Reform of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
Rewrites provisions of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (JJDPA) to establish in the Department of Justice (DOJ) an Office of Juvenile Crime Control and Prevention, headed by an Administrator. Directs the Administrator to develop objectives, priorities, and short- and long-term plans, and implement overall policy and strategy to carry out such plan, for all Federal juvenile crime control, prevention, and juvenile offender accountability programs and activities relating to improving juvenile crime control, the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders, the prevention of juvenile crime, and the enhancement of accountability by offenders within the U.S. juvenile justice system.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to eligible States to provide financial assistance to eligible entities to carry out projects designed to prevent juvenile delinquency, including educational projects or supportive services for juveniles to encourage juveniles to remain in elementary and secondary schools or in alternative learning situations in educational settings, projects that use neighborhood courts or panels that increase victim satisfaction and require juveniles to make restitution or perform community service for the damage caused by their delinquent acts, projects that expand the use of probation officers, and projects that leverage funds to provide scholarships for postsecondary education and training for low-income juveniles who reside in neighborhoods with high rates of poverty, violence, and drug-related crimes.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to Indian tribes and national, statewide, or community-based, nonprofit organizations in crime prone areas (such as Boys and Girls Clubs) for purposes of providing:
(1) constructive activities to youth during after school hours, weekends, and school vacations;
(2) supervised activities in safe environments to youth in those areas; and
(3) anti-alcohol and other drug education to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse among youth.
Directs the Administrator to make CRISIS (confidential reporting of individuals suspected of imminent school violence) grants to support the independent State development and operation of confidential, toll-free telephone hotlines for the reporting of specific threats and suspicious or criminal conduct by juveniles to appropriate State and local law enforcement entities for investigation, and for related purposes.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to States and local governments to assist them in planning, establishing, operating, coordinating, and evaluating projects for the development of more effective education, training, research, prevention, diversion, treatment, and rehabilitation programs in the area of juvenile delinquency and programs to improve the juvenile justice system.
Sets forth provisions regarding State plans (which, among other things, shall provide for court supervised initiatives that address the illegal possession of firearms by juveniles, and programs for positive youth development that provide delinquent and at-risk youth with an ongoing relationship with a caring adult, safe places and structured activities during nonschool hours, a healthy start, a marketable skill, and an opportunity to give back through community service).
Establishes within the National Institute of Justice a National Institute for Juvenile Crime Control and Delinquency Prevention, which shall provide:
(1) for the rigorous and independent evaluation of delinquency and youth violence prevention programs funded under this title; and
(2) funding for new research on the nature, causes, and prevention of juvenile violence and juvenile delinquency.
Authorizes the Administrator to:
(1) transfer funds to and enter into agreements with the Bureau of Justice Statistics (or, subject to approval, to another Federal agency) to undertake statistical work in juvenile justice matters; and
(2) plan and identify the purposes and goals of each grant made or agreement entered into under this title.
Authorizes the Administrator to:
(1) conduct, encourage, and coordinate research and evaluation into any aspect of juvenile delinquency, and to establish or expand specified programs;
(2) provide technical assistance and training assistance;
(3) establish a training program regarding methods and techniques for the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency; and
(4) conduct a study on the effect of incarceration on status offenders and report to specified congressional committee members.
Sets forth provisions regarding application requirements, considerations for application approval, and the selection and review process.
Directs the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to conduct a study of the effects of violent video games and music on child development and youth violence.
Requires the Administrator to make grants to or enter into contracts with public and private nonprofit agencies, organizations, and institutions to establish and support programs and activities that:
(1) involve families and communities and that are designed to carry out specified purposes, such as preventing and reducing juvenile participation in the activities of gangs that commit crimes, targeting elementary school students in steering students away from gang involvement, and providing treatment to juvenile gang members; and
(2) reduce juvenile participation in illegal gang activities, develop regional task forces involving State, local, and community-based organizations to coordinate gang disruption, prosecution, and curtailment, facilitate coordination and cooperation among specified agencies and community-based programs, and support programs that are designed to encourage courts to develop and implement a specified continuum of post-adjudication restraints, and assist in the provision by the Administrator of information and technical assistance to States in the design and utilization of risk assessment mechanisms to aid juvenile justice personnel in determining appropriate sanctions for delinquent behavior.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to, and enter into contracts with, States, local governments, Indian tribal governments, public and private nonprofit agencies, organizations, and institutions, and individuals, or combinations thereof, to carry out projects for the development, testing, and demonstration of promising initiatives and programs for the prevention, control, or reduction of juvenile delinquency.
Directs the Administrator to make grants to:
(1) local education agencies and nonprofit organizations to establish and support programs and activities for the purpose of implementing mentoring programs; and
(2) a qualified cooperative extension service for the purpose of expanding and replicating family mentoring programs to reduce the incidence of juvenile crime and delinquency among at-risk youth.
Authorizes the Administrator, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, to make grants to cooperative extension services to reduce the incidence of juvenile crime and delinquency among at-risk youth.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to qualified national organizations with a proven history of providing one-to one services for the purpose of expanding and replicating capacity building programs to reduce the incidence of juvenile crime and delinquency among at-risk youth.
Authorizes appropriations through FY 2004.
Makes religious nondiscrimination provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 applicable to a State or local government exercising its authority to distribute grants to applicants under this title.
Sets forth restrictions on the use of appropriations for experimentation on individuals, construction by private agencies, lobbying, and legal action against Federal, State, or local agencies, institutions, or employees.
Sets penalties for violations.
Repeals provisions regarding incentive grants for local delinquency prevention programs.
Amends the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (the Act) to:
(1) include findings that it is the responsibility of the Federal Government to assist in the development of an accurate national reporting system on runaway and homeless youth and that services for such youth are needed in urban, suburban, and rural areas;
(2) authorize the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) to make grants to public and nonprofit private entities to establish and operate local centers to provide services for such youth and their families;
(3) require a grant applicant, to be eligible for assistance, to include assurances that the applicant shall submit an annual report that includes, with respect to the year for which the report is submitted, statistical summaries describing the number and the characteristics of such youth and youth at risk of family separation who participated in the project and the services provided to such youth by the project; and
(4) modify the services that applicants must plan to provide in order to use grant money for street-based, home-based, and drug abuse education and prevention services.
Revises Act provisions regarding:
(1) approval of applications to direct the Secretary to consider the geographical distribution in the State of the proposed services and which areas of the State have the greatest need for such services, and to give priority to eligible applicants who have demonstrated experience in providing services to runaway and homeless youth and who request grants of less than $200,000;
(2) authority for the transitional living grant program to repeal definitions of "homeless youth" and "transitional living youth project";
(3) eligibility for assistance by stating that the annual report submitted by grant applicants to the Secretary must include statistical summaries describing the number and characteristics of the services provided to the homeless youth;(4) coordination by the Secretary of the activities of the Department of Health and Human Services with respect to matters relating to the health, education, employment, and housing of runaway and homeless youth; and
(5) authority to make grants for research, demonstration, and service projects to repeal references to home-based and street based services from the research and demonstration projects.
Repeals provisions of the Act directing that assistance to potential grantees include information on the need for the establishment of additional runaway and homeless youth centers in the geographical area identified by the potential grantee involved.
Amends the Act to require the Secretary, by April 1, 2000, and biennially thereafter, to submit to specified congressional committees a report on the status, activities, and accomplishments of entities that receive grants under the Act. Lists information that must be included in the report.
Requires the Secretary to include summaries of the Secretary's evaluations of grantees and descriptions of the qualifications and training of the individuals administering the evaluations.
Authorizes appropriations under such Act through FY 2004.
Sets forth the division of appropriations among the programs.
Authorizes the Secretary to make grants to nonprofit private agencies to provide street-based services to runaway and homeless, and street youth, who have been subjected to, or are at risk of being subjected to, sexual abuse, prostitution, or sexual exploitation.
Directs the Secretary to give priority to nonprofit private agencies that have experience in providing services to runaway and homeless, and street youth.
Authorizes appropriations through FY 2004.
Amends the Missing Children's Assistance Act to direct the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to annually make a grant to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which shall be used to:
(1) operate a national 24-hour toll-free telephone line by which individuals may report information regarding the location of any missing child, or other child age 13 or younger whose whereabouts are unknown to such child's legal custodian, and request information pertaining to procedures necessary to reunite such child with the child's legal custodian;
(2) coordinate the operation of such telephone line with the operation of the national communications system referred to in the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act;
(3) operate the official national resource center and information clearinghouse for missing and exploited children;
(4) provide to State and local governments, public and private nonprofit agencies, and individuals, information regarding free or low-cost legal, restaurant, lodging and transportation services that are available for the benefit of missing and exploited children and their families and the existence and nature of programs being carried out by Federal agencies to assist missing and exploited children and their families;
(5) coordinate public and private programs that locate, recover, or reunite missing children with their families;
(6) disseminate, on a national basis, information relating to innovative and model programs, services, and legislation that benefit missing and exploited children;
(7) provide technical assistance and training to law enforcement agencies, State and local governments, elements of the criminal justice system, public and private nonprofit agencies, and individuals in the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and treatment of cases involving missing and exploited children; and
(8) provide assistance to families and law enforcement agencies in locating and recovering missing and exploited children, both nationally and internationally.
Authorizes appropriations through FY 2004.
Requires the Administrator, either by making grants to or entering into contracts with public or nonprofit private agencies, to:
(1) periodically conduct national incidence studies to determine for a given year the actual number of children reported missing each year, abducted by strangers, kidnaped by parents, and recovered each year; and
(2) provide to State and local governments, public and private nonprofit agencies, and individuals information to facilitate the lawful use of school records and birth certificates to identify and locate missing children.
Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to and enter contracts with the Center for specified purposes, such as for research, demonstration projects, or service programs designed to assist in the locating and return of missing children.
(Currently, such grants or contracts may only be made with public or nonprofit private organizations, or combinations thereof.) Authorizes appropriations through FY 2004.
Transfers functions and allocates appropriations and personnel to the new Office of Juvenile Crime Control and Prevention.