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H.R. 2703 (104th): Effective Death Penalty and Public Safety Act of 1996

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The summary below was written by the Congressional Research Service, which is a nonpartisan division of the Library of Congress, and was published on Mar 14, 1996.

TABLE OF CONTENTS: Title I: Criminal Acts Title II: Increased Penalties Title III: Investigative Tools Title IV: Nuclear Materials Title V: Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives Title VI: Immigration-Related Provisions Subtitle A: Removal of Alien Terrorists Subtitle B: Expedited Exclusion Subtitle C: Improved Information and Processing Subtitle D: Employee Verification by Security Services Companies Subtitle E: Criminal Alien Deportation Improvements Title VII: Authorization and Funding Title VIII: Miscellaneous Title IX: Habeas Corpus Reform Title X: International Counterfeiting Title XI: Biological Weapons Restrictions Title XII: Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement Title XIII: Representation Fees Title XIV: Death Penalty Aggravating Factor Title XV: Financial Transactions With Terrorists Effective Death Penalty and Public Safety Act of 1996 - Title I: Criminal Acts - Amends the Federal criminal code to set penalties for: (1) killing or attempting to kill any U.S. officer engaged in, or on account of, the performance of official duties or any person assisting such an officer or employee; and (2) threatening to assault, kidnap, or murder former Federal officers and employees. (Sec. 102) Sets penalties for providing material support to terrorist organizations. (Sec. 103) Modifies existing provisions setting penalties for providing material support to terrorists, including by: (1) eliminating language that excludes from the definition of "material support or resources" humanitarian assistance to persons not directly involved in violations; and (2) adding language to exclude from such definition medicine or religious materials. (Sec. 104) Imposes penalties for acts of terrorism transcending national boundaries, including creating a substantial risk of serious bodily injury to another by attempting or conspiring to destroy or damage any structure, conveyance, or other real or personal property within the United States in violation of State or Federal law. Sets forth provisions regarding limits on prosecution, proof requirements, extraterritorial jurisdiction, the statute of limitations, and detention. Grants the Attorney General primary investigative responsibility for all "Federal crimes of terrorism" (defined as an offense that is calculated to influence or affect the conduct of government by intimidation or coercion or to retaliate against government conduct and that is a violation of specified provisions of the Federal criminal code, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, or other Federal law). Directs the Secretary of the Treasury (Secretary) to assist the Attorney General at the Attorney General's request. (Sec. 105) Revises provisions prohibiting injuring property of a foreign government to set penalties for conspiring to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure people in a foreign government. (Sec. 106) Makes penalties for an individual committing an offense on an aircraft in flight outside the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States applicable regardless of whether such individual is later found in the United States. Grants jurisdiction over such an offense if: (1) a U.S. national was or would have been on board the aircraft; (2) an offender is a U.S. national; or (3) an offender is found in the United States. Provides that if the victim of specified offenses is an internationally protected person outside the United States, the United States may exercise jurisdiction if: (1) the victim is a representative, officer, employee, or agent of the United States; (2) an offender is a U.S. national; or (3) an offender is found in the United States. (Sec. 107) Modifies provisions regarding the use of weapons of mass destruction to include threats to use such weapons and to specify that, to violate such provisions, such use must be without lawful authority and the results of such use must affect (or in the case of a threat, attempt, or conspiracy, would have affected) interstate or foreign commerce. Includes within the definition of "weapon of mass destruction" any weapon designed to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors. Sets penalties (including the death penalty, if death results) for any U.S. national who, without lawful authority and outside the United States, uses, or threatens, attempts, or conspires to use, a weapon of mass destruction. (Sec. 108) Adds terrorism offenses to the money laundering statute. (Sec. 109) Expands Federal jurisdiction over bomb threats. (Sec. 110) Provides that there is U.S. jurisdiction over specified maritime violence: (1) regardless of whether the activity is prohibited by the State in which it takes place; and (2) committed by a U.S. national or by a stateless person whose habitual residence is in the United States, regardless of whether the activity takes place on a ship flying the flag of a foreign country or outside the United States. (Sec. 111) Prohibits the possession, or pledge or acceptance as security for a loan, of stolen explosive materials moving in interstate or foreign commerce. (Sec. 112) Directs the Secretary to conduct a study and make recommendations concerning: (1) the extent and nature of the deaths and serious injuriesof law enforcement officers in the line of duty during the last decade; (2) whether current passive defensive strategies, such as body armor, are adequate to counter the criminal use of firearms against law officers; and (3) the calibers of ammunition that are sold in the greatest quantities, their common uses, the calibers commonly used for civilian defensive or sporting uses that would be affected by any prohibition on non-law enforcement sales of such ammunition if such ammunition is capable of penetrating minimum level bullet resistant vests, and recommendations for increases in body armor capabilities to further protect law enforcement from that threat. Authorizes appropriations. Title II: Increased Penalties - Revises provisions of the Federal criminal code regarding mandatory minimum sentences for certain explosives offenses to eliminate the malice requirement and increase penalties. Extends the statute of limitations to seven years for specified arson and explosives offenses. (Sec. 202) Increases penalties for explosives conspiracies. (Sec. 203) Sets penalties for conspiring to commit various terrorism-related offenses. (Sec. 204) Revises provisions regarding transferring a firearm knowing that it will be used to commit a crime of violence to subject violators to the same penalties as may be imposed on a transferee for a first conviction for the use or carrying of the firearm. (Sec. 205) Subjects whoever transfers explosive materials, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that such materials will be used to commit a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime, to the same penalties as may be imposed for a first conviction for the use or carrying of the explosive materials. (Sec. 206) Directs the United States Sentencing Commission to amend the sentencing guidelines so that the adjustment relating to international terrorism only applies to Federal crimes of terrorism. (Sec. 207) Directs such Commission to amend such guidelines (and, if appropriate, the policy statements of the Commission) to provide for enhanced penalties for a defendant who commits a crime while in possession of a firearm with a laser sighting device. Title III: Investigative Tools - Requires the Attorney General to conduct a study concerning: (1) the tagging of explosive materials for purposes of detection and identification; (2) technology for devices to improve the detection of explosives materials; (3) whether common chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials can be rendered inert and whether it is feasible to require it; and (4) whether controls can be imposed on certain precursor chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials and whether it is feasible to require it. Prohibits such study from including black or smokeless powder among the explosive materials considered. (Sec. 302) Excludes from the definition of "electronic information" for purposes of wiretap-related definitions information stored in a communications system used for the electronic storage and transfer of funds. (Sec. 303) Establishes a requirement for providers of wire or electronic communication services to preserve record evidence. (Sec. 304) Provides that, except for good cause, a continuance on motion of the person in a detention hearing may not exceed five days and a continuance on motion of the attorney for the Government may not exceed three days (as under current law), not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday. (Sec. 305) Authorizes the Attorney General to prohibit: (1) vehicles from parking or standing on any street or roadway adjacent to any building in the District of Columbia which is wholly or partly owned, possessed, used by, or leased to the Federal Government and used by Federal law enforcement authorities; and (2) any person or entity from conducting business on any property immediately adjacent to any such building. (Sec. 306) Directs the Attorney General to study and report to the Congress on the extent of thefts from military arsenals of firearms, explosives, and other materials that are potentially useful to terrorists. Title IV: Nuclear Materials - Amends the Federal criminal code to expand the scope of provisions regarding prohibited transactions involving nuclear materials (for example, to include nuclear byproduct material) and the jurisdictional bases (such as to cover a situation where an offender or a victim is a U.S. national or a U.S. corporation or other legal entity). Title V: Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives - Amends the Federal criminal code to prohibit (with exceptions) the manufacture, importation, exportation, shipment, transport, transfer, receipt, or possession of any plastic explosive which does not contain a detection agent. Prohibits any person (other than a U.S. agency or the National Guard of any State) possessing any plastic explosive on the effective date of this title, from failing to report to the Secretary the quantity of such explosives possessed, the manufacturer or importer, any identification marks, and such other information as the Secretary may prescribe. (Sec. 503) Sets forth: (1) penalties for violations of this title; and (2) affirmative defenses. Title VI: Immigration-Related Provisions - Subtitle A: Removal of Alien Terrorists - Part 1: Removal Procedures for Alien Terrorists - Authorizes appropriations to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for the purpose of detaining and deporting alien terrorists. Part 2: Exclusion and Denial of Asylum for Alien Terrorists - Prohibits the Attorney General from granting asylum to alien terrorists. Denies other specified deportation relief for alien terrorists. Subtitle B: Expedited Exclusion - Authorizes the examining immigration officer, upon determining that an alien seeking entry is excludable under specified provisions (with respect to misrepresentation or insufficient documentation) and does not indicate either an intention to apply for asylum or a fear of persecution, to order the alien excluded from the United States without further hearing or review. Directs the Attorney General to promulgate regulations to provide for the immediate review by a supervisory asylum office at the port of entry of a determination that an alien does not have a credible fear of persecution. (Sec. 622) Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) limits on judicial review, including preclusion of collateral attacks on the validity of orders of exclusion, special exclusion, or deportation pursuant to this title; and (2) exclusion of aliens who have not been inspected and admitted. Subtitle C: Improved Information and Processing - Part 1: Immigration Procedures - Allows the Attorney General (and, in some cases, an employee or official of the Department of Justice) to authorize an application to a Federal court of competent jurisdiction for, and allows a judge of such court to grant, an order authorizing disclosure of information contained in an alien's application for adjustment of status under the legalization program or under the special agricultural worker program for: (1) identification of an alien believed to have been killed or severely incapacitated; or (2) criminal law enforcement purposes against the alien if the alleged criminal activity occurred after the application was filed and such activity involves terrorist activity or poses an immediate risk to life or national security or would be prosecutable as an aggravated felony, without regard to the length of sentence that could be imposed on the applicant. (Sec. 632) Authorizes the Secretary of State to waive the application of provisions regarding notice of denial of visa applications in the case of a particular alien or any class or classes of aliens excludable on criminal or security and related grounds. Part 2: Asset Forfeiture for Passport and Visa Offenses - Amends the Federal criminal code to provide for: (1) criminal forfeiture for passport and visa related offenses; and (2) subpoenas for bank records for specified offenses, such as for fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents. Subtitle D: Employee Verification by Security Services Companies - Makes provisions prohibiting potential employers of foreign nationals from requesting additional or different documentation inapplicable to a request made in connection with an individual seeking employment in a company engaged in the business of providing security services to protect persons, institutions, buildings, or other possible targets of terrorism. Subtitle E: Criminal Alien Deportation Improvements - Criminal Alien Deportation Improvements Act of 1995 - Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended by the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994, to expand the definition of "aggravated felony." (Sec. 663) Subjects a conditional permanent resident alien convicted of an aggravated felony to expedited deportation. (Sec. 664) Revises the seven-year residency defense against a deportation or exclusion order to permit deportation or exclusion of a permanent resident alien who has been sentenced (currently, imprisoned) to five or more years for an aggravated felony. (Sec. 665) Limits collateral attacks on deportation orders. (Sec. 666) Amends the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (VCCLEA) to: (1) rename the criminal alien tracking center as the criminal alien identification system; (2) specify that the system shall be used to identify and locate deportable aliens who have committed aggravated felonies; and (3) transfer the system from the Attorney General to the Commissioner of the INS. (Sec. 667) Amends the Federal criminal code to: (1) bring certain alien smuggling-related crimes under the purview of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act; and (2) authorize wiretaps for alien smuggling investigations. (Sec. 669) Amends the INA to: (1) expand the criteria for deportation for crimes of moral turpitude; and (2) permit the use of electronic and telephonic media in deportation hearings. (Sec. 672) Directs the Secretary of State and the Attorney General to report on the effectiveness of the Prisoners Transfer Treaty with Mexico. (Sec. 673) Directs the Attorney General to designate a Department of Justice office which shall provide State and local entities with technical and prosecutorial assistance with respect to aliens who flee prosecution for crimes committed in the United States. (Sec. 674) Advises the President to negotiate bilateral prisoner transfer treaties. Requires annual presidential certification that a treaty is effectively returning illegal aliens incarcerated in the United States to finish their prison term in their home country. (Sec. 675) Directs the Attorney General and the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization to develop an interior (home country) repatriation program. (Sec. 676) Amends the INA to authorize deportation of nonviolent offenders prior to Federal or State sentence completion. (Sec. 677) Authorizes State and local law enforcement officials, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, to arrest and detain an illegal alien who has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and who has been deported from or left the United States after such conviction, after obtaining appropriate confirmation from the INS of such individual's status, for such time as may be required for the INS to take that individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States. Directs the Attorney General to cooperate with the States to assure that information in the Attorney General's control, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out such duties is made available to such officials. Title VII: Authorization and Funding - Authorizes the Attorney General to award grants to provide specialized training or equipment to enhance the capability of metropolitan fire and emergency service departments to respond to terrorist attacks. Authorizes appropriations for FY 1996. (Sec. 702) Authorizes appropriations for FY 1996 and 1997 to the President to provide to foreign countries facing an imminent danger of terrorist attack that threatens the U.S. national interest or puts U.S. nationals at risk assistance in: (1) obtaining explosive detection devices and other counter-terrorism technology; and (2) conducting research and development projects on such technology. (Sec. 703) Authorizes appropriations to the National Institute of Justice Science and Technology Office to: (1) develop technologies that can be used to combat terrorism; (2) develop standards to ensure the adequacy of products and compatibility with relevant national systems; and (3) identify and assess requirements for technologies to assist State and local law enforcement in the national program to combat terrorism. (Sec. 704) Expresses the sense of the Congress that, whenever practicable, recipients of any sums authorized to be appropriated by this Act should use the money to purchase American-made products. Title VIII: Miscellaneous - Directs the Secretary to study and report to the Congress on State licensing requirements for the purchase and use of commercial high explosives. (Sec. 802) Amends the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 to provide for the compensation of victims of terrorism. (Sec. 803) Amends the Federal judicial code to make an exception to foreign sovereign immunity in certain cases in which money damages are sought against a foreign state for personal injury or death caused by an act of torture, extrajudicial killing, aircraft sabotage, hostage taking, or the provision of material support or resources for such an act, where undertaken by an official, employee, or agent of a foreign country while acting within the scope of his office, employment, or agency. Prohibits any action from being maintained under such provision unless the action is commenced not later than ten years after the date on which the cause of action arose. Requires that all principles of equitable tolling, including the period during which the foreign state was immune from suit, apply in calculating this limitation period. Makes an exception to immunity from attachment where the judgement relates to a claim for which the foreign state is not immune under such provision, regardless of whether the property is or was involved with the act upon which the claim is based. (Sec. 804) Directs the Attorney General to study and report to the Congress concerning: (1) the extent to which there is available to the public material that instructs how to make bombs, destructive devices, and weapons of mass destruction and the extent to which information gained from such material has been used in incidents of domestic and international terrorism; (2) the likelihood that such information may be used in future terrorism incidents; and (3) the application of existing Federal laws to such material, any need and utility for additional laws, and an assessment of the extent to which the First Amendment protects such material and its private and commercial distribution. (Sec. 805) Directs the Attorney General to: (1) acquire data for the calendar year 1990 and each succeeding calendar year about crimes and incidents of threats and acts of violence against Federal, State, and local government employees in performance of their lawful duties; (2) establish guidelines for the collection of such data; and (3) publish an annual summary of the data, which shall otherwise be used only for research and statistical purposes. Specifies that the United States Secret Service is not required to participate in any statistical reporting activity regarding any threats made against any individual for whom the Service is authorized to provide protection. (Sec. 806) Victim Restitution Act of 1995 - Amends the Federal criminal code to require (current law authorizes) the court to order restitution of the victim when a convicted defendant is being sentenced for specified offenses. Specifies that such requirement does not affect the power of the court to impose any other penalty authorized by law. Permits the court, in the case of a misdemeanor, to impose restitution in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law. Authorizes a court to order restitution of any person who, as shown by a preponderance of the evidence, was harmed physically, emotionally, or pecuniarily by unlawful conduct of the defendant during the offense or during the course of a scheme, conspiracy, or pattern of unlawful activity related to the offense. Mandates that a restitution order require the defendant to reimburse the victim for necessary child care, transportation, and other expenses related to participation in the investigation or prosecution of the offense or attendance at related proceedings. Directs the court: (1) to order restitution in the full amount of the victim's losses without consideration of the economic circumstances of the offender or the fact that a victim is entitled to receive compensation from insurance or any other source; and (2) upon determination of the amount owed to each victim, to specify in the restitution order the manner of, and schedule for, restitution in consideration of the financial resources and other assets, projected earnings and other income, and financial obligations of the offender. Specifies that: (1) a restoration order may direct the offender to make a single, lump-sum payment, partial payments at specified intervals, or such in-kind payments as may be agreeable to the victim and the offender and shall direct the offender to give appropriate notice to victims and other persons in cases where there are multiple victims or other persons who may receive restitution and where the identity of such victims and other persons can be reasonably determined; and (2) such in-kind payments may be in the form of the return or replacement of property or the provision of services to the victim or another person or organization. Provides that when the court finds that: (1) more than one offender has contributed to the loss of a victim, the court may make each offender liable for payment of the full amount or may apportion liability among the offenders to reflect the level of contribution and economic circumstances of each offender; and (2) more than one victim has sustained a loss requiring restitution by an offender, the court shall order full restitution of each victim but provide for different payment schedules to reflect the economic circumstances of each victim. Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) compensation with respect to losses from insurance or other sources; (2) set-offs against amounts later recovered as compensatory damages by the victim in Federal and State civil proceedings; and (3) payment by the offender to an entity designated by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts for accounting and payment in accordance with this section. Specifies that a restitution order shall constitute a lien against all property of the offender. Makes compliance with a restitution order a condition of any probation, parole, or other form of release of an offender. Specifies actions the court may take, including revocation of probation or supervised release, if a defendant fails to comply. Provides for enforcement of restitution orders. Authorizes: (1) a victim or the offender to petition the court to modify a restitution order in view of a change in the economic circumstances of the offender; and (2) the court to refer any issue arising in connection with a proposed restitution order to a magistrate or special master for proposed findings of fact and recommendations as to disposition, subject to a de novo determination of the issue by the court. (Sec. 807) Authorizes the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to support law enforcement training activities in foreign countries for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of the United States in investigating and prosecuting transnational offenses. (Sec. 808) Allows the courts involved to order closed circuit televising of the proceedings of a criminal trial to permit crime victims to watch the proceedings in cases where the venue is moved out of State, if more than 350 miles from the location in which those proceedings originally would have taken place, if donations will defray the cost and if other conditions are met. Prohibits rebroadcast of such proceedings. Limits access to such broadcast. Authorizes the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to accept donations to enable the courts to carry out such provision, but bars the use of appropriated money for such purpose. (Sec. 809) Authorizes appropriations for each of FY 1996 through 2000 to the FBI to: (1) hire additional personnel and procure equipment to support expanded investigations of domestic and international terrorism activities; (2) establish a Domestic Counterterrorism Center; and (3) cover costs associated with providing law enforcement coverage of public events offering the potential of being targeted by domestic or international terrorists. Title IX: Habeas Corpus Reform - Amends the Federal judicial code to establish a one-year statute of limitations for habeas corpus actions brought by State prisoners. (Sec. 902) Specifies that: (1) there shall be no right of appeal from a final order in a habeas corpus proceeding; and (2) unless a circuit justice or judge issues a certificate of appealability, any appeal may not be taken to the court of appeals from the final order in a habeas corpus proceeding in which the detention complained of arises out of process issued by a State or Federal court. Permits such certificate to issue only if the applicant has made a substantial showing of the denial of a constitutional right. (Sec. 904) Provides that if the applicant has failed to develop the factual basis of a claim in State court proceedings, the Federal court shall not hold an evidentiary hearing on the claim unless: (1) the claim relies on a new rule of constitutional law, made retroactive by the Supreme Court, that was previously unavailable or on a factual predicate that could not have been previously discovered through the exercise of due diligence; and (2) the facts underlying the claim would be sufficient to establish by clear and convincing evidence that, but for constitutional error, no reasonable factfinder would have found the applicant guilty of the underlying offense. (Sec. 905) Sets forth provisions regarding limitations on second or successive applications. (Sec. 907) Sets forth special habeas corpus procedures in capital cases. Requires (with exceptions): (1) a district court to render a final determination of an application for habeas corpus brought in a capital case not later than 180 days after the date on which the application is filed; and (2) a court of appeals to hear and render a final determination of any appeal of an order granting or denying such petition within 120 days after the date on which the reply brief is filed and to decide whether to grant a petition or other request for rehearing en banc within 30 days after the date on which the petition for rehearing is filed. Requires the Administrative Office of United States Courts to submit to the Congress an annual report on the compliance by the courts of appeals with the time limitations under this section. (Sec. 908) Amends the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) to allow the court, upon a finding that investigative, expert, or other services are reasonably necessary for the representation of a defendant in a criminal action in which a defendant is charged with a crime which may be punishable by death and in certain post-conviction proceedings, to authorize the defendant's attorneys to obtain such services on behalf of the defendant and order the payment of fees and expenses. Prohibits any ex parte proceeding, communication, or request (proceeding) from being considered unless a proper showing is made concerning the need for confidentiality. Requires that any such proceeding be transcribed and made a part of the record available for appellate review. Title X: International Counterfeiting - International Counterfeiting Prevention Act of 1996 - Directs the Secretary to: (1) study the use and holding of U.S. currency in foreign countries; and (2) develop useful estimates of the amount of counterfeit U.S. currency that circulates outside the United States each year. Requires the Secretary to develop an effective international evaluation audit plan. Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) timetables for the submission of a detailed written summary of the plan and the first and subsequent audits; (2) reporting requirements; (3) and a sunset provision. (Sec. 1003) Directs the Secretary of State to: (1) consider in a timely manner the Secretary's request for the placement of such number of Secret Service agents as the Secretary considers appropriate in posts in overseas embassies; and (2) reach an agreement with the Secretary on such posts as soon as possible, but not later than December 31, 1996. Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) cooperation of the Secretary in providing information requested by the Secretary of State; and (2) reporting requirements. Directs the Sentencing Commission to amend the sentencing guidelines to provide an appropriate enhancement of the punishment for a defendant convicted of counterfeiting U.S. currency outside the United States. Title XI: Biological Weapons Restrictions - Biological Weapons Enhanced Penalties Act of 1996 - Amends the Federal criminal code to include within the scope of prohibitions regarding biological weapons attempts to acquire a biological agent, toxin, or delivery system for use as a weapon. (Sec. 1103) Adds recombinant molecules to the agents, toxins, or delivery systems that may not lawfully be developed, produced, stockpiled, transferred, acquired, retained, or possessed. (Sec. 1105) Includes within the scope of prohibitions regarding the use of weapons of mass destruction threatening to use such weapons. (Sec. 1106) Modifies the definition of "weapon of mass destruction" to include any weapon involving a biological agent or toxin. Title XII: Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement - Establishes the Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement. (Sec. 1202) Sets forth the duties of the Commission, including investigating and recommending congressional action on: (1) the manner in which significant Federal criminal law enforcement operations are conceived, planned, coordinated, and executed; (2) the standards and procedures used by Federal law enforcement to carry out significant Federal criminal law enforcement operations; (3) the criminal investigation and handling by the U.S. Government and the Federal law enforcement agencies regarding the standoff in Waco, Texas, which ended in the deaths of over 80 civilians on April 19, 1993; and (4) the extent to which Federal law enforcement agencies have attempted to pursue community outreach efforts that provide meaningful input into the shaping and formation of agency policy. (Sec. 1203) Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) membership and administration of the Commission; (2) staffing and support functions; (3) powers and termination of the Commission; and (4) reporting requirements. Title XIII: Representation Fees - Amends: (1) the Federal criminal code to add provisions requiring that information regarding fees for representation in any case be made available to the public; and (2) the CSA to revise attorney compensation provisions to direct that appointed counsel be compensated at an hourly rate of not less than $75 nor more than $125 for in-court and out-of-court time and that fees and expenses paid for investigative, expert, and other reasonably necessary services be at rates and in amounts authorized under the code. Title XIV: Death Penalty Aggravating Factor - Amends the Federal criminal code to include among the aggravating factors for homicide that the defendant intentionally killed or attempted to kill more than one person in a single criminal episode. Title XV: Financial Transactions With Terrorists - Imposes penalties upon U.S. persons who engage in a financial transaction with a country, knowing or having reasonable cause to know that such country has been designated under the Export Administration Act as a country supporting international terrorism, with exceptions.