H.R. 2052 (104th): International Population Stabilization and Reproductive Health Act
HR 2052 IH
H. R. 2052
To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to establish and strengthen policies and programs for the early stabilization of world population through the global expansion of reproductive choice, and for other purposes.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
July 18, 1995
July 18, 1995
Mr. BEILENSON (for himself and Mrs. MORELLA) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations
To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to establish and strengthen policies and programs for the early stabilization of world population through the global expansion of reproductive choice, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
- This Act may be cited as the ‘International Population Stabilization and Reproductive Health Act’.
SEC. 2. AUTHORITIES RELATING TO UNITED STATES POPULATION ASSISTANCE.
- Part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 is amended--
- (1) in section 104(b), by striking ‘on such terms and conditions as he may determine’ and inserting ‘in accordance with the provisions of chapter 12’; and
- (2) by adding at the end the following new chapter:
‘CHAPTER 12--UNITED STATES POPULATION ASSISTANCE
‘SEC. 499. DEFINITION- For purposes of this chapter, the term ‘United States population assistance’ means assistance provided under section 104(b) of this Act.
‘SEC. 499A. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS- The Congress makes the following findings:
‘(1) Throughout much of the developing world, the inability of women and couples to exercise choice over childbearing undermines the role of women in economic development, contributes to death and suffering among women and their children, puts pressure on the environment and the natural resources on which many poor families depend for their survival, and in other ways vitiates the efforts of families to lift themselves out of the poverty in which more than one billion of the world’s 5.6 billion people live.
‘(2) Through 2015, the world’s population will continue to grow, with annual population increments predicted to be above 86 million. This will lead to a tripling of the world’s population before stabilization can occur.
‘(3) As the population within individual countries grows, cities grow rapidly, movement in and between countries increases, and regional distributions of population become unbalanced.
‘(4) After more than a quarter century of experience and research, a global consensus is emerging on the need for increased international cooperation in regard to population in the context of sustainable development.
‘(5) To act effectively on this consensus, the ability to exercise reproductive choice should be expanded through broader dissemination of fertility regulation services that involve women, couples, and the community and which are competent in meeting individual, family, and community needs and values.
‘(6) Although a number of barriers to family planning remain, in many countries a large and growing unmet desire exists for fertility regulation
among women and men who are too poor to pay the full cost of services or for whom services are otherwise inaccessible. Worldwide, estimates are that more than 350 million couples want to space or prevent another pregnancy, but lack access to family planning methods.
‘(7) Millions of women, most of them mothers, are killed or injured each year as a result of unsafe abortions. The availability of safe and effective fertility regulation methods and services and increased access to quality reproductive health care can help prevent many of these tragedies.
‘(8) In addition to the personal toll on families, the impact of human population growth and widespread poverty is evident in mounting signs of stress on the world’s environment, particularly in tropical deforestation, erosion of arable land and watersheds, extinction of plant and animal species, global climate change, waste management, and air and water pollution.
‘(9) Traditionally, United States population assistance has not focused on achieving specific goals with respect to international population stabilization or the expansion of reproductive choice. The absence of clear goals in those areas has led to a lack of criteria for allocating funds and evaluating program success.
‘SEC. 499B. DECLARATION OF POLICY. (a) IN GENERAL- Congress declares that to reduce population growth and stabilize world population at the lowest level feasible and thereby improve the health and well-being of the world’s families, to ensure the role of women in the development process, and to protect the global environment, an important objective of the foreign policy of the United States shall be to assist the international community to achieve universal availability of quality fertility regulation services through a wide choice of safe and effective means of family planning, including programs of public education and other health and development efforts in support of smaller families.
‘(b) FINANCIAL TARGETS- The Congress endorses a target for global expenditures in developing countries of at least $17,000,000,000 by the year 2000 for population programs described in section 499C, and establishes a goal for United States population assistance by the year 2000 of $1,850,000,000 in constant 1993 dollars.
‘SEC. 499C. AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- United States population assistance is authorized to provide--
‘(1) support for the expansion of quality, affordable, voluntary family planning services, which emphasize informed choice among a variety of safe and effective fertility regulation methods and closely related reproductive health care services, including the prevention and control of HIV-AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and reproductive tract infections;
‘(2) support for adequate and regular supplies of quality contraceptives, quality family planning counseling, information, education, communication, and services emphasizing the use of the mass media to improve public knowledge of fertility regulation and related disease prevention methods and where they may be obtained and to promote the benefits of family planning and reproductive health to individuals, families, and communities;
‘(3) support to United States and foreign research institutions and other appropriate entities for biomedical research to develop and evaluate improved methods of safe fertility regulation and related disease control, with particular emphasis on methods which--
‘(A) are likely to be safer, easier to use, easier to make available in developing country settings, and less expensive than current methods;
‘(B) are controlled by women, including barrier methods and vaginal microbicides;
‘(C) are likely to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases; and
‘(D) encourage and allow men to take greater responsibility for their own fertility;
‘(4) support for field research on the characteristics of programs most likely to result in sustained use of effective family planning in meeting each individual’s lifetime reproductive goals, with particular emphasis on the perspectives of family planning users, including support for relevant social and behavioral research focusing on such factors as the use, nonuse, and unsafe or ineffective use of various fertility regulation and related-disease control methods;
‘(5) support for the development of new evaluation techniques and performance criteria for family planning programs, emphasizing the family planning user’s perspective and reproductive goals;
‘(6) support for research and research dissemination related to population policy development, including demographic and health surveys to assess population trends, measure unmet needs, and evaluate program impact, and support for policy-relevant research on the relationships between population trends, poverty, and environmental management, including implications for sustainable agriculture, agroforestry, biodiversity, water resources, energy use, and local and global climate change;
‘(7) support for prevention of unsafe abortions and management of complications of unsafe abortions, including research and public information dissemination on the health and welfare consequences;
‘(8) support for special programs to reach adolescents and young adults before they begin childbearing, including health education programs which stress responsible parenthood and the health risks of unprotected sexual intercourse, as well as service programs designed to meet the information and contraception needs of adolescents;
‘(9) support for a broad array of governmental and nongovernmental communication strategies designed--
‘(A) to create public awareness worldwide;
‘(B) to generate a consensus on the need to address reproductive health issues and the problems associated with continued world population growth;
‘(C) to emphasize the need to educate men as well as women and mobilize their support for reproductive rights and responsibilities; and
‘(D) to remove all major remaining barriers to family planning use, including unnecessary legal, medical, clinical, and regulatory barriers to information and methods, and to make family planning an established community norm;
‘(10) support for programs and strategies that actively discourage harmful practices such as female genital mutilation; and
‘(11) support for prenatal, safe delivery programs and postnatal care programs that include breastfeeding as a child survival strategy and means for enhancing birth spacing.
‘SEC. 499D. TERMS AND CONDITIONS- United States population assistance is authorized to be provided subject to the following conditions:
‘(1) Such assistance may only support, directly or through referral, those activities which provide a broad range of fertility regulation methods permitted by individual country policy and a broad choice of public and private family planning services, including networks for community-based and subsidized commercial distribution of high quality contraceptives.
‘(2) No program supported by United States population assistance may deny an individual family planning services because of such individual’s inability to pay all or part of the cost of such services.
‘(3) In each recipient country, programs supported by United States population assistance shall, to the extent possible, support an integrated approach, consistent with respect for the rights of women as decisionmakers in matters of reproduction and sexuality, for the provision of public and private reproductive health services.
‘(4) Family planning services and related reproductive health care services supported by United States population assistance shall ensure--
- (A) privacy and confidentiality and maintain the highest medical standards possible under local conditions; and
- (B) regular oversight of the quality of medical care and other services offered, including followup care such as care for the side effects of contraceptive use.
‘(5) United States population assistance programs shall furnish only those contraceptive drugs and devices which have received approval for marketing in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration or which have been tested and determined to be safe and effective under research protocols comparable to those required by the Food and Drug Administration or have been determined to be safe by an appropriate international organization or the relevant health authority in the country to which they are provided.
‘(6) Family planning services supported by United States population assistance shall be designed to take into account the needs of the family planning user, including the constraints on women’s time, by involving members of the community, including both men and women, in the design, management, and ongoing evaluation of the services through appropriate training and recruitment efforts. The design of services shall stress easy accessibility, by locating services as close as possible to potential users, by keeping hours of service convenient, and by improving communications between users and providers through community outreach and involvement. Related services shall be included, either on site or through referral.
‘(7) United States population assistance to adolescent fertility programs shall be provided in the context of prevailing norms and customs in the recipient country.
‘(8)(A) Programs supported by United States population assistance shall--
‘(i) support the prevention of the spread of HIV-AIDS infection;
‘(ii) raise awareness regarding HIV-AIDS prevention and consequences; and
‘(iii) provide quality counselling, medical care and support services to HIV-AIDS infected individuals in a manner which respects individual rights and confidentiality.
‘(B) Responsible sexual behavior, including voluntary abstinence, for the prevention of HIV infection should be promoted and included in education and information programs.
‘(9) None of the funds made available by the United States Government to foreign governments, international organizations, or nongovernmental organizations may be used to coerce any person to undergo contraceptive sterilization or involuntary abortion or to accept any other method of fertility regulation.
‘SEC. 499E. ELIGIBILITY FOR POPULATION ASSISTANCE. (a) ELIGIBLE COUNTRIES- Notwithstanding any other provision of law, United States population assistance shall be available, directly or through intermediary organizations, to any country which the President determines has met one or more of the following criteria:
‘(1) The country accounts for a significant proportion of the world’s annual population increment.
‘(2) The country has significant unmet needs for fertility regulation and requires foreign assistance to implement, expand, or sustain quality family planning services for all its people.
‘(3) The country demonstrates a strong policy commitment to population stabilization through the expansion of reproductive choice.
‘(b) ELIGIBILITY OF NONGOVERNMENTAL AND MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS- In determining eligibility for United States population assistance, the President shall not subject nongovernmental and multilateral organizations to requirements which are more restrictive than requirements applicable to foreign governments for such assistance.
‘SEC. 499F. PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS. (a) FINDING- The Congress recognizes that the recent attention, in government policies toward population stabilization owes much to the efforts of the United Nations and its specialized agencies and organizations, particularly the United Nations Population Fund.
‘(b) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- United States population assistance shall be available for contributions to the United Nations Population Fund in such amounts as the President determines would be commensurate with United States contributions to other multilateral organizations and with the contributions of other donor countries.
‘(c) PROHIBITIONS- (1) The prohibitions contained in section 104(f) of this Act shall apply to the funds made available for the United Nations Population Fund.
‘(2) No United States population assistance may be available to the United Nations Population Fund unless such assistance is held in a separate account and not commingled with any other funds.
‘(3) No funds may be available for the United Nations Population Fund unless the Fund agrees to prohibit the use of those funds to carry out any program, project, or activity that involves the use of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization.
‘(d) ALLOCATION OF FUNDS- Of the funds made available for United States population assistance, the President shall make available for the Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction for each of the fiscal years 1996 and 1997 an amount commensurate with the contributions of the other donor countries for the purpose of furthering international cooperation in the development and evaluation of fertility regulation technology.
‘SEC. 499G. SUPPORT FOR NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS. (a) FINDING- Congress finds that in many developing countries, nongovernmental entities, including private and voluntary organizations and private sector entities, such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, are the most appropriate and effective providers of United States assistance to population and family planning activities.
‘(b) PROCEDURES- The President shall establish simplified procedures for the development and approval of programs to be carried out by nongovernmental organizations that have demonstrated--
‘(1) a capacity to undertake effective population and family planning activities which encourage significant involvement by private health practitioners, employer-based health services, unions, and cooperative health organizations; and
‘(2) a commitment to quality reproductive health care for women.
‘(c) PRIORITY FOR NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS- The largest share of United States population assistance made available for any fiscal year shall be made available through United States and foreign nongovernmental organizations.
‘SEC. 499H. REPORTS TO CONGRESS- The President shall prepare and submit to the Congress, as part of the annual presentation materials on foreign assistance, a report on world progress toward population stabilization and universal reproductive choice. The report shall include--
‘(1) estimates of expenditures on the population activities described in section 499C by national governments, donor agencies, and private sector entities;
‘(2) an assessment by country, of the availability and use of all methods of fertility regulation and abortion, whether lawful or unlawful in that country;
‘(3) an analysis by country and region of the impact of population trends on a set of key social, economic, political, and environment indicators, which shall be identified by the President in the first report submitted pursuant to this section and analyzed in that report and each subsequent report; and
‘(4) a detailed statement of prior year and proposed direct and indirect allocations of population assistance, by country, which describes how each country allocation meets the criteria set forth in this section.’.
SEC. 3. AUTHORIZATIONS OF APPROPRIATIONS.
- Section 104(g)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(g)(1) is amended by amending subparagraph (A) to read as follows:
‘(A) $635,000,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $695,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 to carry out subsection (b) of this section; and’.
SEC. 4. OVERSIGHT OF MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS.
- (a) FINDINGS- The Congress finds that--
- (1) multilateral development banks have an important role to play in global population efforts;
- (2) although the increased commitment by multilateral development banks to population-related activities is encouraging, together the banks provided less than $200,000,000 in 1994 in assistance for core population programs, and their overall lending for population, health, and nutrition decreased by more than one-half between 1993 and 1994; and
- (3) the banks themselves have recognized a need to improve oversight of programs, strengthen the technical skills of their personnel, and improve their capacity to work with borrowers, other donors, and nongovernmental organizations in formulating creative population projects to meet diverse borrower needs.
- (b) SENSE OF CONGRESS- It is the sense of the Congress that the multilateral development banks should increase their annual support for the population activities described in section 499C of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by this Act, to not less than a total of $1,000,000,000 by December 31, 2000.
- (c) REPORT REQUIRED- Not later than July 31 of each year, the Secretary of the Treasury shall prepare and transmit to Congress a report which includes, with respect to the preceding calendar year--
- (1) information on the resources made available by each multilateral development bank for the population activities described in section 499C of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by this Act;
- (2) if such resources total less than $1,000,000,000, any specific actions taken by the United States executive directors to the banks to encourage increases in such resources and in policy-level discussions with donor and developing country governments; and
- (3) an analysis of the progress made by the banks towards--
- (A) meeting the objectives of the population activities which are supported by the banks;
- (B) increasing their in-country management staff;
- (C) improving the technical skills of their personnel; and
- (D) assuring their responsiveness to borrower needs.
- (d) DEFINITION- As used in this section, the term ‘multilateral development banks’ means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
SEC. 5. REPORT ON WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN.
- (a) REPORT- Not later than August 1, 1995, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a public report on preparations for United States participation in the 1995 World Conference on Women, including information on public hearings and conferences to be held in relation to the Conference. The report, which should be made available for consideration at the 1995 World Conference on Women, shall specify, among other things--
- (1) modifications in policy and financial commitments required by United States and foreign governments to achieve universal reproductive choice and early population stabilization;
- (2) information on the burden of poverty on women, including international statistics on women in poverty and female-headed households;
- (3) current data on gender inequality in access to education and health care services;
- (4) information on violence against women, including current data on causes and incidence, new methods for addressing violence against women, and proposals for preventing and eradicating violence against women;
- (5) information on women’s access to and participation in the development of economic structures and policies and in local and national economies in general, including current data on occupational segregation, wage inequality, and access to credit and technology; and
- (6) current comparative data on men and women in political positions, legislative bodies, and decisionmaking positions at all levels, and information on the structural and attitudinal barriers women face in these areas.
SEC. 6. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES TO STABILIZE WORLD POPULATION.
- (a) CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS- The Congress makes the following findings:
- (1) Women represent 50 percent of the world’s human resource potential. Therefore, improving the health, social, and economic status of women and increasing their productivity are essential for economic progress in all countries. Improving the status of women also enhances their decisionmaking capacity at all levels in all spheres of life, including in the area of reproductive health.
- (2) Throughout the world, women who participate in the social, economic, and political affairs of their communities are more likely to exercise their choice about childbearing than women who do not participate in such activities.
- (3) Effective economic development strategies address issues such as infant and child survival rates, educational opportunities for girls and women, and gender equality in development.
- (4) Comprehensive population stabilization efforts which include both family planning services and economic development activities achieve lower birth rates and stimulate more development than those which pursue these objectives independently.
- (5) The most powerful, long-term influence on birthrates is education, especially educational attainment among women. Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self confidence necessary to participate in their communities.
- (6) In most societies, men traditionally have exercised preponderant power in nearly all spheres of life. Therefore, improving communication between men and women on reproductive health issues and increasing their understanding of joint responsibilities are essential to ensuring that men and women are equal partners in public and private life.
- (7) In addition to enabling women to participate in the development of their societies, educational attainment has a strong influence on all other aspects of family welfare, including child survival. However, of the world’s 130 million children who are not enrolled in primary school, 70 percent are girls.
- (8) In a number of countries, lower rates of school enrollment among girls, the practice of prenatal sex selection, and higher rates of mortality among very young girls suggest that ‘son preference’ is curtailing the access of girl children to food, health care, and education.
- (9) Each year, nearly 15 million children under the age of 5 die, most from preventable causes. Wider availability of vaccines, simple treatments for diarrheal disease and respiratory infections, and improved nutrition could prevent many of these deaths.
- (10) Each year, 500,000 or more women worldwide die from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth, illegal abortion, or inadequate or inaccessible reproductive health care services. Another 10 million women annually suffer long-term illness or permanent physical impairment from such causes.
- (11) Malnutrition and anemia are widespread among poor women in their childbearing years, yet the worldwide campaign to encourage breastfeeding has devoted little attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers.
- (12) By mid-1993, the cumulative number of AIDS cases since the pandemic began was estimated at 2.5 million, and an estimated 14 million people had been infected with HIV. By year 2000, estimates are that 40 million people will be HIV infected.
- (13) As of mid-1993, four-fifths of all persons ever infected with HIV lived in developing countries. Women are the fastest growing group of new cases.
- (b) DECLARATION OF POLICY- Congress declares that, to further the United States foreign policy objective of assisting the international community in achieving universal availability of quality fertility regulation services and stabilizing world population, additional objectives of the foreign policy of the United States shall be--
- (1) to help achieve universal access to basic education for women and men, with particular priority being given to primary and technical education and job training;
- (2) to increase understanding of the consequences of population growth through effective education strategies that begin in primary school and continue through all levels of formal and nonformal education and which take into account
the rights and responsibilities of parents and the needs of children and adolescents;
- (3) to reduce the gap between male and female levels of literacy and between male and female levels of primary and secondary school enrollment;
- (4) to help ensure that women worldwide have the opportunity to become equal partners with men in the development of their societies;
- (5) to help eliminate all forms of discrimination against girl children and the root causes of son preference, which result in harmful and unethical practice such as female infanticide and prenatal sex selection;
- (6) to increase public awareness of the value of girl children through public education that promotes equal treatment of girls and boys in health, nutrition, education, socioeconomic and political activity, and equitable inheritance rights;
- (7) to promote gender equality in all spheres of life, including family and community life, and to encourage and enable men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behavior and their social and family roles;
- (8) to help ensure that women and men have the information and means needed to achieve good reproductive health and to exercise their reproductive rights through responsible sexual behavior and equity in gender relations;
- (9) to reduce global maternal and infant mortality rates; and
- (10) to improve worldwide maternal and child health status and quality of life.
- (c) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- United States development assistance shall be available, on a priority basis, for--
- (1) countries which either have adopted and implemented, or have agreed to adopt and implement, strategies to help ensure--
- (A) before 2015, the achievement of the goal of universal primary education for girls and boys in all countries and access to secondary and higher levels of education, including vocational education and technical training, for girls and women;
- (B) by 2005, the reduction of adult illiteracy by at least one-half the country’s 1990 level;
- (C) by 2005, the elimination of the gap between male and female levels of literacy and between male and female levels of primary and secondary school enrollment; and
- (D) the establishment of programs designed to meet adolescent health needs, which include services and information on responsible sexual behavior, family planning practice, reproductive health and sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-AIDS prevention;
- (2) governmental and nongovernmental programs which, with respect to a targeted country, are intended--
- (A) by 2005, to increase life expectancy at birth to greater than 70 years of age and by 2015, to 75 years of age;
- (B) by 2005, to reduce by one-third the country’s mortality rates for infants and children under 5 years of age, or to 50 per 1,000 live births for infants and 70 per 1,000 for children under 5 years of age, whichever is less; and by 2015, to reduce the country’s infant mortality rate below 35 per 1,000 births and the under-5 mortality rate below 45 per 1,000;
- (C) by 2005, to reduce maternal mortality by one-half of the 1990 level and by a further one-half by 2015;
- (D) by 2005, to reduce significantly malnutrition among the country’s children under 5 years of age;
- (E) to maintain immunizations against childhood diseases for significant segments of the country’s children; and
- (F) to reduce the number of childhood deaths in the country which result from diarrheal disease and acute respiratory infections;
- (3) governmental and nongovernmental programs which are intended to increase women’s productivity and ensure equal participation and equitable representation at all levels of the political process and public life in each community and society through--
- (A) improved access to appropriate labor-saving technology, vocational training, and extension services and access to credit and child care;
- (B) equal participation of women and men in all areas of family and household responsibilities, including family planning, financial support, child rearing, children’s education, and maternal and child health and nutrition;
- (C) fulfillment of the potential of women through education, skill development and employment, with the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and poor health among women being of paramount importance; and
- (D) recognition and promotion of the equal value of children of both sexes;
- (4) governmental and nongovernmental programs which are intended to increase the access of girls and women to comprehensive reproductive health care services pursuant to subsection (d); and
- (5) governmental and nongovernmental programs which are intended to eliminate all forms of exploitation, abuse, harassment, and violence against women, adolescents, and children.
- (d) SAFE MOTHERHOOD INITIATIVE- (1)(A) The President is authorized to establish a grant program, to be known as the Safe Motherhood Initiative, to help improve the access of girls and women worldwide to comprehensive reproductive health care services.
- (B) Such program shall be carried out in accordance with this section and shall be subject to the same terms, conditions, prohibitions, and restrictions as are applicable to assistance made available under sections 499D, 499E, and 499F of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by this Act.
- (2) Comprehensive reproductive health care programs which are eligible for assistance under this section include--
- (A) fertility regulation services;
- (B) prenatal care and screening for high risk pregnancies and improved access to safe delivery services for women with high risk pregnancies;
- (C) supplemental food programs for pregnant and nursing women;
- (D) child survival and other programs that promote birth spacing through breastfeeding;
- (E) expanded and coordinated programs that support responsible sexual behavior, including voluntary abstinence, and which prevent, detect, and treat sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-AIDS, reproductive tract infections, and other chronic reproductive health problems;
- (F) programs intended to eliminate traditional practices injurious to women’s health, including female genital mutilation;
- (G) improvements in the practice of midwifery, including outreach to traditional birth attendants; and
- (H) expanded and coordinated programs to prevent, detect, and treat cancers of the reproductive system.
- (e) REPORTS TO CONGRESS- (1) Not later than December 31, 1995, the President shall prepare and submit to Congress a report which includes--
- (A) estimates of the total financial resources needed to achieve, by the year 2005, the specific objectives set forth in subsection (c) with respect to education, rates of illiteracy, malnutrition, immunization, maternal and child mortality and morbidity, and improvements in the economic productivity of women;
- (B) an analysis of such estimates which separately lists the total financial resources needed from the United States, other donor nations, and nongovernmental organizations;
- (C) an analysis, by country, which--
- (i) identifies the legal, social, economic, and cultural barriers to women’s self-determination and to improvements in the economic productivity of women in traditional and modern labor sectors; and
- (ii) describes initiatives needed to develop appropriate technologies for use by women, credit programs for low-income women, expanded child care, vocational training, and extension services for women; and
- (D) a comprehensive description of--
- (i) new and expanded initiatives to ensure safe motherhood worldwide;
- (ii) findings on the major causes of mortality and morbidity among women of childbearing age in various regions of the world;
- (iii) actions needed to reduce, by the year 2005, world maternal mortality by one-half of the worldwide 1990 level and a further one-half by 2015; and
- (iv) the financial resources needed to meet this goal from the United States, other donor nations, and nongovernmental organizations.
- (2) In each annual country human rights report, the Secretary of State shall include--
- (A) information on any patterns within the country of discrimination against women in inheritance laws, property rights, family law, access to credit and technology, hiring practices, formal education, and vocational training; and
- (B) an assessment which makes reference to all significant forms of violence against women, including rape, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation, the extent of involuntary marriage and childbearing, and the prevalence of marriage among women under 18 years of age.
- (f) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- (1) Of the aggregate amounts available for United States development and economic assistance programs for education activities, $165,000,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $200,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 shall be available only for programs in support of increasing primary and secondary school enrollment and equalizing levels of male and female enrollment.
- (2) There are authorized to be appropriated $330,000,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $380,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 to the Child Survival Fund under section 104(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which amounts shall be available for child survival activities only, including the Children’s Vaccine Initiative, the worldwide immunization effort, and oral rehydration programs.
- (3) There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000,000 for the Safe Motherhood Initiative for each of fiscal years 1995 and 1996.
- (g) DEFINITIONS- For purposes of this section--
- (1) the term ‘annual country human rights report’ refers to the report required to be submitted
pursuant to section 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2304(b)); and
- (2) the term ‘United States development and economic assistance’ means assistance made available under chapter 1 of part I and chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
SEC. 7. AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL FUND.
- (a) IN GENERAL- Section 104(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(c)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
‘(4)(A)(i) The President is authorized to provide assistance, under such terms and conditions as he may determine, with respect to activities relating to research on, and the treatment and control of, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developing countries.
‘(ii) Assistance provided under clause (i) shall include--
‘(I) funds made available directly to the World Health Organization for its use in financing the Global Program on AIDS (including activities implemented by the Pan American Health Organization); and
‘(II) funds made available to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for AIDS-related activities.
‘(B) Appropriations pursuant to subparagraph (A) may be referred to as the ‘AIDS Prevention and Control Fund’.’.
- (b) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- Section 104(g)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(g)) is amended--
- (1) by striking ‘and’ at the end of subparagraph (A);
- (2) in subparagraph (B), by striking ‘subsection (c) of this section.’ and inserting ‘subsection (c) of this section (other than paragraph (4) thereof); and’; and
- (3) by adding at the end thereof the following new subparagraph:
‘(C) $125,000,000 for fiscal year 1996 and $145,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 to carry out subsection (c)(4) of this section.’.
- (c) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendments made by this section shall take effect October 1, 1995.
SEC. 8. SUPPORT FOR UNITED NATIONS FORWARD LOOKING STRATEGIES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN.
- (a) IN GENERAL- The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women to take all actions necessary to ensure the rapid implementation of the United Nations Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, as adopted in 1985 at the United Nations Conference ending the Decade for Women.
- (b) REVIEW AND ANNUAL REPORTS- Not later than December 31, 1995, the Secretary of State shall submit the 5-year review of the status of United States women, as called for at the conference, and shall submit such annual reports as are requested by the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
SEC. 9. SUPPORT FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN.
- The President shall promptly complete the review of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which was signed by the United States on July 17, 1980, and submit to the Senate any reservations, understandings, or declarations that the President considers necessary in order that the Senate may give its advice and consent to ratification, or report to the Congress why he is unable or unwilling to do so.