards and Improvement Council to promote the coordination of the development of skill standards under this title with the development of content and performance standards under title II.

    (g) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-

      (1) IN GENERAL- From funds appropriated pursuant to section 166(a), the Secretary of Labor may award grants (including grants to the voluntary partnerships in accordance with paragraph (2)) and enter into contracts and cooperative arrangements that are requested by the National Board for the purposes of carrying out this title.

      (2) GRANT PROGRAMS FOR VOLUNTARY PARTNERSHIPS-

        (A) ELIGIBILITY AND APPLICATION- Voluntary partnerships that meet the requirements of subsection (b) shall be eligible to apply for a grant under this subsection. Each such voluntary partnership desiring a grant shall submit an application to the National Board at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the National Board may reasonably require.

        (B) REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATION- The National Board shall review each application submitted pursuant to subparagraph (A) in accordance with the objective criteria published pursuant to subparagraph (C) and shall forward each such application to the Secretary of Labor accompanied by a recommendation for the approval or disapproval of each such application by the Secretary.

        (C) CRITERIA FOR REVIEW- Prior to each fiscal year, the National Board shall publish objective criteria to be used by the Board in reviewing applications under subparagraph (B).

      (3) LIMITATION ON THE USE OF FUNDS-

        (A) IN GENERAL- Not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated under section 166(a) for each fiscal year shall be used by the National Board for the costs of administration.

        (B) COSTS OF ADMINISTRATION DEFINED- For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘costs of administration’ means costs relating to staff, supplies, equipment, space, travel and per diem, costs of conducting meetings and conferences, and other related costs.

SEC. 174. DEADLINES.

    Not later than December 31, 1996, the National Board shall--

      (1) identify occupational clusters pursuant to section 163(a) representing a substantial portion of the workforce; and

      (2) promote the development of an initial set of skill standards in accordance with section 163(d) for such clusters.

SEC. 175. REPORTS.

    The National Board shall submit to the President and the Congress in each fiscal year a report on the activities conducted under this title, including the extent to which skill standards have been adopted by employers, training providers, and other entities and the effectiveness of such standards in accomplishing the purposes described in section 161.

SEC. 176. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) IN GENERAL- There are authorized to be appropriated $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 to carry out this title.

    (b) AVAILABILITY- Amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (a) shall remain available until expended.

SEC. 177. DEFINITIONS.

    For purposes of this title, the following definitions apply:

      (1) COMMUNITY-BASED ORGANIZATIONS- The term ‘community-based organizations’ means such organizations as defined in section 4(5) of the Job Training Partnership Act.

      (2) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION- The term ‘educational institution’ means a high school, a vocational school, and an institution of higher education.

      (3) SKILL STANDARD- The term ‘skill standard’ means the level of knowledge and competence required to successfully perform work-related functions within an occupational cluster.

PART E--MISCELLANEOUS

SEC. 181. DEFINITIONS.

    As used in this Act--

      (1) the terms ‘all students’ and ‘all children’ mean students or children from a broad range of backgrounds and circumstances, including disadvantaged students, students with diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, students with disabilities, students with limited-English proficiency, migrant children, school-aged children who have dropped out, migrant children, and academically talented students;

      (2) the term ‘assessment system’ means measures of student performance which include at least 1 test, and may include other measures of student performance, for a specific purpose and use which are intended to evaluate the progress of all students in the State toward learning the material in State content standards in 1 or more subject areas;

      (3) the terms ‘community’, ‘public’, and ‘advocacy group’ are to be interpreted to include representatives of organizations advocating for the education of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian children and Indian tribes;

      (4) the term ‘content standards’ means broad descriptions of the knowledge and skills students should acquire in a particular subject area;

      (5) the term ‘Governor’ means the chief executive of the State;

      (6) the terms ‘local educational agency’ and ‘State educational agency’ have the meaning given those terms in section 1471 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965;

      (7) the term ‘opportunity-to-learn standards’ means the criteria for, and the basis of, assessing the sufficiency or quality of the resources, practices, and conditions necessary at each level of the education system (schools, local educational agencies, and States) to provide all students with an opportunity to learn the material in national or State content standards;

      (8) the term ‘outlying areas’ means Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau (until the effective date of the Compact of Free Association with the Government of Palau);

      (9) the term ‘performance standards’ means concrete examples and explicit definitions of what students have to know and be able to do to demonstrate that they are proficient in the skills and knowledge framed by content standards;

      (10) the term ‘related services’ has the same meaning given such term under section 602(17) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act;

      (11) the term ‘school’ means a school that is under the authority of the State educational agency and a local educational agency or, for the purpose of carrying out section 164(b), a school that is operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs;

      (12) the term ‘Secretary’, except where used in title IV, means the Secretary of Education; and

      (13) except as otherwise provided, the term ‘State’ means each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and each of the outlying areas.

SEC. 182. LIMITATIONS.

    (a) ASSESSMENTS- No funds provided under titles II or III of this Act shall be used to undertake assessments that will be used to make decisions regarding the graduation, grade promotion, or retention of students for five years after the date of enactment of this Act.

    (b) PUBLIC SCHOOL- Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize the use of funds under title III (except as provided in section 160) to directly or indirectly benefit any school other than a public school.

SEC. 183. ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS ACTIVITIES.

    Section 421(h) of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act (20 U.S.C. 2421(h)) is amended--

      (1) by inserting ‘(1)’ after ‘(h)’; and

      (2) by inserting at the end the following:

    ‘(2)(A) Notwithstanding any provision of section 406 of the General Education Provisions Act, the Commissioner of Education Statistics may authorize a State educational agency or a consortium of such agencies to use items and data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress for the purpose of evaluating a course of study related to vocational education, if the Commissioner has determined, in writing, that such use will not--

      ‘(i) result in the identification of characteristics or performance of individual students or schools;

      ‘(ii) result in the ranking or comparing of schools or local educational agencies;

      ‘(iii) be used to evaluate the performance of teachers, principals, or other local educators for the purpose of dispensing rewards or punishments; or

      ‘(iv) corrupt or harm the use and value of data collected for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ‘(B) Not later than 60 days after making an authorization under subsection (a), the Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate, a report which contains--

      ‘(i) a copy of the request for such authorization;

      ‘(ii) a copy of the written determination under subsection (a); and

      ‘(iii) a description of the details and duration of such authorization.

    ‘(C) The Commissioner may not grant more than one such authorization in any fiscal year and shall ensure that the authorized use of items or data from the National Assessment is evaluated for technical merit and for its affect on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. The results of such evaluations shall be promptly reported to the committees specified in subparagraph (B).’.

SEC. 184. COMPLIANCE WITH BUY AMERICAN ACT.

    No funds appropriated pursuant to this Act may be expended by an entity unless the entity agrees that in expending the assistance the entity will comply with sections 2 through 4 of the Act of March 3, 1993 (41 U.S.C. 10a-10c, popularly known as the ‘Buy American Act’).

SEC. 185. SENSE OF CONGRESS; REQUIREMENT REGARDING NOTICE.

    (a) PURCHASE OF AMERICAN-MADE EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTS- In the case of any equipment or products that may be authorized to be purchased with financial assistance provided under this Act, it is the sense of the Congress that entities receiving such assistance should, in expending the assistance, purchase only American-made equipment and products.

    (b) NOTICE TO RECIPIENTS OF ASSISTANCE- In providing financial assistance under this Act, the head of each Federal agency shall provide to each recipient of the assistance a notice describing the statement made in subsection (a) by the Congress.

SEC. 186. PROHIBITION OF CONTRACTS.

    If it has been finally determined by a court or Federal agency that any person intentionally affixed a label bearing a ‘Made in America’ inscription, or any inscription with the same meaning to any product sold in or shipped to the United States that is not made in the United States, such person shall be ineligible to receive any contract or subcontract made with funds provided pursuant to this Act, pursuant to the debarment, suspension, and ineligibility procedures described in section 9.400 through 9.409 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations.

PART F--PARENTAL INFORMATION AND RESOURCES

SEC. 191. PARENTAL INFORMATION AND RESOURCES

    (a) AUTHORIZATION- The Secretary of Education is authorized to make grants each year to nonprofit organizations for the purpose of providing training and information to parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools and to individuals who work with such parents to encourage a more effective working relationship with professionals in meeting the educational needs of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools.

    (b) GRANTS- Such grants shall--

      (1) be designed to meet the unique training and information needs of parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools, particularly parents who are severely disadvantaged educationally or economically;

      (2) be distributed geographically to the greatest extent possible throughout all the States and give priority to grants which serve areas with high concentrations of low-income families;

      (3) be targeted to parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools in rural, suburban, and urban areas;

      (4) serve parents of low-income and minority children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools, including limited-English-proficient children;

      (5) be funded at a sufficient size, scope, and quality to ensure that the program is adequate to serve the parents in the area; and

      (6) include funds to establish, expand, and operate Teachers as Parents programs.

SEC. 192. ELIGIBILITY.

    (a) REPRESENTATION- To receive a grant under section 191, a nonprofit organization shall meet the following requirements:

      (1) Be governed by a board of directors in which the membership includes, or be an organization that represents the interests of, parents and establish a special advisory committee in which the membership includes--

        (A) parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools; and

        (B) representation of education professionals with expertise in improving services for disadvantaged children.

      (2) Provide that the parent and professional membership of the board or special advisory committee is broadly representative of minority, low-income, and other individuals and groups that have an interest in compensatory education and family literacy.

      (3) Demonstrate the capacity and expertise to conduct effective training and information activities for which a grant may be made.

      (4) Network with clearinghouses, other organizations and agencies, and with other established national, State, and local parent groups representing the full range of parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools, especially parents of low-income and minority children.

    (b) REQUIREMENTS- The Board of Directors or special governing committee of an organization receiving a grant under this title shall meet at least once each calendar quarter to review the parent training and information activities for which the grant is made.

    (c) GRANT RENEWAL- Whenever an organization requests the renewal of a grant under section 191 for a fiscal year, the Board of Directors or the special advisory committee shall submit to the Secretary a written review of the parent training and information program conducted by such organization during the preceding fiscal year.

SEC. 193. USES OF FUNDS.

    Grants received under this title may be used--

      (1) for parent training and information programs that assist parents to--

        (A) better understand their children’s educational needs;

        (B) provide follow up support for their children’s educational achievement;

        (C) communicate more effectively with teachers, counselors, administrators, and other professional educators and support staff;

        (D) participate in the design and provision of assistance to students who are not making adequate progress;

        (E) obtain information about the range of options, programs, services, and resources available at the national, State, and local levels to assist parents of children, aged birth to 5 years, and children enrolled in participating schools and their parents;

        (F) seek technical assistance regarding compliance with the requirements of this Act and of other Federal programs relevant to achieving the goals of this Act;

        (G) participate in State and local decision-making;

        (H) train other parents; and

        (I) plan, implement, and fund activities that coordinate the education of their children with other Federal programs that serve such children or their families;

      (2) to include State or local educational personnel where such participation would further an objective of the program assisted by the grant; and

      (3) to establish a parent training and information center to carry out the activities in paragraphs (1) and (2) and to represent parent interests at the State level, including participation in the design of the public outreach process described in section 156(b)(6), submitting recommendations concerning State standards and plans, and commenting on proposed waivers under this Act.

SEC. 194. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE.

    The Secretary shall provide technical assistance, by grant or contract, for the establishment, development, and coordination of parent training and information programs and centers.

SEC. 195. EXPERIMENTAL CENTERS.

    After the establishment in each State of a parent training and information center, the Secretary shall provide for the establishment of 5 additional experimental centers, 3 to be located in urban areas and 2 in rural areas where there are large concentrations of poverty.

SEC. 196. REPORTS.

    Not later than June 30, 1995, and not later than June 30 each succeeding year, the Secretary shall obtain data concerning programs and centers assisted under this title, including--

      (1) the number of parents, including the number of minority and limited-English-proficient parents, who receive information and training;

      (2) the types and modes of information or training provided; and

      (3) the strategies used to reach and serve parents of minority and limited-English-proficient children and parents with limited literacy skills.

SEC. 197. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998.

TITLE II--EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DISSEMINATION EXCELLENCE ACT

SEC. 201. FINDINGS.

    The Congress finds as follows with respect to improving education in the United States:

      (1) A majority of public schools in the United States are failing to adequately prepare their students. To achieve the national education goals set forth by the President and the governors of the States, an overwhelming campaign for educational improvement must be mounted in order to set in motion many strategies and models designed to encourage and support school restructuring. The Federal Government must support an extensive program of educational research, development, dissemination, replication and assistance to identify and support the best responses for the challenges ahead. A significant investment in attaining a deeper understanding of the processes of learning and schooling and developing new ideas holds the best hope of making a substantial difference to the lives of every school and student in the United States. The Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the Department of Education should be at the center of this campaign in order to coordinate such efforts.

      (2) The Federal role in educational research has been closely identified with youths who are socioeconomically disadvantaged, belong to a language minority, or are disabled. However, in 1988, the Federal commitment to education was sufficient to serve not more than--

        (A) 1 out of every 5 low-income children in need of preschool education;

        (B) 2 out of every 5 children in need of remediation;

        (C) 1 out of every 4 children in need of bilingual education; and

        (D) 1 out of every 20 youths in need of job training.

      (3) The failure of the Federal Government to adequately invest in educational research and development has denied the Nation a sound foundation on which to design school improvements, leading to a history of faddism and failed experimentation resulting in a dearth of research in the area of educationally at-risk students. This situation is of particular concern because at least half of the public school students in 25 of the largest cities of the United States are minority children, and demographers project that, by 2005, almost all urban public school students will be minority children or other children in poverty.

      (4) The investment goal of the Federal research, development, and dissemination function should be at least 1 percent of the total amount of funds spent on education nationally.

      (5) Nationwide model programs and reliable interventions should be demonstrated and replicated, and for such purposes, programs should be established to conduct research and evaluations, and to disseminate information.

      (6) The Office of Educational Research and Improvement must develop a national dissemination policy that will advance the goal of placing a national treasure chest of research results, models, and materials at the disposal of the Nation’s education decisionmakers.

      (7) A National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board should be established to ensure that an educational research and dissemination agenda is developed and implemented without partisan political interference.

      (8) Existing research and development entities should adopt expanded, proactive roles and new institutions must be created to promote knowledge development necessary to accelerate the application of research knowledge to high priority areas.

      (9) Greater use should be made of existing technologies in efforts to improve the Nation’s educational system, including efforts to disseminate research findings.

      (10) Minority educational researchers are inadequately represented throughout the Department of Education, but particularly in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement. The Office therefore must assume a leadership position in the recruitment, retention, and promotion of qualified minority educational researchers.

      (11) The coordination of the mission of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement with that of other components of the Department of Education is critical. It must improve the coordination of the educational research, development, and dissemination function with those of other Federal agencies.

PART A--GENERAL PROVISIONS REGARDING OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT

SEC. 211. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

    Section 405 of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1221e) is amended to read as follows:

‘OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT

    ‘SEC. 405. (a) DECLARATION OF POLICY REGARDING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Congress declares it to be the policy of the United States to provide to every individual an equal opportunity to receive an education of high quality regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, national origin, or social class. Although the American educational system has pursued this objective, it has not attained the objective. Inequalities of opportunity to receive high quality education remain pronounced. To achieve the goal of quality education requires the continued pursuit of knowledge about education through research, development, improvement activities, data collection, synthesis, technical assistance, and information dissemination. While the direction of American education remains primarily the responsibility of State and local governments, the Federal Government has a clear responsibility to provide leadership in the conduct and support of scientific inquiry into the educational process.

      ‘(2) MISSION OF OFFICE-

        ‘(A) The mission of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement shall be to provide national leadership in--

          ‘(i) expanding fundamental knowledge and understanding of education;

          ‘(ii) promoting excellence and equity in education; and

          ‘(iii) monitoring the state of education.

        ‘(B) The mission of the Office shall be accomplished in collaboration with researchers, teachers, school administrators, parents, students, employers, and policymakers.

    ‘(b) PURPOSE AND STRUCTURE OF OFFICE-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary, acting through the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, shall carry out the policies set forth in subsection (a). In carrying out such policies, the Secretary shall be guided by the priorities established by the Board of Governors established in section 405A.

      ‘(2) ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE- The Office shall be administered by the Assistant Secretary and shall include--

        ‘(A) the National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board established by section 405A;

        ‘(B) the national research institutes established by section 405B;

        ‘(C) the national education dissemination system established by section 405C;

        ‘(D) the National Library of Education established by section 405D;

        ‘(E) the National Center for Education Statistics established by section 406; and

        ‘(F) such other units as the Secretary deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of the Office.

      ‘(3) PRIORITIES IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT- The Office shall, in accordance with the provisions of this section, seek to improve education in the United States through concentrating the resources of the Office on the following priority research and development needs:

        ‘(A) The education of at-risk students.

        ‘(B) The education and development of young children.

        ‘(C) Student achievement in elementary and secondary school.

        ‘(D) Postsecondary education, libraries, and lifelong learning for adults.

        ‘(E) The improvement of schools through the restructuring and reform of school governance, policymaking, finance and management at the State, local, school building, and classroom level.

    ‘(c) APPOINTMENT OF EMPLOYEES-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary may appoint, for terms not to exceed three years (without regard to the provisions of title 5 of the United States Code governing appointment in the competitive service) and may compensate (without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates) such scientific or technical employees of the Office as the Assistant Secretary considers necessary to accomplish its functions, provided that--

        ‘(A) at least 60 days prior to the appointment of any such employee, public notice is given of the availability of such position and an opportunity is provided for qualified individuals to apply and compete for such position;

        ‘(B) the rate of basic pay for such employees does not exceed the maximum rate of basic pay payable for positions at GS-15, as determined in accordance with section 5376 of title 5, United States Code;

        ‘(C) the appointment of such employee is necessary to provide the Office with scientific or technical expertise which could not otherwise be obtained by the Office through the competitive service; and

        ‘(D) the total number of such employees does not exceed one-fifth of the number of full-time, regular scientific or professional employees of the Office.

      ‘(2) REAPPOINTMENT OF EMPLOYEES- The Assistant Secretary may reappoint employees described in paragraph (1) upon presentation of a clear and convincing justification of need, for one additional term not to exceed 3 years. All such employees shall work on activities of the Office and shall not be reassigned to other duties outside the Office during their term.

    ‘(d) AUTHORITY TO PUBLISH-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary is authorized to prepare and publish such information, reports, and documents as may be of value in carrying out the purposes of sections 405 through 405D without further clearance or approval by the Secretary or any other office of the Department.

      ‘(2) QUALITY ASSURANCE- In carrying out such authority, the Assistant Secretary shall--

        ‘(A) establish such procedures as may be necessary to assure that all reports and publications issued by the Office are of the highest quality; and

        ‘(B) provide other offices of the Department with an opportunity to comment upon any report or publication prior to its publication when its contents relate to matters for which such office has responsibility.

    ‘(e) BIENNIAL REPORT ON ACTIVITIES OF OFFICE- The Assistant Secretary shall transmit to the President and the Congress by not later than December 30 of every other year a biennial report which shall consist of--

      ‘(1) a description of the activities carried out by and through each research institute during the fiscal years for which such report is prepared and any recommendations and comments regarding such activities as the Assistant Secretary considers appropriate;

      ‘(2) a description of the activities carried out by and through the national education dissemination system established by section 405C during the fiscal years for which such report is prepared and any recommendations and comments regarding such activities as the Assistant Secretary considers appropriate;

      ‘(3) such written comments and recommendations as may be submitted by the Board concerning the activities carried out by and through each of the institutes and the national education dissemination system during the fiscal years for which such report is prepared and how such activities relate to the Research Policies and Priorities Plan developed by the Board;

      ‘(4) a description of the coordination activites undertaken pursuant to section 405(f) during the fiscal years for which such report is prepared;

      ‘(5) recommendations for legislative and administrative changes necessary to improve the coordination of all educational research, development, and dissemination activities carried out within the Federal Government, particularly within the priority research and development needs identified in section 405(b)(3); and

      ‘(6) such additional comments, recommendations, and materials as the Assistant Secretary considers appropriate.

    ‘(f) COORDINATION- With the advice and assistance of the Board, the Assistant Secretary shall establish and maintain an ongoing program of activities designed to improve the coordination of education research, development, and dissemination and activities within the Department and within the Federal Government, particularly within the priority research and development needs identified in section 405(b)(3), in order to--

      ‘(1) minimize duplication in education research, development, and dissemination carried out by the Federal Government;

      ‘(2) maximize the value of the total Federal investment in education research, development, and dissemination; and

      ‘(3) enable all entities engaged in education research, development, and dissemination within the Federal Government to interact effectively as partners and take full advantage of the diverse resources and proficiencies which each entity has available.

    ‘(g) ACTIVITIES REQUIRED WITH RESPECT TO COORDINATION- In carrying out such program of coordination, the Assistant Secretary shall compile (and thereafter regularly maintain) and make available a comprehensive inventory of all education research, development, dissemination activities, and expenditures being carried out by the Federal Government within the priority research and development needs identified in section 405(b)(3).

    ‘(h) STANDARDS FOR CONDUCT AND EVALUATION OF RESEARCH-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- In consultation with the Board, the Assistant Secretary shall develop such standards as may be necessary to govern the conduct and evaluation of all research, development, and dissemination activities carried out by the Office to assure that such activities meet the highest standards of professional excellence. In developing such standards, the Assistant Secetary shall review the procedures utilized by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and other Federal agencies engaged in research and development and shall also actively solicit recommendations from the the National Academy of Sciences, the American Educational Research Association and members of the general public.

      ‘(2) CONTENTS OF STANDARDS- Such standards shall at a minimum--

        ‘(A) require that a system of peer review be utilized by the Office--

          ‘(i) in reviewing and evaluating all applications for grants and cooperative agreements and bids for those contracts which exceed $100,000;

          ‘(ii) in evaluating and assessing the performance of all recipients of grants from and cooperative agreements and contracts with the Office; and

          ‘(iii) in reviewing and designating exemplary and promising programs in accordance with section 405C(d);

        ‘(B)(i) specify the composition of peer review panels, the criteria for the selection of members of such panels, and describe the means by which potential members shall be identified so as to assure that such panels are broadly representative of individuals with expertise in matters relevant to the purposes of each such panel;

        ‘(ii) prohibit the consideration of partisan affiliation in the selection of any member of a peer review panel;

        ‘(iii) describe the general procedures which shall be used by each peer review panel in its operations;

        ‘(iv) prohibit the participation by a member of a peer review panel in the review of any application in which such member has any financial interest; and

        ‘(v) require that transcripts, minutes, and other documents made available to or prepared for or by a peer review panel will be available for public inspection to the extent consistent with the Freedom of Information Act, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Privacy Act, and other laws;

        ‘(C)(i) describe the procedures which shall be utilized in evaluating applications for grants, proposed cooperative agreements, and contract bids;

        ‘(ii) specify the criteria and factors which shall be considered in making such evaluations; and

        ‘(iii) provide that any decision to fund a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement out of its order of ranking by a peer review panel shall be first fully justified in writing and that copies of such justification shall be transmitted to the Board, unless such action is required by some other provision of law;

        ‘(D)(i) describe the procedures which shall be utilized in reviewing educational programs which have been identified by or submitted to the Secretary for evaluation in accordance with section 405C(d); and

        ‘(ii) specify the criteria which shall be used in recommending programs as exemplary and promising; and

        ‘(E)(i) require that the performance of all recipients of grants from and contracts and cooperative agreements with the Office shall be periodically evaluated, both during and at the conclusion of their receipt of assistance;

        ‘(ii) describe the procedures and means by which such evaluations shall be undertaken, including--

          ‘(I) the frequency of such evaluations;

          ‘(II) the criteria, outcome measures, and other factors which shall be taken into account; and

          ‘(III) measures to assure that on-site evaluations of performance shall be utilized to the extent appropriate and whenever practicable; and

        ‘(iii) provide that the results of such evaluations shall be taken into account prior to any decision to continue, renew, or provide new funding to the entity being reviewed.

      ‘(3) PUBLICATION AND PROMULGATION OF STANDARDS-

        ‘(A) The Assistant Secretary shall publish proposed standards--

          ‘(i) which meet the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (2) not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act;

          ‘(ii) which meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(D) not later than 2 years after such date; and

          ‘(iii) which meet the requirements of subparagraph (E) of paragraph (2) not later than 3 years after such date;

        ‘(B) Following the publication of such proposed standards, the Assistant Secretary shall solicit comments from interested members of the public with respect to such proposed standards for a period of not more than 120 days. After giving due consideration to any comments which may have been received, the Assistant Secretary shall transmit such standards to the Board for its review and approval.

        ‘(C) Upon the approval of the Board, the Assistant Secretary shall transmit final standards to the Secretary which meet the requirements of the particular subparagraphs of paragraph (2) for which they were developed. Such standards shall be binding upon all activities carried out with funds appropriated under section 405.

    ‘(i) ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY- In carrying out the activities and programs of the Office, the Assistant Secretary shall--

      ‘(1) be guided by the Research Priorities Plan developed by the Board;

      ‘(2) ensure that there is broad and regular public and professional involvement from the educational field in the planning and carrying out of the Office’s activities, including establishing teacher advisory boards for any program office, program or project of the Office as the Assistant Secretary deems necessary;

      ‘(3) ensure that the selection of research topics and the administration of the program are free from undue partisan political influence; and

      ‘(4) ensure that all statistics and other data collected and reported by the Office shall be collected, cross-tabulated, analyzed, and reported by sex within race or ethnicity and socioeconomic status whenever feasible (and when such data collection or analysis is not feasible, ensure that the relevant report or document includes an explanation as to why such data collection or analysis is not feasible).

    ‘(j) DEFINITIONS- For purposes of this section and sections 405A through 405D:

      ‘(1) The term ‘Assistant Secretary’ means the Assistant Secretary for Educational Research and Improvement established by section 202 of the Department of Education Organization Act.

      ‘(2) The term ‘at-risk student’ means a student who, because of limited English proficiency, poverty, geographic location, or educational or economic disadvantage, faces a greater risk of low educational achievement and has greater potential for dropping out of school.

      ‘(3) The term ‘Board’ means the National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board.

      ‘(4) The term ‘educational research’ includes basic and applied research, development, planning, surveys, assessments, evaluations, investigations, experiments, and demonstrations in the field of education and other fields relating to education.

      ‘(5) The term ‘development’--

        ‘(A) means the systematic use, adaptation, and transformation of knowledge and understanding gained from research to create alternatives, policies, products, methods, practices, or materials which can contribute to the improvement of educational practice; and

        ‘(B) includes the design and development of prototypes and the testing of such prototypes for the purposes of establishing their feasibility, reliability, and cost-effectiveness.

      ‘(6) The term ‘technical assistance’ means the provision of external assistance to facilitate the adoption or application of the knowledge gained from educational research and development and includes--

        ‘(A) problem analysis and diagnosis;

        ‘(B) assistance in finding, selecting, or designing suitable solutions and approaches to problems;

        ‘(C) training in the installation and implementation of products, programs, policies, practices, or technologies; and

        ‘(D) such other assistance as may be necessary to encourage the adoption or application of such knowledge.

      ‘(7) The term ‘dissemination’ means the transfer of knowledge and products gained through research and includes--

        ‘(A) the use of communication techniques to increase awareness of such knowledge and products;

        ‘(B) the provision of comparative and evaluative information necessary to enable educators, school administrators, and others to assess and make informed judgments about the relevance and usefulness of such knowledge and products in specific settings; and

        ‘(C) the provision of technical assistance needed to adapt, apply, and utilize such knowledge and products in specific educational settings.

      ‘(8) The term ‘national education dissemination system’ means the activities carried out by the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination established by section 405C.

      ‘(9) The term ‘Office’ means the Office of Educational Research and Improvement established in section 209 of the Department of Education Organization Act.

      ‘(10) The term ‘national research institute’ means an institute established in section 405B.

      ‘(11) The terms ‘United States’ and ‘State’ include the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

    ‘(k) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS-

      ‘(1) NATIONAL INSTITUTES-

        ‘(A) For the purpose of carrying out section 405B, there is authorized to be appropriated $37,000,000 for fiscal year 1994.

        ‘(B) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 405B relating to the National Institute for Student Achievement, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

        ‘(C) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 405B relating to the National Institute for the Education of At-Risk Students, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

        ‘(D) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 405B relating to the National Institute for Innovation in Educational Governance, Finance, Policy-Making, and Management, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

        ‘(E) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 405B relating to the National Institute for Early Childhood Development and Education, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

        ‘(F) For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 405B relating to the National Institute of Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Learning, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

      ‘(2) NATIONAL EDUCATION DISSEMINATION SYSTEM-

        ‘(A)(i) For the purpose of carrying out subsections (b)(2) through (g) of section 405C, there are authorized to be appropriated $22,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and such sums as are necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1997.

        ‘(ii) Of the amount appropriated under clause (i) for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall make available not less than $7,175,000 to carry out subsection (f) of section 405C (relating to clearinghouses).

        ‘(B) For the purpose of carrying out subsection (h) of section 405C (relating to regional educational laboratories), there are authorized to be appropriated $37,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and such sums as are necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1997. Of the amounts appropriated under the preceding sentence for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall obligate not less than 25 percent to carry out such purpose with respect to rural areas (including schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs which are located in rural areas).

        ‘(C) For the purpose of carrying out subsection (j) of section 405C (relating to the teacher research dissemination network) there are authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and such sums as are necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1997.

        ‘(D) For the purpose of carrying out subsection (i) of section 405C (relating to the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships program), there are authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as are necessary for each of the fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

      ‘(3) NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH POLICY AND PRIORITIES BOARD- Of the amounts appropriated under paragraphs (1) and (2) for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall make available 2 percent of such amounts, or $1,000,000, whichever is less, to the Board for the purpose of carrying out section 405A.

      ‘(4) ALLOCATIONS FOR GRANTS, COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS, AND CONTRACTS- Of the amounts appropriated under paragraph (1) or (2) for any fiscal year, not less than 95 percent shall be expended to carry out the purposes described in such paragraphs through grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts.

      ‘(5) LIMITATIONS ON APPROPRIATIONS- No amounts are authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) or (2) for fiscal year 1995 or any fiscal year thereafter unless the Board has been appointed in accordance with section 405A.

      ‘(6) GRANT AUTHORIZED- From the amounts appropriated under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary is authorized, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, to award a grant of not more than $5,000,000 to a public or private institution, agency or organization for a period not to exceed five years for the purpose of conducting a State-by-State poll to determine the perceptions of recent graduates of secondary schools, their instructors in institutions of higher education, parents of recent such graduates, and employers of recent such graduates on how well schools have prepared students for further education or employment. The grant shall be awarded on a competitive basis and shall be matched on a two-to-one basis, with the Federal Government contributing one-third of the total costs of the poll.’.

SEC. 212. ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT.

    Subsection (b) of section 202 of the Department of Education Organization Act is amended--

      (1) in paragraph (1)--

        (A) by striking subparagraph (E); and

        (B) by redesignating subparagraphs (F) and (G) as subparagraphs (E) and (F), respectively; and

      (2) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

    ‘(3) There shall be in the Department an Assistant Secretary for Educational Research and Improvement who shall be--

      ‘(A) appointed by the President, by and with the consent of the Senate; and

      ‘(B) selected in consultation with the National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board from among individuals who--

        ‘(i) are distinguished educational researchers;

        ‘(ii) have proven management ability; and

        ‘(iii) have substantial knowledge of education within the United States.’.

SEC. 213. SAVINGS PROVISION.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, contracts for the regional educational laboratories, education resources information clearinghouses and research and development centers assisted under section 405 of the General Education Provisions Act on the date of the enactment of this Act shall remain in effect until the termination date of such contracts.

SEC. 214. EXISTING GRANTS AND CONTRACTS.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, grants and contracts for the research and development centers assisted under section 405 of the General Education Provisions Act on the date of enactment of this Act shall remain in effect until the termination date of such grants or contracts, as the case may be, except that such grants and contracts may be extended to implement the provisions of this Act.

PART B--NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH POLICY AND PRIORITIES BOARD

SEC. 221. ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT.

    Part A of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1221e et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 405 the following new section:

‘NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH POLICY AND PRIORITIES BOARD

    ‘SEC. 405A. (a) IN GENERAL- There is established within the Office a National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Board’).

    ‘(b) FUNCTIONS- It shall be the responsibility of the Board, acting through the Assistant Secretary--

      ‘(1) to determine priorities that should guide the work of the Office and provide guidance to the Congress in its oversight of the Office;

      ‘(2) to review and approve standards for the conduct and evaluation of all research, development, and dissemination carried out under the auspices of the Office pursuant to sections 405 through 405C; and

      ‘(3) to regularly review, evaluate, and publicly comment upon, the implementation of its recommended priorities and policies by the Department and the Congress.

    ‘(c) RESEARCH PRIORITIES PLAN- In cooperation with the Assistant Secretary, the Board shall--

      ‘(1) survey and assess the state of knowledge in education research, development and dissemination to identify disciplines and areas of inquiry within the priority research, development and dissemination needs identified in section 405(b)(3) in which the state of knowledge is insufficient and which warrant further investigation, taking into account the views of both education researchers and practicing educators;

      ‘(2) consult with the National Education Goals Panel and other authorities on education to identify national priorities for the improvement of education;

      ‘(3) actively solicit recommendations from education researchers, teachers, school administrators, cultural leaders, parents, and others throughout the Nation through such means as periodic regional forums;

      ‘(4) provide recommendations for the development, maintenance, and assurance of a strong infrastructure for education, research, and development in the United States; and

      ‘(5) on the basis of such recommendations, develop a research priorities program which shall recommend priorities for the investment of the resources of the Office over the next 5-, 10-, and 15-year periods, including as priorities those areas of inquiry in which further research, development and dissemination--

        ‘(A) is necessary to attain the goals for the improvement of education identified in paragraph (2);

        ‘(B) promises to yield the greatest practical benefits to teachers and other educators in terms of improving education; and

        ‘(C) will not be undertaken in sufficient scope or intensity by the other Federal and non-Federal entities engaged in education research and development.

    ‘(d) CONTENTS OF PLAN--

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The research and priorities plan described in subsection (c) shall, at a minimum--

        ‘(A) set forth specific objectives which can be expected to be achieved as a result of a Federal investment in the priorities set forth in the plan;

        ‘(B) include recommendations with respect to research and development on cross-cutting issues which should be carried out jointly by 2 or more of the research institutes; and

        ‘(C) include an evaluative summary of the educational research and development activities undertaken by the Federal government during the preceding 2 fiscal years which shall describe--

          ‘(i) what has been learned as a result of such activities;

          ‘(ii) how such new knowledge or understanding extends or otherwise relates to what had been previously known or understood;

          ‘(iii) the implications of such new knowledge or understanding for educational practice and school reform; and

          ‘(iv) any development, reform, and other assistance activities which have utilized such knowledge or understanding and the effects of such efforts.

      ‘(2) REPORT-

        ‘(A) Not later than 6 months after the first meeting of the Board and October 1 of every second year thereafter, the Assistant Secretary shall publish a report specifying the proposed research priorities of the Office and allow a 60-day period beginning on the date of the publication of the report for public comment and suggestions.

        ‘(B) Not later than 90 days after the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in subparagraph (A), the Assistant Secretary shall submit to the President and the Congress a report specifying the research priorities of the Office and any public comment and suggestions obtained under such subparagraph.

    ‘(e) ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BOARD- It shall also be the responsibility of the Board to--

      ‘(1) provide advice and assistance to the Assistant Secretary in carrying out the coordination activities described in section 405;

      ‘(2) make recommendations to the Assistant Secretary of persons qualified to fulfill the responsibilities of the Director for each research institute established by section 405B after making special efforts to identify qualified women and minorities and soliciting and giving due consideration to recommendations from professional associations and interested members of the public;

      ‘(3) advise and make recommendations to the President with respect to individuals who are qualified to fulfill the responsibilities of the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement; and

      ‘(4) review and approve standards for the conduct and evaluation of research developed by the Assistant Secretary pursuant to subsection (h) of section 405.

    ‘(f) STANDING SUBCOMMITTEES-

      ‘(1) ESTABLISHMENT; FUNCTIONS- The Board shall establish a standing subcommittee for each of the Institutes established by subsection (a) of section 405B and for the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination established by subsection (b) of section 405C which shall advise, assist, consult with and make recommendations to the Assistant Secretary, the Board, the Director of such entity and the Congress on matters related to the activities carried out by and through such entities.

      ‘(2) COMPOSITION-

        ‘(A) Each standing subcommittee shall consist of 3 members of the Board and 6 additional individuals appointed by the Board who have significant experience in and knowledge of the disciplines relevant to the purposes of the entity for which the subcommittee is established.

        ‘(B) The Board shall assure that the membership of each subcommittee includes both educational researchers and persons who are knowledgeable about the research, development and dissemination needs of practitioners, including classroom teachers, school administrators, and members of State or local boards of education.

    ‘(g) POWERS OF THE BOARD- In carrying out its functions, powers, and responsibilities, the Board--

      ‘(1) shall, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, relating to the appointment and compensation of officers or employees of the United States, appoint a director to be paid at a rate not to exceed the rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule who shall assist in carrying out and managing the activities of the Board and perform such other functions the Board determines to be necessary and appropriate;

      ‘(2) shall hire its own staff through routine government procedures;

      ‘(3) may arrange for the detail of staff personnel and utilize the services and facilities of any agency of the Federal Government;

      ‘(4) may enter into contracts, or make other arrangements as may be necessary to carry out its functions;

      ‘(5) may review any grant, contract, or cooperative agreement made or entered into by the Office;

      ‘(6) may, to the extent otherwise permitted by law, obtain directly from any department or agency of the United States such information as it deems necessary to carry out its responsibilities;

      ‘(7) may convene workshops and conferences, collect data, and establish subcommittees which may be composed of members of the Board and nonmember consultants (including employees of the Department) with expertise in the particular area addressed by such subcommittees; and

      ‘(8) shall establish such rules and procedures to govern its operations as it considers appropriate, to the extent otherwise permitted by law.

    ‘(h) MEMBERSHIP IN GENERAL-

      ‘(1) QUALIFICATIONS- The members of the Board shall be eminent persons who, by virtue of their training, experience, and background, are exceptionally qualified to appraise the educational research and development effort of the Nation and to establish policies and priorities to govern future Federal investment in educational research, development, and dissemination.

      ‘(2) BROAD REPRESENTATION- Due consideration shall be given to the gender, race, and ethnicity of appointees to assure that the Board is broadly representative of the diversity of the Nation.

      ‘(3) LIMITATION- A voting member of the Board may not serve on any other governing or advisory board within the Department of Education.

      ‘(4) CONFLICT OF INTEREST- A voting member of the Board shall be considered a special Government employee for the purposes of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978.

    ‘(i) SECRETARIAL APPOINTMENTS- The Board shall consist of 18 members appointed by the Secretary. Of the members of the Board--

      ‘(1) seven shall be appointed from among researchers in the field of education who have been nominated by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Education (giving due consideration to recommendations made by the American Educational Research Association), including persons who are among the leading authorities on early childhood education and the education of at-risk students;

      ‘(2) five shall be outstanding field-based professional educators;

      ‘(3) one shall be a Chief State School Officer;

      ‘(4) one shall be a local education agency school superintendent or principal;

      ‘(5) one shall be a member of a State or local board of education or Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded school board;

      ‘(6) one shall be a professional librarian, school library media specialist, library administrator, or library science educator;

      ‘(7) one shall be a parent with extensive experience in promoting parental involvement in education; and

      ‘(8) one shall be an individual from business and industry with significant experience in promoting private sector involvement in education.

    ‘(j) REQUIREMENTS FOR NOMINATIONS BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF EDUCATION-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- In making nominations for the members of the Board described in subsection (i)(1), the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Education--

        ‘(A) may not nominate any individual who is an elected officer or employee of such organizations; and

        ‘(B) shall each nominate not less than 5 individuals for each of the positions on the Board for which such organization has responsibility for making nominations.

      ‘(2) REQUEST FOR ADDITIONAL NOMINATIONS- In the event that the Secretary determines that none of the individuals nominated by the National Academy of Sciences or the National Academy of Education meets the qualifications for membership on the Board specified in subsection (i), the Secretary may request that such organization make additional nominations.

    ‘(k) NOMINATIONS FOR BOARD MEMBERSHIP- Prior to appointing any member of the Board, the Secretary shall actively solicit and give due consideration to recommendations of persons qualified for membership on the board from the National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, the National Parent-Teachers Association, the American Library Association, the American Association of School Administrators, the National Association of State Boards of Education, the National Indian School Board Association, the Association of Community Tribal Schools, the National Indian Education Association, and other education-related organizations and interested members of the public.

    ‘(l) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS- The ex officio, nonvoting members of the Board shall include the Assistant Secretary and may also include--

      ‘(1) the Director of Research for the Department of Defense;

      ‘(2) the Director of Research for the Department of Labor;

      ‘(3) the Director of the National Science Foundation;

      ‘(4) the Director of the National Institutes of Health;

      ‘(5) the chair of the National Endowment for the Arts;

      ‘(6) the chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities;

      ‘(7) the Librarian of Congress; and

      ‘(8) the Director of the Office of Indian Education Programs of the Department of the Interior.

    ‘(m) CHAIR- The Board shall select a Chair from among its appointed members who shall serve for a renewable term of 2 years.

    ‘(n) Terms of Office-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the term of office of each voting member of the Board shall be 5 years.

      ‘(2) Exceptions-

        ‘(A) Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring on the Board prior to the expiration of the term for which the predecessor of the individual was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of the term. A vacancy shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

        ‘(B) The terms of office of the members of the Board who first take office after the date of the enactment of the Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act shall, as designated by a random selection process at the time of appointment, be as follows:

          ‘(i) 2 years for each of 6 members of the Board.

          ‘(ii) 3 years for each of 6 members of the Board.

          ‘(iii) 5 years for each of 6 members of the Board.

      ‘(3) PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN CONSECUTIVE TERMS- An individual who has been a member of the Board for 10 consecutive years shall thereafter be ineligible for appointment during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the expiration of the 10th year.

    ‘(o) Meetings of Board-

      ‘(1) INITIAL MEETING- The Secretary shall ensure that the first meeting of the Board is held not later than May 15, 1994.

      ‘(2) SUBSEQUENT MEETINGS- The Board shall meet quarterly, at the call of the Chair, and when at least one-third of the members of the Board make a written request to meet.

      ‘(3) QUORUM- A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

      ‘(4) OPEN MEETINGS- The Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b) shall apply to meetings of the Board.’.

PART C--NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES

SEC. 231. ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT.

    Part A of the General Education Provisions Act, as amended by section 221 of this Act, is amended by inserting after section 405A the following new section:

‘NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES

    ‘SEC. 405B. (a) ESTABLISHMENT OF INSTITUTES- In order to fulfill the research and development purposes of the Office, and to carry out, in accordance with the standards established by the Board, a program of high-quality and rigorously evaluated research and development that is capable of improving Federal, State, Indian tribal, and local education policies and practices, there are established within the Office the following institutes:

      ‘(1) The National Institute for the Education of At-Risk Students.

      ‘(2) The National Institute for Innovation in Educational Governance, Finance, Policy-Making, and Management.

      ‘(3) The National Institute for Early Childhood Development and Education.

      ‘(4) The National Institute on Student Achievement.

      ‘(5) The National Institute on Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Education.

    ‘(b) DIRECTORS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each Institute established by subsection (a) shall be headed by a Director who shall be appointed by the Assistant Secretary from among persons who have significant experience and expertise in the disciplines relevant to the purposes of such Institute. Prior to making such appointment, the Assistant Secretary shall solicit and give due consideration to recommendations made by the Board of persons qualfied to fulfill the position.

      ‘(2) TERM OF OFFICE- The Director of each Institute shall serve for a renewable term of 3 years.

      ‘(3) REPORTING- Each Director shall report directly to the Assistant Secretary regarding the activities of the Institute and shall work with the other directors to promote research syntheses across the Institutes.

    ‘(c) AUTHORITIES AND DUTIES-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary is authorized to conduct research, development, demonstration, and evaluation activities to carry out the purposes for which such Institute was established--

        ‘(A) directly;

        ‘(B) through grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements with institutions of higher education, regional educational laboratories, public and private organizations, institutions, agencies, and individuals, which may include--

          ‘(i) grants to support research and development centers which are--

            ‘(I) awarded competitively for a period of not less than 6 and not more than 10 years;

            ‘(II) funded at not less than $2,000,000 annually in order to support a full range of basic research, applied research and dissemination activities, which may also include development activities; and

            ‘(III) established by institutions of higher education, by institutions of higher education in consortium with public agencies or private nonprofit organizations, or by interstate agencies established by compact which operate subsidiary bodies established to conduct postsecondary educational research and development;

          ‘(ii) public-private research partnerships established by a State or local education agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded school, or tribal department of education, in concert with a private organization and a team of educational researchers, for which the Federal share shall be limited to not more than 50 percent of the total costs of the project;

          ‘(iii) meritorious unsolicited proposals for educational research and related activities;

          ‘(iv) proposals that are specifically invited or requested by the Assistant Secretary, on a competitive basis; and

          ‘(v) dissertation grants, awarded for a period of not more than 2 years and in a total amount not to exceed $20,000 to graduate students in the sciences, humanities, and the arts to support research by such scholars in the field of education;

        ‘(C) through the provision of technical assistance; and

        ‘(D) through the award of fellowships to support graduate study in educational research by qualified African-American, Hispanic, American Indian and Alaska Native, and other individuals from groups which have been traditionally underrepresented in the field of educational research which shall--

          ‘(i) be awarded on the basis of merit for a period of 3 years; and

          ‘(ii) provide stipends to each fellow in an amount which shall be set at a level of support comparable to that provided by the National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowships, except that such amounts shall be adjusted as necessary so as not to exceed each fellow’s demonstrated level of need.

      ‘(2) SCOPE AND FOCUS OF ACTIVITIES- In carrying out the purposes for which each Institute is established, the Assistant Secretary shall--

        ‘(A) maintain an appropriate balance between applied and basic research;

        ‘(B) significantly expand the role of field-initiated research in meeting the Nation’s education research and development needs by reserving not less than 15 percent of the amounts available to each Institute in any fiscal year to support field-initiated research described in clauses (iii) through (v) of paragraph (1);

        ‘(C) provide for and maintain a stable foundation of long-term research and development on core issues and concerns conducted through university-based research and development centers by reserving not less than one-third of the amounts available to each Institute in any fiscal year to support such research and development centers;

        ‘(D) support and provide research information that leads to policy formation for State legislatures, State and local boards of education and other policy and governing bodies, to assist such entities in identifying and developing effective policies to promote student achievement and school improvement; and

        ‘(E) coordinate the Institute’s activities with the activities of the regional educational laboratories and with other educational service organizations in designing the Institute’s research agenda and projects in order to increase the responsiveness of such Institute to the needs of teachers and the educational field and to bring research findings directly into schools to ensure greatest access at the local level to the latest research developments.

      ‘(3) REQUIREMENTS REGARDING FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE- No grant, contract, or cooperative agreement may be made under this section unless--

        ‘(A) sufficient notice of the availability of, and opportunity to compete for, assistance has first been provided to potential applicants through notice published in the Federal Register or other appropriate means;

        ‘(B) it has been evaluated through peer review in accordance with the standards developed pursuant to subsection (h) of section 405;

        ‘(C) it will be evaluated in accordance with the standards developed pursuant to subsection (h) of section 405;

        ‘(D) in the case of a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement which exceeds $500,000 for a single fiscal year or $1,000,000 for more than one fiscal year, the Secretary has complied with the requirements of paragraph (4); and

        ‘(E) in the case of a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement to support a research and development center, all applications for such assistance have been evaluated by independent experts according to standards and criteria which include--

          ‘(i) whether applicants have assembled a critical mass of high quality researchers sufficient to achieve the mission of the center;

          ‘(ii) whether the proposed organizational structure and arrangements will facilitate achievement of the mission of the center;

          ‘(iii) whether there is a substantial staff commitment to the work of the center;

          ‘(iv) whether the directors and staff will devote adequate time to center activities; and

          ‘(v) review of the contributions of primary researchers (other than researchers at the proposed center) to evaluate the appropriateness of such primary researcher’s experiences and expertise in the context of the proposed center activities, and the adequacy of such primary researcher’s time commitment to achievement of the mission of the center.

      ‘(4) BOARD REVIEW OF CERTAIN PROPOSED GRANT AND CONTRACT ACTIONS- The Assistant Secretary may not solicit any contract bid or issue a request for proposals or applications for any grant or cooperative agreement the amount of which exceeds $500,000 in any single fiscal year or which exceeds an aggregate amount of $1,000,000 for more than one fiscal year unless the Board has had an opportunity to review such proposed grant, contract, or cooperative agreement action and to provide written comments to the Assistant Secretary with respect to whether--

        ‘(A) the purposes and scope of the proposed action are consistent with the Research Priorities Plan; and

        ‘(B) the methodology and approach of the proposed action are sound and adequate to achieve its stated objectives.

      ‘(5) HISTORICALLY UNDERUTILIZED RESEARCHERS AND INSTITUTIONS- The Assistant Secretary shall establish and maintain initiatives and programs to increase the participation in the activities of each Institute of groups of researchers and institutions that have been historically underutilized in Federal educational research activities, including--

        ‘(A) researchers who are women, African-American, Hispanic, American Indian and Alaska Native, or other ethnic minorities;

        ‘(B) promising young or new researchers in the field, such as postdoctoral students and recently appointed assistant or associate professors;

        ‘(C) historically black colleges and universities, tribally controlled community colleges, and other institutions of higher education with large numbers of minority students;

        ‘(D) institutions of higher education located in rural areas; and

        ‘(E) institutions and researchers located in States and regions of the Nation which have historically received the least Federal support for educational research and development.

      ‘(6) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITIES- The Assistant Secretary--

        ‘(A) may obtain (in accordance with section 3109 of title 5 but without regard to the limitation in such section on the period of service) the services of experts or consultants with scientific or professional qualifications in the disciplines relevant to the purposes of such Institute;

        ‘(B) may use, with their consent, the services, equipment, personnel, information, and facilities of other Federal, State, or local public agencies, with or without reimbursement therefor;

        ‘(C) may accept voluntary and uncompensated services; and

        ‘(D) may accept unconditional gifts made to the Office to support its activities.

    ‘(d) NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF AT-RISK STUDENTS-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) The rate of decline in our urban schools is escalating at a rapid pace. Student performance in most inner city schools grows worse each year. At least half of all students entering ninth grade fail to graduate 4 years later and many more students from high-poverty backgrounds leave school with skills that are inadequate for today’s workplace. In 1988 the average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading score of white 17 year-olds was approximately 20 points higher than that of African-American 17 year-olds and 25 points higher than that of Hispanic 17 year-olds. None of the existing Federal educational research and development programs are adequately addressing this obvious emergency.

        ‘(B) Rural schools enroll a disproportionately large share of the Nation’s poor and at-risk students and yet often lack the means to address effectively the needs of these children. Intensive efforts must be made to overcome the problems of geographic isolation, declining population, inadequate financial resources and other impediments to the educational success of children residing in rural areas.

        ‘(C) By the year 2000, an estimated 3.4 million school age children with limited English language proficiency will be entering the school system. The Federal Government must develop effective policies and programs to address the educational needs of this growing population of children who are at increased risk for educational failure.

        ‘(D) An educational emergency exists in those urban and rural areas where there are large concentrations of children who live in poverty. The numbers of educationally disadvantaged children will substantially increase by the year 2020, when the number of impoverished children alone will be 16.5 million, a 33 percent increase over the 12.4 million children in poverty in 1987.

        ‘(E) American Indian and Alaska Native students are keenly at-risk of educational failure, with demonstrated high dropout, illiteracy and poverty rates, and cultural, linguistic, social and geographic isolation. The estimated 400,000 Indian and Alaska Native student population from over 500 Indian and Alaska Native tribes, is small and scattered throughout remote reservations and villages in 32 States, and in off-reservation rural and urban communities where Indians constitute but a small percentage of public school student bodies. To meaningfully address the special educational needs of this historically under-served population, the existing research and development system must be opened to Indian and Alaska Native people to identify needs and design ways to address such needs.

        ‘(F) Minority scholars as well as institutions and groups that have been historically committed to the improvement of the education of at-risk students need to be more fully mobilized in the effort to develop a new generation of programs, models, practices, and schools capable of responding to the urgent needs of students who are educationally at-risk.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- It shall be the purpose of the Institute for the Education of At-Risk Students to carry out a coordinated and comprehensive program of research and development to provide nonpartisan, research-based leadership to the Nation as it seeks to improve educational opportunities for students who are at-risk for educational failure, particularly children who reside in inner city and rural areas, and on Indian reservations, and children of limited English proficiency. Such program shall--

        ‘(A) undertake research necessary to provide a sound basis from which to identify, develop, evaluate, and assist others to replicate and adapt interventions, programs, and models which promote greater achievement and educational success by at-risk students, such as--

          ‘(i) methods of instruction and educational practices (including community services) which improve the achievement and retention of at-risk students;

          ‘(ii) means by which parents and community resources and institutions (including cultural institutions) can be utilized to support and improve the achievement of at-risk students;

          ‘(iii) the training of teachers and other educational professionals and paraprofessionals to work more effectively with at-risk students;

          ‘(iv) the most effective uses of technology in the education of at-risk students;

          ‘(v) programs designed to promote gender equity in schools that serve at-risk students; and

          ‘(vi) methods of assessing the achievement of students which are sensitive to cultural differences, provide multiple methods of assessing student learning, support student acquisition of higher order capabilities, and enable identification of the effects of inequalities in the resources available to support the learning of children throughout the Nation; and

        ‘(B) maximize the participation of those schools and institutions of higher education that serve the greatest number of at-risk students in inner city and rural areas, and on Indian reservations, including model collaborative programs between schools and school systems, institutions of higher education, cultural institutions, and community organizations.

      ‘(3) COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM- The Institute shall support a diverse and comprehensive program of research and development which shall include research related to the educational needs of--

        ‘(A) at-risk students who reside in urban areas;

        ‘(B) at-risk students who reside in rural areas;

        ‘(C) children with limited English language proficiency; and

        ‘(D) Indian and Alaska Native students.

      ‘(4) CONSULTATION WITH INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE EDUCATORS- All research and development activities supported by the Institute which relate to the education of Indian and Alaska Native students shall be developed in close consultation with Indian and Alaska Native researchers and educators, tribally controlled community colleges, tribal departments of education, and others with expertise in the needs of Indian and Native Alaska students.

    ‘(e) NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR INNOVATION IN EDUCATIONAL GOVERNANCE, FINANCE, POLICY-MAKING, AND MANAGEMENT-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) Many elementary and secondary schools in the United States--

          ‘(i) are structured according to models that are ineffective and rely on notions of management and governance that may be outdated or insufficient for the challenges of the next century; and

          ‘(ii) are unsuccessful in equipping all students with the knowledge and skills needed to succeed as citizens and in the working world.

        ‘(B) New approaches are needed in the governance and management of elementary and secondary education with the United States at the State, local, school building and classroom level.

        ‘(C) Not enough is known about the effects of various systems of school governance and management on student achievement to provide sound guidance to policymakers as they pursue school restructuring and reform.

        ‘(D) A concentrated Federal effort is needed to support research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of approaches to school governance, finance and management which promise to improve education equity and excellence throughout the Nation.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- It shall be the purpose of the National Institute on Innovation in Educational Governance, Finance, Policy-Making, and Management to carry out a coordinated and comprehensive program of research and development to provide nonpartisan, research-based leadership to the Nation as it seeks to improve student achievement through school restructuring and reform. Such program shall--

        ‘(A) undertake research necessary to provide a sound basis from which to identify, develop and evaluate approaches in governance, finance, policy-making, and management at the State, local, tribal, school building and classroom level which promise to improve educational equity and excellence, such as--

          ‘(i) open enrollment programs, magnet schools and other systems through which parents may select the public schools and educational programs in which their children are enrolled;

          ‘(ii) innovative school design, including lengthening the school day and the school year, reducing class size and building professional development into the weekly school schedule;

          ‘(iii) effective approaches to organizing learning;

          ‘(iv) effective ways of grouping students for learning so that a student is not labeled or stigmatized in ways that may impede such student’s achievement;

          ‘(v) effective approaches to organizing, structuring, and financing vocational education;

          ‘(vi) the provision of financial and other rewards and incentives based on performance to improve student achievement;

          ‘(vii) the use of regulatory flexibility on the State or district level to promote innovation and school restructuring;

          ‘(viii) school-based management;

          ‘(ix) the restructuring of school finance systems at the State and local level to promote greater equity in the distribution of resources for education and to maximize the allocation of such resources to support direct learning;

          ‘(x) expanding the role of teachers in policymaking and administration at the school and district-wide level;

          ‘(xi) programs designed to increase the involvement of parents and families in the management and governance of schools and the education of their children;

          ‘(xii) effective approaches to increasing the representation of women and minorities among leadership and management positions in education;

          ‘(xiii) approaches to systemic reforms involving the coordination of multiple policies of each level of government to promote higher levels of student achievement;

          ‘(xiv) approaches to coordinated services for children; and

          ‘(xv) policies related to school to work transitions and preparing noncollege-bound students; and

        ‘(B) undertake research and development activities necessary to provide information on the skills required for successful educational leadership at the State, tribal, and local level and to enhance the ability of school leaders and administrators to improve the educational environment for all students.

      ‘(3) RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL CHOICE- In carrying out the duties of the Institute, the Assistant Secretary shall conduct or support research on whether and to what extent the quality of education in the United States would be improved by providing public funds to parents for the costs of attendance of their children at the elementary and secondary schools of the parents’ choice.

    ‘(f) NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) The Nation has set as a goal that all children should arrive at school ready to learn.

        ‘(B) Despite efforts to expand and improve preschool programs, many children still reach school age unprepared to benefit from formal education programs.

        ‘(C) Early intervention for disadvantaged children from conception to age five has been shown to be a highly cost-effective strategy for reducing later expenditures on a wide variety of health, developmental, and educational problems that often interfere with learning. Long-term studies of the benefits of preschool education have a demonstrated return on investment ranging from three to six dollars for every one dollar spent.

        ‘(D) The Federal government should play a central role in providing research-based information on early childhood education models which enhance children’s development and ultimately their success in school.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- The purpose of the National Institute for Early Childhood Development and Education is to carry out a comprehensive program of research and development to provide nonpartisan, research-based leadership to the Nation as it seeks to improve early childhood development and education. Such program shall identify, develop, evaluate, and assist others to replicate sound policies and practices that may include--

        ‘(A) social and educational development of all infants, toddlers, and preschool children;

        ‘(B) the role of parents and the community in promoting the successful social and educational development of children from birth to age five;

        ‘(C) training and preparation of teachers and other professional and paraprofessional preschool and child care workers;

        ‘(D) the structure and environment of early childhood education and child care settings which lead to improved social and educational development;

        ‘(E) practices and approaches which sustain the benefits of effective preschool and child care programs;

        ‘(F) effective learning methods and curriculum for early childhood learning, including access to current materials in libraries;

        ‘(G) the importance of family literacy and parental involvement in student learning;

        ‘(H) the impact that outside influences have on learning, including television, and drug and alcohol abuse; and

        ‘(I) methods for integrating learning in settings other than the classroom, such as within families and communities, with a special emphasis on character development and the value of hard work.

      ‘(3) CERTAIN REQUIREMENTS- In carrying out the activities of the Institute, the Assistant Secretary shall--

        ‘(A) place special emphasis on the special early childhood education needs of at-risk children, children with disabilities, and girls; and

        ‘(B) ensure that its research and development program provides information that can be utilized in improving the major Federal early childhood education programs, including Head Start, Even Start, chapter 1 preschool programs, and part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and Bureau of Indian Affairs early childhood development programs.

    ‘(g) NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) The current achievement levels of students in the Nation are far below those that might indicate competency in challenging subject matter in English, mathematics, science, history, and geography and other areas, or across the subject areas.

        ‘(B) Very few students demonstrate that they can use their minds well. In recent assessments, more students are gaining basic skills, yet fewer are demonstrating a grasp of higher-level applications of those skills.

        ‘(C) During the past 20 years, relatively little has changed in how students are taught. Despite much research suggesting better alternatives, classrooms are still dominated by textbooks, teacher lectures, and short-answer activity sheets and unequal patterns of student attention.

        ‘(D) Despite progress in narrowing the gaps, the differences in performance between white students and their minority counterparts remain unacceptably large. While progress has been made in reducing the gender gap in mathematics, it still remains at higher levels of problem solving. Too little progress has been made in reducing gender performance gaps favoring males in science and females in writing.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- The purpose of the National Institute on Student Achievement is to carry out a coordinated and comprehensive program of research and development to provide research-based leadership to the Nation as it seeks to improve student achievement in English, mathematics, science, history, geography, and other subject areas and across the boundaries of the subject areas. Such program shall--

        ‘(A) identify, develop, and evaluate innovative and exemplary methods to improve student knowledge at all levels in English, mathematics, science, history, geography, civics and government, foreign languages, arts and humanities, economics, and other subject areas, such as--

          ‘(i) student learning and assessment in various subject matters;

          ‘(ii) the effects of organizational patterns on the delivery of instruction, including issues of grouping and tracking, ungraded classrooms, and on the effects of various pedagogies, including the issues of technology in education;

          ‘(iii) the best methods of teacher preparation;

          ‘(iv) methods to improve the process of reading, the craft of writing, the growth of reasoning skills, and the development of information-finding skills;

          ‘(v) enabling students to develop higher order thinking skills;

          ‘(vi) methods to teach effectively all students in mixed-ability classrooms;

          ‘(vii) curriculum, instruction, and assessment, in vocational education;

          ‘(viii) the impact and effectiveness of Federal, State, and local efforts to provide gender-fair educational opportunities to elementary and secondary students; and

          ‘(ix) programs, policies, approaches which promote gender equity in elementary and secondary education;

        ‘(B) conduct basic and applied research in the areas of human learning, cognition, and performance, including research and development on the education contexts which promote excellence in learning and instruction, and motivational issues which provide a key to learning;

        ‘(C) identify, develop, and evaluate programs designed to enhance academic achievement and narrow racial and gender performance gaps in a variety of subject areas, including research and development on methods of involving parents in their children’s education and ways to involve business, industry and other community partners in promoting excellence in schools; and

        ‘(D) include a comprehensive, coordinated program of research and development in the area of assessment which--

          ‘(i) addresses such issues as--

            ‘(I) the validity, reliability, generalizability, fairness, costs, relative merits, and most appropriate uses of various approaches and methods of assessing student learning and achievement;

            ‘(II) methods and approaches to assessing student opportunities to learn (including the quality of instruction and the availability of resources necessary to support learning) and evaluating the quality of school environment;

            ‘(III) the design, development, evaluation, and validation of model performance-based and other alternative or innovative formats or uses of assessments;

            ‘(IV) the impact of high-stakes uses of assessment on student performance and motivation, narrowing of curriculum, teaching practices, and test integrity;

            ‘(V) the fairness and impact of various methods of assessment on children of different races, ethnicities, gender, socioeconomic status, English language proficiencies, and children with other special needs;

            ‘(VI) standards of performance, quality, and validity for various methods of assessment and the means by which such standards should be developed;

            ‘(VII) current and emerging testing practices of State and local education agencies within the United States, as well as other nations;

            ‘(VIII) the diverse effects, both intended and unintended, of assessments as actually used in the schools, including effects on curriculum and instruction, effects on equity in the allocation of resources and opportunities, effects on equity of outcomes, effects on other procedures and standards for judging students and practitioners and possible inflation of test scores;

            ‘(IX) identifying and evaluating how students with limited English language proficiency and students with disabilities are included and accommodated in the various assessment programs of State and local education agencies; and

            ‘(X) the feasibility and validity of comparing or equating the results of different assessments;

          ‘(ii) reflects recommendations made by the National Education Goals Panel (provided such panel has been authorized by law);

          ‘(iii) complies with the ‘Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests’ developed by the American Psychological Association, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the American Educational Research Association;

          ‘(iv) is consistent with the ‘Criteria for Evaluation of Student Assessment Systems’ developed by the National Forum on Assessment; and

          ‘(v) complies with the ‘Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education’ developed by the Joint Committee on Testing Practices.

      For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘development’ means the development of prototypes for the purposes of research and evaluation.

    ‘(h) NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, LIBRARIES, AND LIFELONG LEARNING-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) The American system of postsecondary education is foremost in the world in its achievement of both academic excellence and equity in access, but maintaining that preeminence requires renewed efforts to strengthen the quality of postsecondary education. Disappointing student performance on achievement tests and licensure examinations, declining rates of persistence and completion among minorities, and other troubling trends in the quality of postsecondary education must be addressed by the Nation as part of its overall drive to improve American education.

        ‘(B) The need to improve our Nation’s economic productivity to meet the competitive challenges of a new, international economy, coupled with high levels of mobility in the United States labor market and demographic changes in the workforce, now demands more and higher quality programs of learning and training in the American workplace.

        ‘(C) The more than 1,000,000 men and women incarcerated in the Nation’s prisons and jails are among the most severely educationally disadvantaged in the United States, with high rates of functional illiteracy and extremely low levels of educational attainment. Since an estimated 90 percent of these individuals are expected to be released by the end of the decade, the Nation must act to assure that our correctional system has the means to equip these Americans with the knowledge and skills they will need to participate productively in our society.

        ‘(D) The development of a ‘Nation of Students’ capable of and committed to the pursuit of formal and informal lifelong learning is essential to sustain both national and individual economic success and to provide a nurturing environment in which all children and youth can learn and achieve. Historically the most effective community resource for lifelong learning, the Nation’s public library system must expand and restructure its delivery of services to take full advantage of the potential of new information technologies to meet the needs of learning communities.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- The purpose of the National Institute for Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Learning is to promote greater coordination of Federal research and development on issues related to adult learning and to carry out a program of research and development in adult learning to provide nonpartisan, research-based leadership to the Nation as it seeks to improve libraries, postsecondary education, and lifelong learning throughout the United States. Such program--

        ‘(A) shall promote greater coordination, cooperation, and interaction among entities within the Federal Government which support research and development related to postsecondary education, libraries, and lifelong learning;

        ‘(B) shall enable greater collaboration among entities within the Federal Government which support research and development related to postsecondary education, libraries, and lifelong learning by supporting research and development projects which are carried out jointly by such entities;

        ‘(C) shall support research and development in those areas of postsecondary education, libraries, and lifelong learning which are not being addressed sufficiently by other entities within the Federal Government;

        ‘(D) may include basic and applied research, development, replication, and evaluation activities in such areas as--

          ‘(i) methods of assessing and evaluating individual, program, and institutional performance;

          ‘(ii) the uses and applications of new technologies to improve program effectiveness and enhance student learning;

          ‘(iii) practices, policies, and programs which address the unique needs of adult learners, including--

            ‘(I) institutional and classroom policies and practices at the postsecondary level necessary to improve matriculation, persistence, achievement and graduation by students who are economically disadvantaged, ethnic and racial minorities, women, older, working, and who have children;

            ‘(II) instructional practices and programs which are effective in correctional settings;

            ‘(III) new models of service delivery for public library systems which expand opportunities for lifelong learning;

            ‘(IV) effective programs and approaches which promote greater access to and success by minorities in postsecondary programs which prepare them for scientific, technical, teaching, and health career fields;

            ‘(V) effective approaches to work-based learning; and

            ‘(VI) the most effective training methods for adults to upgrade education and vocational skills;

          ‘(iv) the effectiveness of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tribally-Controlled Indian Community Colleges, women’s colleges, and other special mission institutions in fulfilling their mission of providing access and equal opportunity in higher education;

          ‘(v) the quality of higher education at all levels and the roles and responsibilities of regional and national accrediting agencies in assuring the quality and relevance of academic goals and objectives established by institutions of higher education;

          ‘(vi) approaches to improving the productivity of colleges, community colleges, universities, and other postsecondary institutions;

          ‘(vii) financial barriers to postsecondary educational opportunity, including--

            ‘(I) the role of Federal programs authorized under title IV of the Higher Education Act and State grant and work programs in mitigating such barriers;

            ‘(II) the impact of the rising total cost of postsecondary education on access to higher education; and

            ‘(III) the extent and impact of student reliance on loans to meet the costs of higher education;

          ‘(viii) opportunities for adults to continue their education beyond higher education and graduate school, in the context of lifelong learning and information-finding skills; and

          ‘(ix) preparing students for a lifetime of work, the ability to adapt through retraining to the changing needs of the work force and the ability to learn new tasks.

      ‘(3) INVOLVEMENT OF CERTAIN AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS- In promoting coordination and collaboration on research and development on issues related to postsecondary education, libraries, and lifelong learning, the Institute shall, as appropriate, seek the involvement of--

        ‘(A) within the Department of Education--

          ‘(i) the Office of Library Programs;

          ‘(ii) the Office of Correctional Education;

          ‘(iii) the Office of Vocational and Adult Education;

          ‘(iv) the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research; and

          ‘(v) the Office of Postsecondary Education;

        ‘(B) the National Institute for Literacy;

        ‘(C) the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards;

        ‘(D) the Employment and Training Administration of the Department of Labor;

        ‘(E) the Administration for Children and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services;

        ‘(F) the National Institutes of Health;

        ‘(G) the National Endowment for Humanities;

        ‘(H) the National Endowment for the Arts;

        ‘(I) the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice;

        ‘(J) the Department of Commerce;

        ‘(K) the Department of Defense; and

        ‘(L) the Office of Indian Education Programs of the Department of the Interior.

      ‘(4) In addition to the responsibilities described in paragraph (2), the Assistant Secretary shall ensure that the activities of the existing National Center on Literacy are fully coordinated with those of the National Institute for Literacy.

    ‘(i) COORDINATION OF RESEARCH ON CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES- The Assistant Secretary shall promote the coordination of research and development activities among the Institutes established by subsection (a) to investigate those cross-cutting disciplines and areas of inquiry, such as assessment, the use of technology and the training of teachers and school administrators, which are relevant to the missions of more than one of the Institutes. Such activities shall--

      ‘(1) address cross-cutting disciplines and areas of inquiry which have been proposed by the Assistant Secretary and are consistent with the research priorities identified by the Board;

      ‘(2) be carried out jointly (1) by any one of the Institutes and--

        ‘(A) one (or more) of the Institutes;

        ‘(B) the National Center for Education Statistics; or

        ‘(C) any research and development entity administered by other offices of the Department of Education or by any other Federal agency or Department; and

      ‘(3) meet all the standards set by the Assistant Secretary and the Board for other research and development conducted by the Office.

    ‘(j) PROGRAM ON TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary, in accordance with the requirements of this subsection, shall undertake a comprehensive, coordinated program of research in the area of teaching, teacher education, and professional development.

      ‘(2) CERTAIN PURPOSES OF PROGRAM- In carrying out the program established under paragraph (1), the Assistant Secretary shall conduct, directly or through grants and contracts, basic and applied research and analytical activities to further knowledge about, make recommendations, and improve--

        ‘(A) the ability of classroom teachers and schools to assist new and diverse populations of students in successfully assimilating into the classroom environment;

        ‘(B) the working conditions of teachers and other educational practitioners, which may include such topics as--

          ‘(i) teacher isolation;

          ‘(ii) professional resources available to teachers;

          ‘(iii) continuing educational and professional opportunities available to teachers;

          ‘(iv) physical facilities and equipment, such as office space, telephone, computer access, and fax machines and television cable access available to teachers in the work environment;

          ‘(v) opportunities for teachers to share information and resources with other teachers and education professionals;

          ‘(vi) opportunities for advanced learning experience; and

          ‘(vii) the reduction of stress in the teaching profession;

        ‘(C) institutional program renewal and instruction;

        ‘(D) restructuring of State certification of teachers and teacher education standards; and

        ‘(E) assisting in the development of teacher certification standards by Indian tribal departments of education.

      ‘(3) CERTAIN ACTIVITIES- In carrying out the program established under paragraph (1), the Assistant Secretary--

        ‘(A) shall work with institutions of higher education engaged in the preparation of teachers and professional organizations of teacher educators and practitioners to encourage institutional program renewal and restructuring;

        ‘(B) may conduct, directly or through grants and contracts research on--

          ‘(i) effective and reflective teaching for the preparation and continuing education of teachers;

          ‘(ii) the use of computing and multi-made technology to advance the understanding and abilities of teacher educators and classroom teachers;

          ‘(iii) the development and appraisal of curriculum and curriculum materials for the initial and continuing education of teachers and teacher educators; and

          ‘(iv) strengthening the evaluation and dissemination of information on programs for continuing professional education and renewal of those who educate teachers for initial or advanced licensure or certification; and

        ‘(C) shall work with the national regional education laboratories, the ERIC clearinghouses, national education research library, and the National Center for Education Statistics to maximize information available, to prevent unnecessary duplication of efforts and resources, and to ensure the results of the centers work are widely available.

    ‘(k) RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY- The Assistant Secretary shall undertake a comprehensive, coordinated program of research and development in the area of the uses and applications of technology in education. Such program--

      ‘(1) may support basic and applied research and development, analysis, evaluation in the area of the uses and applications of technology to education, including--

        ‘(A) the capabilities of current and emerging technologies and their possible uses in education;

        ‘(B) the uses and applications of technology--

          ‘(i) to improve instruction within all content areas in the school curriculum;

          ‘(ii) to educate more effectively at-risk students and other students with special needs;

          ‘(iii) to improve education in rural communities and other remote areas;

          ‘(iv) to improve the assessment of student learning and achievement;

          ‘(v) to deliver preservice and inservice training for teachers, librarians, and school administrators; and

          ‘(vi) to deliver and improve professional development and continuing education programs;

        ‘(C) the cost and educational effectiveness of technologies used in education;

        ‘(D) effective models and approaches for providing the preservice and inservice training and technical assistance necessary to enable teachers, librarians, and school administrators, cultural organizations, and others to use technology effectively in education;

        ‘(E) the identification of barriers to greater use of technologies in education and potential approaches to eradicating or mitigating such barriers;

        ‘(F) methods and approaches which can be utilized by teachers, school administrators, and education policymakers, and educational programs in cultural institutions to evaluate the quality and most appropriate uses of software and other technologies designed for use in education; and

        ‘(G) approaches to organizing and managing schools and classrooms to make the most effective use of technology in education; and

      ‘(2) shall be coordinated with related research and development activities undertaken by the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies.

    ‘(l) TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS-

      ‘(1) TEMPORARY REORGANIZATIONS- Upon the enactment of the Educational Research, Development and Dissemination Excellence Act, the Secretary shall reorganize the research and development functions and activities of the Office into administrative units the purposes of which shall be the same as those for each of the national research institutes established in subsection (a). Such administrative units shall be responsible for planning and providing for the establishment of such institutes and shall cease to exist on the dates upon which each of the relevant institutes is established. The provisions of subsection (c) (relating to authorities and duties) shall apply to all activities undertaken by each such administrative unit.

      ‘(2) DATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF INSTITUTES- The National Institute for the Education of At-Risk Students, the National Institute for Innovation in Educational Governance, Finance, Policy-Making, and Management, the National Institute for Early Childhood Development and Education, the National Institute on Student Achievement, and the National Institute on Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Learning shall each be established effective October 1, 1994.’.

PART D--NATIONAL EDUCATION DISSEMINATION SYSTEM

SEC. 241. ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT.

    Part A of the General Education Provisions Act, as amended by section 231 of this Act, is amended by inserting after section 405B the following new section:

‘NATIONAL EDUCATION DISSEMINATION SYSTEM

    ‘SEC. 405C. (a) IN GENERAL-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds as follows:

        ‘(A) In order to improve the American educational system for all students, achieve the national education goals, and provide for greater educational equity, policymakers, administrators, teachers, and parents must have ready access to the best information and methods available as a result of educational research and development.

        ‘(B) The Office of Educational Research and Improvement should have as one of its primary purposes the dissemination of such information and methods in order to assist the national education reform effort.

        ‘(C) All current resources within the Office, the Department, and other agencies that can help accomplish this goal should be coordinated by the Assistant Secretary so as to form a systematic process to accomplish these objectives.

        ‘(D) Education research has the capacity to improve teaching and learning in our Nation’s schools, however, teachers need training in the developmental skills necessary to translate research into practice and to allow them to become a cadre of knowledgeable practitioners and leaders in educational improvement.

        ‘(E) Adequate linkages between research and development providers and practitioners are essential to ensuring that research on effective practice is useful, disseminated and supported with technical assistance to all educators, and that all educators are partners in the research and development process.

      ‘(2) PURPOSE- The purpose of this section is to--

        ‘(A) create a national system of dissemination, development, and educational improvement in order to create, adapt, identify, validate, and disseminate to educators, parents, and policymakers those educational programs that have potential or have been shown to improve educational opportunities for all students; and

        ‘(B) empower and increase the capacity of teachers to participate in the research and development process.

      ‘(3) DEFINITION OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM- For the purposes of this section, the term ‘educational program’ includes educational policies, research findings, practices, and products.

    ‘(b) ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICE-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- There is established within the Office an Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination (in this section referred to as the ‘Dissemination Office’) through which the Secretary shall carry out all functions and activities described in this section.

      ‘(2) CERTAIN DUTIES- The Dissemination Office shall--

        ‘(A) identify educational programs that may merit being designated as exemplary or promising educational programs;

        ‘(B) based solely on the educational merits and promise of such programs, select those to be designated as exemplary or promising;

        ‘(C) provide technical and financial assistance to individuals and organizations in the process of developing promising educational programs in the priority areas identified in section 405(b)(3), but who might not, without such assistance, be able to complete necessary development and assessment activities;

        ‘(D) nationally disseminate information regarding the exemplary and promising programs to educators, parents, and policymakers through a variety of means, including existing Department activities, education associations and networks, and communication technologies;

        ‘(E) provide training and technical assistance regarding the implementation and adoption of such exemplary and promising programs by interested entities; and

        ‘(F) carry out a program of research on models for successful knowledge dissemination, and utilization, and strategies for reaching education policymakers, practitioners, and others interested in education.

      ‘(3) ADDITIONAL DUTIES- The Dissemination Office shall carry out and contain the following functions and activities:

        ‘(A) A process for the identification of educational programs that work.

        ‘(B) The educational resources information clearinghouses.

        ‘(C) Dissemination through new technologies.

        ‘(D) Smartline.

        ‘(E) The regional educational laboratories.

        ‘(F) Teacher Research Dissemination Network.

        ‘(G) The Goals 2000 Community Partnerships Program.

        ‘(H) The existing National Diffusion Network and its Developer-Demonstrator and State Facilitator projects.

        ‘(I) Such other programs or entities the Secretary determines are consistent with the purposes for which the Dissemination Office is established.

    ‘(c) IDENTIFICATION OF PROGRAMS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary shall establish a process through which successful educational programs are actively sought out for possible dissemination through the national educational dissemination system. Such process shall, at a minimum, have the capability to--

        ‘(A) work closely with the research institutes, centers, regional educational laboratories, the National Diffusion Network and its Developer-Demonstrator and State Facilitator projects, learning grant institutions established under the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships Program, department-supported technical assistance providers, and other entities to identify successful educational programs at the regional, State, local, or classroom level;

        ‘(B) review successful educational programs supported by the Department through all of its programs, including Chapter 1, Even Start, Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986, the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, Bilingual Education, Indian Education, the Women’s Educational Equity Act, and Adult and Vocational Education;

        ‘(C) through cooperative agreements, review for possible inclusion in the system educational programs administered by the Departments of Health and Human Services (particularly the Head Start program), Labor and Defense, the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Interior (particularly the Office of Indian Education Programs), and any other appropriate Federal agency; and

        ‘(D) provide for an active outreach effort to identify successful educational programs through cooperative arrangements with State and local education agencies, teachers and teacher organizations, curriculum associations, foundations, private schools, institutions of higher education, and other entities that could enhance the ability of the Secretary to identify programs for possible inclusion in the dissemination system.

      ‘(2) PRIORITY PROGRAMS- In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall place a priority on identifying programs, products, and practices related to the priority research and development needs identified in section 405(b)(3).

    ‘(d) DESIGNATION OF EXEMPLARY AND PROMISING PROGRAMS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary, in consultation with the Board, shall establish 1 or more panels of appropriately qualified experts and practitioners to--

        ‘(A) evaluate educational programs that have been identified by the Secretary under subsection (c) or that have been submitted to the Secretary for such evaluation by some other individual or organization; and

        ‘(B) recommend to the Secretary programs that should be designated as exemplary or promising educational programs.

      ‘(2) CONSIDERATIONS IN MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS- In determining whether an educational program should receive a recommendation under paragraph (1), a panel established under such paragraph shall consider--

        ‘(A) whether, based on empirical data, which may include but shall not be limited to test results, the program is effective and should thus be designated as exemplary and disseminated through the national dissemination system; or

        ‘(B) whether there is sufficient evidence to lead a panel of experts and practitioners to believe that the program shows promise for improving student achievement and should thus be designated as promising and disseminated through the national dissemination system while it continues to be evaluated.

      ‘(3) REQUIREMENT REGARDING APPROVAL OF PROGRAMS- In seeking out programs for approval under paragraph (2), the Assistant Secretary shall seek programs that may be implemented at the State, local, and classroom level.

      ‘(4) REQUIREMENTS REGARDING PANELS-

        ‘(A) A panel shall not eliminate a program from consideration under this subsection based solely on the fact that it does not have one specific type of supporting data, such as test scores.

        ‘(B) The Assistant Secretary may not designate a program as exemplary or promising unless a panel established under paragraph (1) has recommended that the program be so designated.

        ‘(C) The Secretary shall establish such panels under paragraph (1) as may be necessary to ensure that each program identified or submitted for evaluation is evaluated.

        ‘(D) Not less than 2/3 of the membership of a panel established under paragraph (1) shall consist of individuals who are not officers or employees of the United States. Members of panels under paragraph (1) who are not employees of the United States shall receive compensation for each day engaged in carrying out the duties of the panel as well as compensation for their expenses.

    ‘(e) DISSEMINATION OF EXEMPLARY AND PROMISING PROGRAMS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- In order to ensure that programs identified as exemplary or promising are available for adoption by the greatest number of teachers, schools, local and State education agencies, and Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded schools, the Assistant Secretary shall utilize the capabilities of--

        ‘(A) the education resources information clearinghouses;

        ‘(B) Smartline;

        ‘(C) the regional educational laboratories;

        ‘(D) the National Diffusion Network;

        ‘(E) entities established under the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships Program;

        ‘(F) department-supported technical assistance providers;

        ‘(G) the National Library of Education; and

        ‘(H) other public and private nonprofit entities, including existing education associations and networks, that have the capability to assist educators in adopting exemplary and promising programs.

      ‘(2) REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSISTANT SECRETARY- In carrying out paragraph (1), the Assistant Secretary shall ensure that all such entities are--

        ‘(A) kept apprised of the availability of specific programs for dissemination;

        ‘(B) provided technical assistance, if necessary, to carry out this dissemination function; and

        ‘(C) involved in the national education dissemination system as specified by law.

    ‘(f) EDUCATION RESOURCES INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSES-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary shall establish a system of 16 education resource information clearinghouses having, at a minimum, the functions and scope of work as the clearinghouses had on the date of the enactment of the Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act.

      ‘(2) ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS- In addition to those functions already being carried out by the clearinghouses, such clearinghouses may--

        ‘(A) periodically produce interpretive summaries, digests, and syntheses of the results and findings of education-related research and development; and

        ‘(B) contain and make available to users information concerning those programs designated as exemplary and promising under subsection (c).

      ‘(3) COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES- The Assistant Secretary shall assure that the functions and activities of such clearinghouses are coordinated with the activities of the research institutes, the regional educational laboratories, learning grant institutions, other clearinghouses supported by the Department, the National Diffusion Network, and other appropriate entities within the Office and the Department.

      ‘(4) SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SECRETARY- To assure that the information provided through such clearinghouses is fully comprehensive, the Secretary shall--

        ‘(A) require that all reports, studies, and other resources produced directly or by grant or contract with the Department of Education are made available to clearinghouses;

        ‘(B) establish cooperative agreements with the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services, Interior, and other Federal agencies to assure that all education-related reports, studies, and other resources produced directly or by grant or contract with the Federal Government are made available to such clearinghouses; and

        ‘(C) devise an effective system for maximizing the identification, synthesis, and dissemination of information related to the needs of Indian and Alaska Native children.

      ‘(5) COPYRIGHT PROHIBITED-

        ‘(A) No clearinghouse or other entity receiving assistance under this subsection may copyright or otherwise charge a royalty or other fee that--

          ‘(i) is for the use or redissemination of any database, index, abstract, report, or other information produced with assistance under this subsection; and

          ‘(ii) exceeds the incremental cost of disseminating such information.

        ‘(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the incremental cost of dissemination does not include any portion of the cost of collecting, organizing, or processing the information which is disseminated.

    ‘(g) DISSEMINATION THROUGH NEW TECHNOLOGIES-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary is authorized to award grants or contracts in accordance with this subsection to support the development of materials, programs, and resources which utilize new technologies and techniques to synthesize and disseminate research and development findings and other information which can be used to support educational improvement.

      ‘(2) SOURCES OF MATERIALS AND RESEARCH ABOUT TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR IMPROVING NATIONWIDE EDUCATION (SMARTLINE)-

        ‘(A) ELECTRONIC NETWORK- The Assistant Secretary, acting through the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, shall establish and maintain an electronic network which shall, at a minimum, link--

          ‘(i) each office of the Department of Education;

          ‘(ii) the research institutes established by section 405B;

          ‘(iii) the National Center for Education Statistics;

          ‘(iv) the National Library of Education; and

          ‘(v) entities engaged in research, development, dissemination, and technical assistance under grant, contract, or cooperative agreement with the Department of Education.

        ‘(B) CERTAIN REQUIREMENTS FOR NETWORK- The network described in subparagraph (A) shall--

          ‘(i) to the extent feasible, build upon existing national, regional, and State electronic networks and support video, telecomputing, and interactive communications;

          ‘(ii) at a minimum, have the capability to support electronic mail and file transfer services;

          ‘(iii) be linked to and accessible to other users, including State and local education agencies, institutions of higher education, museums, libraries, and others through the Internet and the National Research and Education Network; and

          ‘(iv) be provided at no cost (excluding the costs of necessary hardware) to the contractors and grantees described in clause (v) of subparagraph (A) and to educational institutions accessing such network through the Internet and the National Research and Education Network.

        ‘(C) INFORMATION RESOURCES- The Assistant Secretary, acting through the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, may make available through the network described in subparagraph (A)--

          ‘(i) information about grant and contract assistance available through the department;

          ‘(ii) an annotated directory of current research and development activities and projects being undertaken with the assistance of the Department;

          ‘(iii) information about publications published by the Department and, to the extent feasible, the full text of such publications;

          ‘(iv) statistics and data published by the National Center for Education Statistics;

          ‘(v) syntheses of research and development findings;

          ‘(vi) a directory of other education-related electronic networks and databases, including information about the means by which they may be accessed;

          ‘(vii) a descriptive listing of materials and courses of instruction provided by telecommunications partnerships assisted under the Star Schools program;

          ‘(viii) resources developed by the ERIC Clearinghouses;

          ‘(ix) education-related software (including video) which is in the public domain;

          ‘(x) a listing of instructional materials available through telecommunications to local education agencies through the Public Broadcasting Service and State educational television networks; and

          ‘(xi) such other information and resources the Assistant Secretary considers useful and appropriate.

        ‘(D) EVALUATIONS REGARDING OTHER FUNCTIONS OF NETWORK- The Assistant Secretary shall also undertake projects to test and evaluate the feasibility of using the network described in subparagraph (A) for--

          ‘(i) the submission of applications for assistance to the Department; and

          ‘(ii) the collection of data and other statistics through the National Center for Education Statistics.

        ‘(E) TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE- The Assistant Secretary, acting through the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, shall--

          ‘(i) provide such training and technical assistance as may be necessary to enable the contractors and grantees described in clause (v) of subparagraph (A) to participate in the electronic network described in such subparagraph; and

          ‘(ii) work with the National Science Foundation to provide, upon request, assistance to State and local education agencies, the Department of the Interior’s Office of Indian Education Programs, tribal departments of education, State library agencies, libraries, museums, and other educational institutions in obtaining access to the Internet and the National Research and Education Network.

    ‘(h) REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES-

      ‘(1) REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES- The Assistant Secretary shall enter into contracts with public or private nonprofit entities to establish a networked system of 10 regional educational laboratories which serve the needs of each region of the Nation in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. For the purposes of this subsection, the term ‘region’ means 1 of the 10 geographic regions set forth in section 2(a) of part 707 of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations (34 CFR 707.2(a)), as published in number 157 of volume 53 of the Federal Register on August 15, 1988.

      ‘(2) DUTIES- Each regional educational laboratory receiving assistance under this subsection shall, with such assistance, assist State education agencies, intermediate education agencies, local school districts, and schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in implementing broad-based, systemic school improvement strategies through the use of applied research and development activities. The regional educational laboratories shall support such system-wide reform efforts through--

        ‘(A) the development of a plan for identifying needs and for serving the needs of the region by conducting a continuing survey of the educational needs, strengths and weaknesses within the region, including a process of open hearings to solicit the views of schools, teachers, administrators, parents, local educational agencies, librarians, and State educational agencies within the region;

        ‘(B) the dissemination of information about programs designated as exemplary and promising under subsection (c) and other appropriate programs and practices;

        ‘(C) the provision of support and technical assistance in--

          ‘(i) replicating and adapting such exemplary and promising practices;

          ‘(ii) the development of high-quality, challenging curriculum frameworks;

          ‘(iii) the development of valid, reliable, fair systems of assessment which are based upon State, local, or Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded school curriculum frameworks and reflect recent advances in the field of educational assessment;

          ‘(iv) the improvement of professional development strategies to assure that all teachers are prepared to teach a challenging curriculum;

          ‘(v) expanding and improving the use of technology in education to improve teaching and learning;

          ‘(vi) the development of alternatives for restructuring school finance systems to promote greater equity in the distribution of resources; and

          ‘(vii) the development of alternative administrative structures which are more conducive to planning, implementing, and sustaining school reform and improved educational outcomes;

        ‘(D) the development of educational programs and practices that address State, regional, or Indian tribal needs in relating to their school reform efforts;

        ‘(E) facilitating communication between educational experts, school officials, and teachers, parents, and librarians, to enable such individuals to assist schools to develop a plan to meet the national education goals;

        ‘(F) bringing teams of experts together to develop and implement school improvement plans and strategies;

        ‘(G) the provision of training in--

          ‘(i) the field of education research and related areas;

          ‘(ii) the use of new educational methods; and

          ‘(iii) the use of information-finding methods, practices, techniques, and products developed in connection with such training for which the regional educational laboratory shall be authorized to support internships and fellowships and to provide stipends; and

        ‘(H) the provision of support and technical assistance (upon their request) to State facilitators funded through the National Diffusion Network.

      ‘(3) NETWORKING- In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the regional laboratories, the governing boards of the ten regional laboratories shall establish and maintain a network to--

        ‘(A) share information about the activities each is carrying out;

        ‘(B) plan joint activities that would meet the needs of multiple regions;

        ‘(C) create a strategic plan for the development of activities undertaken by the laboratories to reduce redundancy and increase collaboration and resource-sharing in such activities; and

        ‘(D) otherwise devise means by which the work of the individual laboratories could serve national, as well as regional, needs.

      ‘(4) ADDITIONAL DUTIES- Each regional education laboratory receiving assistance under this subsection shall carry out the following activities:

        ‘(A) Collaborate with the Institutes established under section 405B in order to--

          ‘(i) maximize the use of research conducted through the Institutes in the work of such laboratory;

          ‘(ii) keep the Institutes apprised of the work of the regional educational laboratories in the field; and

          ‘(iii) inform the Institutes about additional research needs identified in the field.

        ‘(B) Consult with the State educational agencies and library agencies in the region in developing the plan for serving the region.

        ‘(C) Develop strategies to utilize schools as critical components in reforming education and revitalizing rural communities in the United States.

        ‘(D) Report and disseminate information on overcoming the obstacles faced by rural educators and rural schools.

        ‘(E) Identify successful educational programs that have either been developed by such laboratory in carrying out its functions or that have been developed or used by others within the region served by the laboratory and make such information available to the Secretary and the network of regional laboratories so that they may be considered for inclusion in the national education development and dissemination system.

      ‘(5) CERTAIN REQUIREMENTS- In carrying out its responsibilities, each regional educational laboratory shall--

        ‘(A) establish a governing board that--

          ‘(i) is the sole entity that--

            ‘(I) guides and directs the laboratory in carrying out the provisions of this subsection and satisfying the terms and conditions of the contract award; and

            ‘(II) determines the regional agenda of the laboratory, consistent with the priority research and development needs identified in section 405(b)(3); and

          ‘(ii) reflects a balanced representation of the States in the region, as well as the interests and concerns of regional constituencies;

        ‘(B) comply with the standards established by the Assistant Secretary and the Board under section 405A;

        ‘(C) coordinate its activities, collaborate, and regularly exchange information with the institutes established under section 405C, the National Diffusion Network, and its Developer Demonstrator and State Facilitator projects, learning grant institutions and district education agents assisted under subsection (i), the ERIC Clearinghouses, and other entities engages in technical assistance and dissemination activities which are supported by other Offices of the Department of Education; and

        ‘(D) allocate its resources to and within each State in a manner which reflects the need for assistance, taking into account such factors as the proportion of economically disadvantaged students, the increased cost burden of service delivery in areas of sparse populations, and any special initiatives being undertaken by State, intermediate, local education agencies, or Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded schools which may require special assistance from the laboratory.

      ‘(6) EVALUATIONS- The Assistant Secretary shall provide for periodic, independent evaluations of each of the laboratories in carrying out the duties described in paragraph (1) in accordance with the standards developed by the Assistant Secretary and the Board and transmit the results of such evaluations to the relevant committees of the Congress, the Board, and the appropriate regional educational laboratory board.

      ‘(7) INVITATION REGARDING COMPETITION FOR AWARDS OF ASSISTANCE- Prior to awarding a grant or entering into a contract under this section, the Secretary shall invite applicants, including the existing regional educational laboratories, to compete for such award through notice in the Federal Register and in the publication of the Department of Commerce known as the Commerce Business Daily.

      ‘(8) APPLICATION FOR ASSISTANCE- Each application for assistance under this subsection shall--

        ‘(A) cover not less than a 5-year period;

        ‘(B) describe how the applicant would carry out the activities required by this subsection; and

        ‘(C) contain such additional information as the Secretary may reasonably require.

      ‘(9) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION- No regional educational laboratory receiving assistance under this subsection shall, by reason of the receipt of that assistance, be ineligible to receive any other assistance from the Department as authorized by law.

      ‘(10) ADVANCE PAYMENT SYSTEM- Each regional educational laboratory shall participate in the advance payment system at the Department of Education.

    ‘(i) GOALS 2000 COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM-

      ‘(1) PURPOSE- The purpose of the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships program is to improve the quality of learning and teaching in the Nation’s most impoverished urban and rural communities by supporting sustained collaborations between universities, schools, businesses, and communities which apply and utilize the results of educational research and development.

      ‘(2) GRANTS FOR GOALS 2000 COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS- The Assistant Secretary is authorized to make grants to eligible entities to support the establishment of Learning Grant Institutions and District Education Agents and the activities authorized under this subsection within eligible communities.

      ‘(3) DEFINITION OF ELIGIBLE ENTITY AND ELIGIBLE COMMUNITY- For the purposes of this subsection:

        ‘(A) The term ‘eligible entity’ includes any institution of higher education, regional education laboratory, National Diffusion Network project, national research and development center, public or private nonprofit corporation, or any consortium thereof that--

          ‘(i) has demonstrated experience, expertise and commitment in serving the educational needs of at-risk students; and

          ‘(ii) is, by virtue of its previous activities, knowledgeable about the unique needs and characteristics of the community to be served.

        ‘(B) The term ‘eligible community’ means a unit of general purpose local government (such as a city, township, or village), a nonmetropolitan county, tribal village, or a geographically distinct area (such as a school district, school attendance area, ward, precinct or neighborhood), or any group of such entities that--

          ‘(i) has a population of not less than 200,000 and not more than 300,000; and

          ‘(ii) in which not less than one-half of the school-age children have family incomes which are below the poverty line, as determined by the 1990 United States Census, participation in the National School Lunch program, or other current, reliable data concerning family income.

      ‘(4) GOALS 2000 COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS- Each learning grant institution receiving assistance under this subsection shall establish a Goals 2000 community partnership to carry out the activities authorized under this subsection. Such partnership--

        ‘(A) shall include the participation of one or more local educational agencies, institutions of higher education, community-based organizations, parents, teachers, and the business community;

        ‘(B) may include the participation of human, social service and health care agencies, Head Start and child care agencies, libraries, museums, employment and training agencies, and the State educational agency or tribal department of education; and

        ‘(C) shall be broadly representative of all segments of the community in which the activities will be carried out.

      ‘(5) COMPREHENSIVE GOALS 2000 PLAN- Each Goals 2000 Community Partnership shall develop a comprehensive plan for assuring educational success and high achievement for all students in the community. Each such plan shall--

        ‘(A) adopt the 6 national educational goals;

        ‘(B) identify additional needs and goals for educational improvement within the community;

        ‘(C) focus on helping all students reach challenging content and student performance standards;

        ‘(D) be consistent with the State and local plan for system-wide education improvement developed pursuant to the Goals 2000: Educate America Act;

        ‘(E) establish a comprehensive community-wide plan for achieving such goals; and

        ‘(F) develop a means for measuring the progress of the community in meeting such goals for improvement.

      ‘(6) IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNITY-WIDE PLAN- Each Goals 2000 Community Partnership shall, utilizing the District Education Agent, provide assistance in implementing the community-wide plan for educational improvement by--

        ‘(A) supporting innovation, restructuring, and continuous improvement in educational practice by--

          ‘(i) disseminating information throughout the community about exemplary and promising educational programs, practices, products, and policies;

          ‘(ii) evaluating the effectiveness of federally funded educational programs within the community and identifying changes in such programs which are likely to improve student achievement;

          ‘(iii) identifying, selecting and replicating exemplary and promising educational programs, practices, products, and policies in both in and out-of-school settings;

          ‘(iv) applying educational research to solve specific problems in the classroom, home and community which impede learning and student achievement; and

          ‘(v) supporting research and development by teachers, school administrators, and other practitioners which promise to improve teaching and learning and the organization of schools;

        ‘(B) improving the capacity of educators, school administrators, child care providers and other practitioners to prepare all students to reach challenging standards and to attain the goals set out in the comprehensive community-wide plan through such means as--

          ‘(i) the training of prospective and novice teachers (including preschool and early childhood educators) in a school setting under the guidance of master teachers and teacher educators;

          ‘(ii) training and other activities to promote the continued learning and professional development of experienced teachers, related services personnel, school administrators to assure that they develop the subject matter and pedagogical expertise needed to prepare all students to reach challenging standards;

          ‘(iii) training and other activities to increase the ability of prospective, novice, and experienced teachers to teach effectively at-risk students, students with disabilities, students with limited English language proficiency, and students from diverse cultural backgrounds; and

          ‘(iv) programs to enhance teaching and classroom management skills, including school-based management skills, of novice, prospective, and experienced teachers;

        ‘(C) promoting the development of an integrated system of service delivery to children from birth through age 18 and their families by facilitating linkages and cooperation among--

          ‘(i) local education agencies;

          ‘(ii) health and social services agencies and providers;

          ‘(iii) juvenile justice and criminal justice agencies;

          ‘(iv) providers of employment training; and

          ‘(v) child care, Head Start, and other early childhood agencies; and

        ‘(D) mobilizing the resources of the community in support of student learning and high achievement by facilitating effective partnerships and collaboration among--

          ‘(i) local education agencies;

          ‘(ii) postsecondary educational institutions;

          ‘(iii) public libraries;

          ‘(iv) parents;

          ‘(v) community-based organizations, neighborhood associations, and other civic and community organizations;

          ‘(vi) child care, Head Start, and other early childhood agencies;

          ‘(vii) churches, synagogues and other religious institutions;

          ‘(viii) labor organizations; and

          ‘(ix) business and industry.

      ‘(7) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS- In carrying out its responsibilities under this subsection, each partnership receiving assistance under this subsection shall--

        ‘(A) appoint a District Education Agent who shall be responsible, on a full-time basis, for directing the implementation of the community-wide plan. Such individual shall have significant experience and expertise in the field of education in--

          ‘(i) addressing the needs of at-risk students; and

          ‘(ii) conducting educational research and promoting the application of the results of such research to educational practice;

        ‘(B) provide for such other professional and support personnel as may be necessary to implement the community-wide plan under the direction of the District Education Agent; and

        ‘(C) coordinate its activities and work cooperatively with the National Diffusion Network State facilitators, regional laboratories, and other components of the Office to utilize most effectively Federal research, development, and dissemination resources in implementing the community-wide plan.

      ‘(8) APPLICATION FOR GRANTS- Any eligible entity desiring a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Assistant Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Assistant Secretary may reasonably require. Each such application shall--

        ‘(A) include a comprehensive plan for meeting the objectives and requirements of this subsection; and

        ‘(B) provide evidence of support for the application from local elected officials, the State education agency, the local education agency, parents, local community leaders, businesses, and other appropriate organizations.

      ‘(9) PRIORITY IN MAKING GRANTS; DURATION AND AMOUNT OF GRANT- Each grant made under this subsection shall be--

        ‘(A) awarded on a competitive basis, with first priority given to those applications from communities with the greatest percentage of school-age children in families with poverty-level incomes;

        ‘(B) made for a 5-year period, with funding for the second and each successive year in this period conditioned upon a determination by the Assistant Secretary that the grant recipient has complied with the conditions of the grants during the previous year; and

        ‘(C) an amount equal to not less than $1,000,000 per year.

      ‘(10) LIMITATION OF ONE GRANT PER CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT- Not more than one grant shall be awarded within a single congressional district.

      ‘(11) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE; EVALUATIONS- In administering the program authorized under this subsection, the Assistant Secretary shall, either directly or through grant or contract with an eligible nonprofit agency--

        ‘(A) upon request, provide technical assistance to eligible entities to assist in the development of a comprehensive plan to meet the requirements of this subsection and in the preparation of applications for assistance;

        ‘(B) regularly provide technical assistance to learning grant institutions receiving assistance under this subsection to assist with the development and implementation of the community-wide plan for educational improvement;

        ‘(C) provide for an independent evaluation of the activities assisted under this subsection, including--

          ‘(i) the impact of the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships program on children and families within each community, including (but not limited to) effects on the extent of educational achievement, rates of school retention and completion, and enrollment in program postsecondary educational programs; and

          ‘(ii) whether an intensified effort to apply and utilize educational research within a limited geographic area significantly improves student learning and achievement; and

        ‘(D) plan for the expansion of the Goals 2000 Community Partnerships program throughout the remainder of the Nation beginning in fiscal year 1998.

    ‘(j) TEACHER RESEARCH DISSEMINATION NETWORK-

      ‘(1) FINDINGS- The Congress finds that--

        ‘(A) education research, including research funded by the Office, is not having the impact on the Nation’s schools that such research should;

        ‘(B) relevant education research and resulting solutions are not being adequately disseminated to the teachers that need such research and solutions;

        ‘(C) there are not enough linkages between the research and development centers assisted under this section, the regional educational laboratories described in subsection (k), the National Diffusion Network State facilitators, the Education Resources Information Clearinghouses, and the public schools, to ensure that research on effective practice is disseminated and technical assistance provided to all teachers;

        ‘(D) the average teacher has almost no time to plan or engage in a professional dialogue with such teacher’s peers about strategies for improving learning;

        ‘(E) teachers do not have direct access to information systems or networks;

        ‘(F) teachers have little control over what in-service education teachers will be offered; and

        ‘(G) individual teachers are not encouraged to move beyond the walls of their classrooms to identify and use outside resources.

      ‘(2) PROGRAM AUTHORIZED-

        ‘(A) The Assistant Secretary shall enter into contracts with regional educational laboratories, in partnership with 1 or more institutions of higher education in each State of its region, the National Diffusion Network, and other entities with demonstrated experience, expertise, and commitment in the areas of teacher research or teacher professional development, such as the national research and development centers, professional teacher organizations, and other qualified organizations and associations, in the region to carry out activities described in paragraph (3).

        ‘(B) The Assistant Secretary shall enter into contracts under this subsection in an equitable manner and shall provide assistance on the basis of the number of schools, teachers, and students in each regional educational laboratory region with attention given to populations with special needs and the increased cost burden of service delivery in regions of sparse population.

        ‘(C) Contracts under this subsection shall be awarded for a period of not less than 3 years.

      ‘(3) PROGRAM ACTIVITIES-

        ‘(A) Each regional partnership described in paragraph (2)(A) entering into a contract under this subsection shall carry out programs of providing training to teachers relevant to the needs and problems of the schools and school districts where teachers, who participate in the programs, serve. The purpose of such programs shall be to--

          ‘(i) educate teachers on how to acquire information about education research findings and best practices;

          ‘(ii) provide teachers with current education research and development theory, skills, and practice as shall enable them to modify, design, develop, and adapt such findings and practices to effect local district and classroom outcomes that improve education;

          ‘(iii) enable teachers to become actively involved in the applied research and development process;

          ‘(iv) provide teachers the ability to become leaders in the utilization of applied research and to become active participants in the Federal research and development partnership;

          ‘(v) enhance the ability of teachers to evaluate and choose effective education programs and curricula; and

          ‘(vi) facilitate collaboration between the teacher change agent and the National Diffusion Network State facilitator.

        ‘(B) Teachers that participate in training assisted under this subsection shall be known as ‘teacher change agents’.

        ‘(C) The program described in subparagraph (A) shall provide teacher change agents with training during the summer and at such other times as agreed to by the district, which shall--

          ‘(i) give teacher change agents knowledge and guidance in using the existing educational improvement services and resources funded by the United States Department of Education and other major research organizations, including the products and work of the regional educational laboratories, professional teacher organizations, the National Diffusion Network, institutions of higher education, the Educational Research Information Centers, National Research Centers, National Research Institutes, State Departments of Education, local education agencies, and other nonprofit organizations participating in the improvement of education;

          ‘(ii) provide teacher change agents with indepth knowledge about a number of products, programs, and processes developed by entities described in clause (i) that the teacher change agents judge most relevant to the needs of the district or districts they will serve;

          ‘(iii) inform teacher change agents about government programs, including, but not limited to, programs in government agencies other than the Department of Education, which offer research opportunities, fellowships, and funding; and

          ‘(iv) provide teacher change agents with instruction in technical assistance skills in order to increase their capacity to aid district and school site teacher teams responsible for leading school improvement activities at the district and school site level.

        ‘(D) The school year activities described in subparagraph (A) shall provide teacher change agents participating in such program during the school year with--

          ‘(i) opportunities to meet with other teacher change agents to exchange experiences;

          ‘(ii) additional training or assistance as needed or requested;

          ‘(iii) updates in education research, application, and findings; and

          ‘(iv) opportunities to provide feedback into the educational research infrastructure regarding needed research and ways to improve the development and dissemination of information.

        ‘(E) The regional partnership program may support educational improvement and reform activities such as--

          ‘(i) training in applied research methodologies;

          ‘(ii) assistance in conducting applied research;

          ‘(iii) teacher research sabbaticals;

          ‘(iv) video conferencing for additional training in order to reduce travel time and expenses;

          ‘(v) training in developing and implementing effective teacher in-service training;

          ‘(vi) training in change management, including strategies for restructuring schools, building local capacity, and generally strengthening the culture of schools so that schools are conducive and supportive of change, including training in interpersonal and leadership skills; and

          ‘(vii) training in the appropriate use of technology to assist classroom teachers.

        ‘(F) TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES- Teacher change agents shall, during the school year--

          ‘(i) meet with other teachers and district or school site teacher teams to provide other teachers with knowledge about how to acquire information regarding education research findings and best practices, including what resources are available from the Department of Education and how to obtain products and technical services from the Department;

          ‘(ii) meet with the National Diffusion Network State Facilitator to coordinate and not duplicate efforts in the dissemination of exemplary educational programs;

          ‘(iii) help interested schools identify resources needed to address the school’s needs and act as liaison between the school and the appropriate resource entities, such as regional educational laboratories, centers, national institutes, institutions of higher education, professional teacher organizations, scholars, consultants, and other schools and school districts that may be of assistance;

          ‘(iv) teach other teachers how to use the products, programs, and processes in which the teacher was trained pursuant to paragraph (2)(C)(II);

          ‘(v) work with other teachers and teacher teams to adapt identified exemplary practices, programs, and research results to implement school site or classroom improvements as desired, and provide follow-up activities throughout a 2-year period to ensure the successful adaptation and implementation of such programs in local schools; and

          ‘(vi) inform teachers about how they can obtain Federal research funding, fellowships, and sabbaticals.

        ‘(G) APPLICATION-

          ‘(i) IN GENERAL- Each regional partnership desiring a contract under this subsection shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Assistant Secretary may reasonably require.

          ‘(ii) CONTENTS- Each application described in clause (i) shall--

            ‘(I) contain a plan acceptable to affected States and local education agencies for conducting the program to be assisted under this section;

            ‘(II) contain assurances that the partnership requirements are fulfilled;

            ‘(III) contain assurances that both district and school site teacher teams will be established to work in conjunction with the teacher change agent;

            ‘(IV) contain a plan for the selection of district and school site teacher team participants and others as deemed appropriate by the teacher change agent and the regional partnership;

            ‘(V) contain assurances that the regional partnership, in conjunction with the participating school districts, shall provide each teacher change agent with a stipend for the entire calendar year commensurate with such teacher’s salary and travel expenses, to permit a teacher to participate in such program without incurring loss of income;

            ‘(VI) contain assurances that each teacher change agent participating in the program shall receive an award of not more than $10,000 to be used by such teacher during the school year of such teacher’s participation to purchase materials, support, and coordinate with other teachers or site teacher teams in the school district;

            ‘(VII) contain assurances that such regional partnerships shall provide not more than $5,000 to each school district or group of school districts having an individual from such district or districts participating in the program assisted under this section for each of the 2 years following such participation to enable such school district or districts to continue efforts to improve dissemination of effective practices and programs within the district or districts;

            ‘(VIII) contain assurances that representatives of State educational agencies, intermediate educational agencies, teacher centers, teacher educators at institutions of higher education, and school district in-service or curriculum specialists will be eligible to participate in the program assisted under this section if such individuals pay the cost of their participation; and

            ‘(IX) contain an assurance that such regional partnership shall permit a teacher to participate in the program only after such partnership determines that the teacher will be afforded a full opportunity by the district to perform such teacher’s responsibilities described in paragraph (3)(F).

      ‘(4) TEACHER SELECTION AND ELIGIBILITY-

        ‘(A) NOMINATION- Teacher participants in the program assisted under this subsection shall be nominated by their peers at the school district level.

        ‘(B) ELIGIBILITY- Each school district or group of school districts desiring to have teachers from such district or districts participate in the program assisted under this subsection shall provide the regional partnership with the names of such teachers, and an indication of the type of issues or problems on which each such teacher would like to receive information and training.

        ‘(C) SELECTION-

          ‘(i) Teacher participants shall be selected by the regional partnerships in consultation with the State educational agencies in the region. Teacher participants shall be selected in such a manner so as to ensure an equitable representation of such teachers by State and school enrollment within the region.

          ‘(ii) The number of teachers selected each year shall be determined in accordance with the amount of funding received by the regional partnership.

      ‘(5) INDEPENDENT EVALUATION-

        ‘(A) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary shall provide for an independent evaluation of the program assisted under this subsection to determine the net impact and cost effectiveness of the program and the reactions of teachers and school districts participating in such program, including any career plan changes of participating teachers.

        ‘(B) DATE- The evaluation described in subparagraph (A) shall be submitted to the Congress within 6 months after the completion of the third year of the program.

        ‘(C) FUNDING- The Assistant Secretary may reserve not more than $250,000 of the amount appropriated under section 405(i)(2)(E) to carry out the evaluation described in this paragraph.’.

PART E--NATIONAL LIBRARY OF EDUCATION

SEC. 251. ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT.

    Part A of the General Education Provisions Act, as amended by section 241 of this Act, is amended by inserting after section 405C the following new section:

‘NATIONAL LIBRARY OF EDUCATION

    ‘SEC. 405D. (a) IN GENERAL- There is established within the Office a National Library of Education (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Library’), which shall be maintained as a governmental activity.

    ‘(b) FUNCTIONS OF LIBRARY- The functions of the Library are--

      ‘(1) to provide a central location within the Federal Government for information about education;

      ‘(2) to provide comprehensive reference services on matters related to education to employees of the Department of Education and its contractors and grantees, other Federal employees, and members of the public; and

      ‘(3) to promote greater cooperation and resource sharing among providers and repositories of education information in the United States.

    ‘(c) ONE-STOP INFORMATION AND REFERRAL SERVICE- The Library shall establish and maintain a central information and referral service to respond to telephonic, mail and electronic and other inquiries from the public concerning--

      ‘(1) programs and activities of the Department of Education;

      ‘(2) publications produced by the Department of Education and, to the extent feasible, education related publications produced by the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and other Federal agencies;

      ‘(3) services and resources available to the public through the Office, including the ERIC Clearinghouses, the research institutes, and the national education dissemination system;

      ‘(4) statistics and other information produced by the National Center for Education Statistics; and

      ‘(5) referrals to additional sources of information and expertise about educational issues which may be available through educational associations and foundations, the private sector, colleges and universities, libraries and bibliographic databases.

    The Library shall maintain and actively publicize a toll-free telephone number through which public inquiries to the Library may be made.

    ‘(d) COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE SERVICES- The Library shall, to the extent feasible, provide for the delivery of a full range of reference services on subjects related to education to employees of the Department and its contractors and grantees, other Federal employees, and members of the general public. Such services may include--

      ‘(1) specialized subject searches;

      ‘(2) search and retrieval of electronic databases;

      ‘(3) document delivery by mail and facsimile transmission;

      ‘(4) research counseling, bibliographic instruction, and other training services;

      ‘(5) interlibrary loan services; and

      ‘(6) selective dissemination of information services.

    The Library shall first give priority in the provision of reference services to requests made by employees of the Department.

    ‘(e) COOPERATION AND RESOURCE SHARING- The Library shall promote greater cooperation and resource sharing among libraries and archives with significant collections in the area of education through such means as--

      ‘(1) the establishment of information and resource sharing networks among such entities;

      ‘(2) the development of a national union list of education journals held by education libraries throughout the United States;

      ‘(3) the development of directories and indexes to textbook and other specialized collections held by education libraries throughout the United States; and

      ‘(4) cooperative efforts to preserve, maintain and promote access to items of special historical value or interest.

    ‘(f) ADMINISTRATION- The Library shall be administered by an Executive Director who shall--

      ‘(1) be appointed by the Assistant Secretary from among persons with significant training or experience in library and information science;

      ‘(2) serve for a renewable term of 5 years; and

      ‘(3) be paid at not less than the minimum rate of basic pay payable for GS-15 of the General Schedule.

    ‘(g) TASK FORCE-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Assistant Secretary shall appoint a task force of librarians, scholars, teachers, parents, and school leaders (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the ‘Task Force’) to provide advice on the establishment of the Library.

      ‘(2) PREPARATION OF PLAN- The Task Force shall prepare a workable plan to establish the Library and to implement the requirements of this section.

      ‘(3) CERTAIN AUTHORITIES- The Task Force may identify other activities and functions for the Library to carry out, except that such functions shall not be carried out until the Library is established and has implemented the requirements of this section.

      ‘(4) REPORT- The Task Force shall prepare and submit to the Assistant Secretary not later than 6 months after the first meeting of the Task Force a report on the activities of the Library.

    ‘(h) TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS- There are hereby transferred to the Library all functions of--

      ‘(1) the Department of Education Research Library;

      ‘(2) the Department of Education Reference Section; and

      ‘(3) the Department of Education Information Branch.

    ‘(i) COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT POLICY- Not later than 180 days after the enactment of the Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act, the Assistant Secretary shall promulgate a comprehensive collection development policy to govern the Library’s operations, acquisitions, and services to users. Such collection development policy shall--

      ‘(1) be consistent with the functions of the Library set out in subsection (b);

      ‘(2) emphasize the acquisition and maintenance of a comprehensive collection of reference materials; and

      ‘(3) avoid unnecessary duplication by putting a priority on meeting the information needs of the Library’s users through cooperation and resource-sharing with other entities with significant collections in the field of education.

    ‘(j) ARREARAGE AND PRESERVATION- On the basis of the collection development policy promulgated under subsection (h), the Executive Director shall develop a multiyear plan which shall set forth goals and priorities for actions needed to--

      ‘(1) eliminate within 3 years the arrearage of uncataloged books and other materials in the Library’s collections; and

      ‘(2) respond effectively and systematically to the preservation needs of the Library’s collections, relying, whenever possible, upon cooperative efforts with other institutions to preserve and maintain the usability of books and materials in the Library’s collections.’.

TITLE III--SAFE SCHOOLS ACT OF 1994

SEC. 301. SAFE SCHOOLS PROGRAM AUTHORIZED.

    (a) IN GENERAL- With funds appropriated under subsection (c)(1), the Secretary of Education shall make competitive grants to eligible local educational agencies to carry out projects designed to achieve Goal Six of the National Education Goals, which provides that by the year 2000, every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning, by helping to ensure that all schools are safe and free of violence.

    (b) MODEL PROJECT- The Secretary of Education, shall develop a written safe schools model so all schools can develop models that enable all students to participate regardless of any language barriers.

    (c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS AND RESERVATION-

      (1) AUTHORIZATION- There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this Act $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1994.

      (2) RESERVATION- From the sums appropriated to carry out this Act for any fiscal year, the Secretary may reserve not more than 5 percent to carry out national leadership activities under section 305.

SEC. 302. ELIGIBLE APPLICANTS.

    To be eligible to receive a grant under this Act, a local educational agency shall demonstrate in its application under section 303(a) that it--

      (1) serves an area in which there is a high rate of--

        (A) homicides committed by persons between the ages 5 to 18, inclusive;

        (B) referrals of youth to juvenile court;

        (C) youth under the supervision of the courts;

        (D) expulsions and suspensions of students from school;

        (E) referrals of youth, for disciplinary reasons, to alternative schools; or

        (F) victimization of youth by violence, crime, or other forms of abuse; and

      (2) has serious school crime, violence, and discipline problems, as indicated by other appropriate data.

SEC. 303. APPLICATIONS AND PLANS.

    (a) IN GENERAL- In order to receive a grant under this Act, an eligible local educational agency shall submit to the Secretary an application that includes--

      (1) an assessment of the current violence and crime problems in the schools to be served by the grant and in the community to be served by the applicant;

      (2) an assurance that the applicant has written policies regarding school safety, student discipline, and the appropriate handling of violent or disruptive acts;

      (3) a description of the schools and communities to be served by the grant, the activities and projects to be carried out with grant funds, and how these activities and projects will help to reduce the current violence and crime problems in the schools and communities served;

      (4) a description of educational materials to be developed in the second most predominate language of the schools and communities to be served by the grant, if applicable;

      (5) if the local educational agency receives Federal education funds, an explanation of how activities assisted under this Act will be coordinated with and support any systemic education improvement plan prepared with such funds;

      (6) the applicant’s plan to establish school-level advisory committees, which include faculty, parents, staff, and students, for each school to be served by the grant and a description of how each committee will assist in assessing that school’s violence and discipline problems as well as in designing appropriate programs, policies, and practices to combat those problems;

      (7) the applicant’s plan for collecting baseline and future data, by individual schools, to monitor violence and discipline problems and to measure its progress in achieving the purpose of this Act;

      (8) a description of how, in subsequent fiscal years, the grantee will integrate the violence prevention activities it carries out with funds under this Act with activities carried out under its comprehensive plan for drug and violence prevention adopted under the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986;

      (9) a description of how the grantee will coordinate its school crime and violence prevention efforts with education, law enforcement, judicial, health, social service, programs supported under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, and other appropriate agencies and organizations serving the community;

      (10) a description of how the grantee will inform parents about the extent of crime and violence in their children’s schools and maximize the participation of parents in its violence prevention activities;

      (11) an assurance that grant funds under this Act will be used to supplement and not supplant State and local funds that would, in the absence of funds under this Act, be made available by the applicant for the purposes of the grant;

      (12) an assurance that the applicant will cooperate with, and provide assistance to, the Secretary in gathering statistics and other data the Secretary determines are necessary to determine the effectiveness of projects and activities under this Act or the extent of school violence and discipline problems throughout the Nation; and

      (13) such other information as the Secretary may require.

    (b) PRIORITIES- In awarding grants under this Act, the Secretary shall take into account the special needs of local educational agencies located in both rural and urban communities.

SEC. 304. GRANTS AND USE OF FUNDS.

    (a) DURATION AND AMOUNT OF GRANTS- Grants under this Act may not exceed--

      (1) 1 year in duration; and

      (2) $3,000,000.

    (b) USE OF FUNDS-

      (1) ACTIVITIES- A local educational agency may use funds awarded under section 301(a) for 1 or more of the following activities:

        (A) Identifying and assessing school violence and discipline problems, including coordinating needs assessment activities with education, law-enforcement, judicial, health, social service, juvenile justice programs, gang prevention activities, and other appropriate agencies and organizations.

        (B) Conducting school safety reviews or violence prevention reviews of programs, policies, practices, and facilities to determine what changes are needed to reduce or prevent violence and promote safety and discipline.

        (C) Planning for comprehensive, long-term strategies for combating and preventing school violence and discipline problems through the involvement and coordination of school programs with other education, law-enforcement, judicial, health, social service, and other appropriate agencies and organizations.

        (D) Activities which involve parents in efforts to promote school safety and prevent school violence;

        (E) Community education programs involving parents, businesses, local government, the medical, and other appropriate entities about the local educational agency’s plan to promote school safety and reduce and prevent school violence and discipline problems and the need for community support.

        (F) Coordination of school-based activities designed to promote school safety and reduce or prevent school violence and discipline problems with related efforts of education, law-enforcement, judicial, health, social service, juvenile justice programs, and other appropriate agencies and organizations.

        (G) Developing and implementing violence prevention activities and materials, including--

          (i) conflict resolution and social skills development for students, teachers, aides, other school personnel, and parents;

          (ii) disciplinary alternatives to expulsion and suspension of students who exhibit violent or anti-social behavior;

          (iii) student-led activities such as peer mediation, peer counseling, and student courts; or

          (iv) alternative after-school programs that provide safe havens for students, which may include cultural, recreational, educational and instructional activities, and mentoring and community service programs.

        (H) Educating students and parents about the dangers of guns and other weapons and the consequences of their use.

        (I) Developing and implementing innovative curricula to prevent violence in schools and training staff how to stop disruptive or violent behavior if it occurs.

        (J) Supporting ‘safe zones of passage’ for students between home and school through such measures as Drug- and Weapon-Free School Zones, enhanced law enforcement, and neighborhood patrols.

        (K) Counseling programs for victims and witnesses of school violence and crime.

        (L) Evaluating its project under this Act.

        (M) The cost of administering the project of the local educational agency under this Act.

        (N) Other activities that meet the purposes of this Act.

      (2) OTHER LIMITATIONS- A local educational agency may use not more than 5 percent of its grant for activities described in paragraph (1)(M).

      (3) CONSTRUCTION- A local educational agency may not use funds under this Act for construction.

SEC. 305. NATIONAL LEADERSHIP.

    To carry out the purpose of this Act, the Secretary may use funds reserved under section 301(c)(2) to conduct national leadership activities such as research, program development and evaluation, data collection, public awareness activities, training and technical assistance, to provide grants to noncommercial telecommunications entities for the production and distribution of national video-based projects that provide young people with models for conflict resolution and responsible decisionmaking, and to conduct peer review of applications under this Act. The Secretary may carry out such activities directly, through interagency agreements, or through grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements.

SEC. 306. REPORTS.

    (a) REPORT TO SECRETARY- Local educational agencies that receive funds under this part shall submit to the Secretary a report not later than March 1, 1995, that describes progress achieved in carrying out the plan required under section 303.

    (b) REPORT TO CONGRESS- The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives a report not later than October 1, 1995, which contains a detailed statement regarding grant awards, activities of grant recipients, a compilation of statistical information submitted by applicants under section 303, and an evaluation of programs established under this part.

SEC. 307. DEFINITIONS.

    For purposes of this Act:

      (1) LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCY- The term ‘local educational agency’ has the meaning given such term in section 1471(12) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2891(12)).

      (2) SECRETARY- The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Education.

Attest:

Clerk.

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