< Back to H.R. 2390 (106th Congress, 1999–2000)

Text of the Smart Classrooms Act

This bill was introduced on June 30, 1999, in a previous session of Congress, but was not enacted. The text of the bill below is as of Jun 30, 1999 (Introduced).

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HR 2390 IH

106th CONGRESS

1st Session

H. R. 2390

To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to create small, manageable, accountable classrooms with qualified teachers.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

June 30, 1999

Mr. MARTINEZ (for himself, Mr. CLAY, Mr. GEORGE MILLER of California, Mr. KILDEE, Mr. OWENS, Mr. PAYNE, Mrs. MINK of Hawaii, Mr. ANDREWS, Mr. ROEMER, Mr. SCOTT, Ms. WOOLSEY, Mr. ROMERO-BARCELO, Mr. FATTAH, Mr. HINOJOSA, Mrs. MCCARTHY of New York, Mr. TIERNEY, Mr. KIND, Ms. SANCHEZ, Mr. FORD, Mr. KUCINICH, and Mr. WU) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Education and the Workforce, and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned


A BILL

To amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to create small, manageable, accountable classrooms with qualified teachers.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ‘Smart Classrooms Act’.

SEC. 2. SMART CLASSROOMS.

    (a) IN GENERAL- Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6601 et seq.) is amended--

      (1) by striking the heading for title II and inserting the following:

‘TITLE II--SMART CLASSROOMS’;

      (2) by striking sections 2001 through 2003;

      (3) by striking parts A, B, and D;

      (3) by redesignating part C as part D; and

      (4) by inserting after the title heading the following:

‘PART A--QUALIFIED TEACHERS IN EVERY CLASSROOM

‘Subpart 1--Findings; Purpose; Authorization of Appropriations

‘SEC. 2001. FINDINGS.

    ‘The Congress finds as follows:

      ‘(1) All students can learn and achieve to high standards.

      ‘(2) States that have shown the most success in improving student achievement are those that have developed challenging content and student performance standards, have aligned curricula and assessments with those standards, have prepared educators to teach to those standards, and have held schools accountable for the achievement of all students against those standards.

      ‘(3) Increased teachers’ knowledge of academic content and effective teaching skills is associated with increases in student achievement. While other factors also influence learning, teacher quality makes a critical difference in how well students learn, across all categories of students. For example, recent research has found that teachers’ expertise has a greater impact on students’ achievement in reading than any other in-school factor.

      ‘(4) A crucial component of an effective strategy for achieving high standards is ensuring, through professional development, that all teachers provide their students with challenging learning experiences in the core academic subjects.

      ‘(5) Recent research has found that teachers who participate in sustained curriculum-centered professional development are much more likely to report that their teaching is aligned with high standards than are teachers who have not received such training.

      ‘(6) Research has found that high-quality professional development is--

        ‘(A) linked to high standards: professional development activities should improve the ability of teachers to help all students, including females, minorities, children with disabilities, children with limited English proficiency, and economically disadvantaged children, reach high State academic standards;

        ‘(B) focused on content: professional development activities should advance teacher understanding of 1 or more of the core academic subject areas and effective instructional strategies for improving student achievement in those areas;

        ‘(C) collaborative: professional development activities should involve collaborative groups of teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff from the same school or district;

        ‘(D) sustained: professional development activities should be of sufficient duration to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction and, to the greatest extent possible, should include follow-up and school-based support such as coaching or study groups;

        ‘(E) embedded in a plan: professional development activities should be embedded in school and district-wide plans designed to raise student achievement to State academic standards; and

        ‘(F) informed by research: professional development activities should be based on the best available research on teaching and learning.

      ‘(7) Students who attend schools with large numbers of poor children are less likely to be taught by teachers who have met all State requirements for certification or licensure or who have a solid academic background in the subject matter they are teaching.

      ‘(8) Despite the fact that every year the Nation’s colleges and universities produce many more teachers than are hired and that over 2,000,000 individuals who possess education degrees are currently engaged in activities other than teaching, many school districts experience difficulty recruiting and hiring enough fully qualified teachers. Among the reasons researchers have found for districts hiring less than fully qualified teachers are--

        ‘(A) cumbersome and poorly coordinated State licensing procedures and local hiring practices;

        ‘(B) the lack of reciprocity of teacher credentials, pensions, and credited years of experience across State and school district lines;

        ‘(C) a lack of support for new teachers, such as high-quality mentoring programs, that can help reduce the attrition rate and the number of new teachers that school districts must hire every year; and

        ‘(D) compensation systems that do not adequately reward teachers for improving their knowledge and skills.

‘SEC. 2002. PURPOSE.

    ‘The purpose of this part is to support the improvement of classroom instruction, so that all students are able to achieve to challenging State content and student performance standards in the core academic subjects, by providing assistance to State and local educational agencies in their efforts to recruit and retain a fully qualified instructional staff by--

      ‘(1) supporting States and local educational agencies in continuing the task of developing challenging content and student performance standards and aligned assessments, revising curricula and teacher certification requirements, and using challenging content and student performance standards to improve teaching and learning;

      ‘(2) assisting high-poverty local educational agencies and low-performing local educational agencies that have the greatest difficulty in recruiting and retaining fully qualified teachers;

      ‘(3) supporting States and local educational agencies in recruiting and retaining teachers in subject areas in which the State has determined there to be a shortage of teachers;

      ‘(4) ensuring that all instructional staff have the subject matter knowledge and teaching skills necessary to teach effectively in all subjects in which they provide instruction;

      ‘(5) providing assistance to new teachers during their first 3 years in the classroom; and

      ‘(6) ensuring that teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff have access to professional development that is aligned with challenging State content and student performance standards in the core academic subjects.

‘SEC. 2003. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    ‘(a) SUBPART 2- For the purpose of carrying out subpart 2, there are authorized to be appropriated $1,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2000, $1,250,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $1,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, $1,750,000,000 for fiscal year 2003, and $2,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2004.

    ‘(b) SUBPART 3- For the purpose of carrying out subpart 3, there are authorized to be appropriated $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2000 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

‘Subpart 2--State and Local Activities

‘SEC. 2011. ALLOCATIONS TO STATES.

    ‘(a) IN GENERAL- In the case of each State that in accordance with section 2013 submits to the Secretary an application for a fiscal year, and has that application approved under section 2013(c), the Secretary shall make a grant for the year to the State for the uses specified in section 2012. The grant shall consist of the allocation determined for the State under subsection (b) or (c).

    ‘(b) RESERVATION OF FUNDS- From the amount made available to carry out this subpart for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve--

      ‘(1) 1/2 of 1 percent to provide assistance to the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, to

be distributed among these outlying areas on the basis of their relative need, as determined by the Secretary in accordance with the purpose of this part; and

      ‘(2) 1/2 of 1 percent for the Secretary of the Interior for activities under this subpart for teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff in schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ‘(c) STATE ALLOCATIONS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- After reserving funds under subsection (b), the Secretary shall allocate the remaining amount made available to carry out this subpart for any fiscal year among the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico as follows:

        ‘(A) 50 percent of such amount shall be allocated among such States on the basis of their relative populations of individuals aged 5 through 17, as determined by the Secretary on the basis of the most recent satisfactory data.

        ‘(B) 50 percent of such amount shall be allocated among such States in proportion to the number of children, aged 5 to 17, who reside within the State from families with incomes below the poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and revised annually in accordance with section 673(2) of the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2))) applicable to a family of the size involved for the most recent fiscal year for which satisfactory data are available, compared to the number of such individuals who reside in all such States for that fiscal year.

      ‘(2) MINIMUM ALLOCATION- No State receiving an allocation under paragraph (1) may receive less than 1/4 of 1 percent of the total amount made available to carry out this subpart for any fiscal year and not reserved under subsection (b).

‘SEC. 2012. WITHIN-STATE ALLOCATIONS.

    ‘(a) SUBGRANTS TO LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each State receiving a grant under this subpart shall expend at least 92 percent of the amount of the funds provided under the grant for the purpose of making subgrants to local educational agencies as follows:

        ‘(A) subject to paragraph (2), 80 percent of such amount shall be allocated as follows:

          ‘(i) 60 percent shall be allocated among local educational agencies having an approved application under section 2017 in proportion to the number of children, aged 5 to 17, who reside within the jurisdiction served by the agency from families with incomes below the poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget as revised annually in accordance with section 673(2) of the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2))) applicable to a family of the size involved for the most recent fiscal year for which satisfactory data are available, compared to the number of such children who reside in all such jurisdictions for that fiscal year.

          ‘(ii) 40 percent shall be allocated among local educational agencies having an approved application under section 2017 on the basis of their relative populations of children aged 5 to 17, as determined by the Secretary on the basis of the most recent satisfactory data.

        ‘(B) 20 percent of such amount shall be used to provide additional funds to local educational agencies, and partnerships described in section 2016(b)(1), having an approved application under section 2018 in accordance with such section.

      ‘(2) MINIMUM AMOUNT- Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(A), a local educational agency may not receive an allocation under such paragraph for any fiscal year that is less than its allocation for fiscal year 1999 under section 2203(1) of this Act (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Smart Classrooms Act). If the amount available for allocations under paragraph (1)(A) is insufficient to satisfy the preceding sentence, each allocation under such paragraph shall be ratably reduced.

    ‘(b) SUBGRANTS TO PARTNERSHIPS- Each State receiving a grant under this subpart shall expend at least 2 percent of the amount of the funds provided under the grant for the purpose of making subgrants to partnerships under section 2016.

    ‘(c) STATE-LEVEL ACTIVITIES- Each State receiving a grant under this part may expend not more than 6 percent of the amount of the funds provided under the grant for one or more of the State-level activities described in section 2015.

    ‘(d) ADMINISTRATION AND EVALUATIONS- Subject to section 2023, each State receiving a grant under this subpart or part C shall expend not more than 1/6 of its allocation under subsection (c) for--

      ‘(1) its costs of administering this subpart and part C;

      ‘(2) evaluations of the effectiveness of activities under this subpart and part C, including effectiveness as measured using the indicators of program performance described in section 2401; and

      ‘(3) reports required under section 2208, if the State receives funds under part C.

‘SEC. 2013. STATE APPLICATION.

    ‘(a) APPLICATIONS REQUIRED-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each State desiring to receive its allocation under this subpart shall submit, through its State educational agency, an application to the Secretary at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary reasonably may require.

      ‘(2) CONSULTATION- The State educational agency shall develop the State application--

        ‘(A) in consultation with the State agency for higher education, community-based and other nonprofit organizations of demonstrated

effectiveness in professional development, and institutions of higher education; and

        ‘(B) with the extensive participation of teachers, teacher educators, school administrators, and content specialists.

    ‘(b) CONTENTS- Each such application shall include the following:

      ‘(1) A description of how the State educational agency will use all funds received under this subpart to implement State plans or policies that support comprehensive standards-based education reform through the following strategies:

        ‘(A) Supporting the alignment of curricula and assessments with challenging State content and student performance standards.

        ‘(B) Supporting local educational agencies in their efforts to recruit and retain fully qualified teachers, with special consideration given to recruiting highly qualified teachers from minority and other historically underrepresented groups, including bilingual teachers.

        ‘(C) Ensuring that teachers employed by local educational agencies are proficient in content knowledge and teaching skills in all subjects in which they provide instruction.

        ‘(D) Providing professional development, aligned with State content and student performance standards, in core academic subjects.

      ‘(2) A plan for ensuring that all teachers teaching in schools served under this part are fully qualified not later than November 1, 2003.

      ‘(3) An assurance that teacher aides or other paraprofessionals who are not fully qualified teachers provide instruction to students only under the direct and immediate supervision of a fully qualified teacher, and have received the professional development necessary to perform their duties.

      ‘(4) A description of the process the State educational agency will use to make competitive awards to local educational agencies under section 2018, including a description of--

        ‘(A) the State’s criteria for classifying local educational agencies as among those having the greatest need for services provided under this subpart and its justification for those criteria;

        ‘(B) the State’s strategies for ensuring that local educational agencies that have historically had little success in competing for funds are provided a reasonable opportunity to compete for subgrants;

        ‘(C) the State’s criteria for determining the amounts that it will award to recipients and the criteria for providing noncompetitive renewals of subgrants; and

        ‘(D) the technical assistance that the State educational agency will provide, under section 2018(e)(2), to local educational agencies that it identifies as having the greatest need for services and that fail to receive an award under section 2018.

      ‘(5) A description of how the State educational agency will ensure that all recipients of funds under this subpart will report on their level of performance based on the program performance indicators described in section 2401.

      ‘(6) A list of any additional indicators of program performance, beyond those described in section 2401, on which the State educational agency and the State agency for higher education will require recipients to report.

      ‘(7) A set of specific, numerical, annual goals for each of the performance indicators required under section 2401 and for any additional indicators that the State elects to use for measuring the progress of the State and local educational agencies receiving funds under this subpart.

      ‘(8) A description of how the State will coordinate professional development activities authorized under this subpart with professional development activities provided under other Federal, State, and local programs, including those authorized under title I, title III, title IV, part A of title VII, and (where applicable) the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act. The application shall also describe the comprehensive strategy that the State will take as part of such coordination effort, to ensure that teachers are trained in the utilization of technology so that technology and its applications are effectively used in the classroom to improve teaching and learning in all curriculum and content areas, as appropriate.

    ‘(c) APPROVAL- The Secretary shall, using a peer-review process, approve a State application if it meets the requirements of this section and holds reasonable promise of achieving the purpose described in section 2002.

‘SEC. 2014. STATE ACCOUNTABILITY.

    ‘(a) ANNUAL REPORTS- Each State educational agency that receives funds under this subpart and part C shall, beginning in fiscal year 2002, annually compile, publish, submit to the Secretary, and distribute to the public, a report including the following information:

      ‘(1) The percentage of teachers teaching in the State who have not met State qualifications and licensing criteria for the grade levels and subject areas in which they provide instruction.

      ‘(2) The percentage of teachers teaching in the State under emergency or other provisional status through which State qualifications or licensing criteria have been waived.

      ‘(3) The percentage of teachers teaching in the State who do not hold a postsecondary degree with a major in the subject areas in which they provide instruction.

      ‘(4) The average class size.

      ‘(5) The percentage of teachers with certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

      ‘(6) Information on the progress of recipients of subgrants under this subpart, measured based on the program performance indicators described in

section 2041 and any additional indicators included in the State’s application.

      ‘(7) Such other information as the Secretary may reasonably require.

    ‘(b) DISAGGREGATED DATA- Data collected for the purpose of carrying out this section shall be disaggregated by State, local educational agency, and school.

‘SEC. 2015. STATE-LEVEL ACTIVITIES.

    ‘Each State shall use funds it reserves under section 2012(c) to carry out activities described in its approved application that promote high-quality classroom instruction, such as--

      ‘(1) supporting the continued improvement of State content and student performance standards and assessments aligned with those standards;

      ‘(2) providing technical assistance and other services to increase the capacity of local educational agencies and schools to develop and implement systemic local improvement plans, implement State and local assessments, and develop curricula consistent with State content and performance standards;

      ‘(3) supporting the development and implementation, at the local educational agency and school-building level, of improved systems for recruiting, selecting, hiring, mentoring, supporting, evaluating, and rewarding principals and fully qualified teachers;

      ‘(4) redesigning and strengthening professional licensure systems for educators;

      ‘(5) developing performance-based assessment systems for full teacher licensure;

      ‘(6) establishing, expanding, or improving rigorous alternative routes to State certification or licensure that lead to certification within 2 years and require applicants to meet the same standards and pass the same tests as other applicants;

      ‘(7) developing or strengthening assessments to test the content knowledge and teaching skills of new teachers;

      ‘(8) developing and implementing professional development opportunities for teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff based on State content and student performance standards;

      ‘(9) operating a teacher academy that establishes and demonstrates models for local educational agencies to improve teaching and learning through activities such as--

        ‘(A) using master teachers to mentor and train student teachers; and

        ‘(B) providing ongoing professional development opportunities and support for teachers;

      ‘(10) providing professional development programs that enable teachers to effectively communicate with parents in the education process to support classroom instruction and work effectively with parent volunteers;

      ‘(11) executing policies and practices that will ensure that low-income and minority students are not taught by emergency certified or unqualified teachers at rates higher than other students; and

      ‘(12) increasing the portability of teacher pensions and reciprocity of teaching credentials across State lines.

‘SEC. 2016. SUBGRANTS TO PARTNERSHIPS.

    ‘(a) ADMINISTRATION- From the funds made available to it under section 2012(b) for any fiscal year, a State agency for higher education may use not more than 5 percent for its expenses in administering this section, including conducting evaluations and reporting under subsection (g).

    ‘(b) SUBGRANTS TO PARTNERSHIPS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL-

        ‘(A) PARTNERSHIPS- For the purpose of providing professional development to elementary and secondary school teachers in a local educational agency that is both a high-poverty local educational agency and a low-performing local educational agency, a State agency for higher education, subject to subsection (a) and in conjunction with the State educational agency, shall use the funds made available to it under section 2012(b) for any fiscal year to make subgrants to partnerships consisting of--

          ‘(i) one or more institutions of higher education (including historically Black colleges and universities and Hispanic-serving institutions), or nonprofit organizations of demonstrated effectiveness in providing professional development in the core academic subjects; and

          ‘(ii) a local educational agency that is both a high-poverty local educational agency and a low-performing local educational agency, or more than one such agency.

        ‘(B) REQUIREMENT FOR INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION- Participating institutions of higher education shall meet the criteria under section 203(a)(2)(A)(i) of the Higher Education Act of 1965.

      ‘(2) SIZE, DURATION, AND PEER REVIEW- Each subgrant under this section shall be--

        ‘(A) of sufficient size and duration to carry out the purpose of this subpart effectively; and

        ‘(B) awarded, using a peer-review process, on a competitive basis.

      ‘(3) PRIORITY- In making subgrants under this section, a State agency for higher education shall give a priority to projects that focus on induction programs for new teachers.

      ‘(4) OTHER FACTORS- In making subgrants under this section, a State agency for higher education shall consider--

        ‘(A) the need for the proposed professional development activities in the jurisdiction of the local educational agency; and

        ‘(B) the quality of the proposed program and its likelihood of success in improving classroom instruction and student academic achievement.

    ‘(c) PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENTS- No institution of higher education or nonprofit organization may receive a subgrant under this section unless it enters into a written agreement with at least one local educational agency that

is both a high-poverty local educational agency and a low-performing local educational agency to provide professional development to elementary and secondary school teachers in the schools of that agency in the core academic subjects. Each such agreement shall identify specific goals for how the professional development that the subgrantee provides will enhance the ability of those teachers to prepare all students, including females, minorities, students with disabilities, students with limited English proficiency, and economically disadvantaged students, to achieve to challenging State content and student performance standards in all subjects in which those teachers provide instruction.

    ‘(d) COORDINATION- Any professional development activities carried out under this section by a partnership shall be coordinated with activities carried out under title II of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1021 et seq.), if any member of the partnership is participating in programs funded under that title.

    ‘(e) JOINT EFFORTS WITHIN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION- In the case of a partnership that includes an institution of higher education, each activity assisted under this section shall involve the joint effort of the institution’s school or department of education and the schools or departments responsible for the specific disciplines in which the professional development will be provided.

    ‘(f) USES OF FUNDS- A recipient of funds under this section shall use those funds for--

      ‘(1) research-based programs to assist new teachers during their first 3 years in the classroom, which may include--

        ‘(A) mentoring and coaching by appropriately trained and certified teachers;

        ‘(B) team teaching with experienced teachers;

        ‘(C) observation by, and consultation with, experienced teachers;

        ‘(D) assignment of fewer course preparations; and

        ‘(E) provision of additional time for preparation;

      ‘(2) professional development in the core academic subjects, aligned with State content and student performance standards, for teams of teachers from a school or local educational agency and, where appropriate, principals, administrators, and other school staff; and

      ‘(3) providing technical assistance to school and local educational agency staff for planning, implementing, and evaluating professional development.

    ‘(g) ANNUAL REPORTS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Beginning with fiscal year 2002, each subgrantee under this section shall submit an annual report to the State agency for higher education, by a date set by that agency, on its progress, as measured using the indicators of partnership performance described in section 2041.

      ‘(2) CONTENT- Each such report--

        ‘(A) shall include a copy of each written agreement required by subsection (c); and

        ‘(B) shall describe how the partners have collaborated to achieve the specific goals set out in the agreement, and the results of that collaboration.

      ‘(3) COPY- The State agency for higher education shall provide the State educational agency with a copy of each subgrantee’s annual report.

    ‘(h) SPECIAL RULE- No single participant in a partnership receiving a subgrant under this section may retain more than 50 percent of the funds made available to the partnership under this section.

‘SEC. 2017. LOCAL APPLICATIONS FOR FORMULA SUBGRANTS.

    ‘(a) APPLICATION REQUIRED- Each local educational agency desiring to receive its allocation from funds made available under section 2012(a)(1)(A) for any fiscal year shall submit an application to the State educational agency at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the State educational agency reasonably may require. Each such application shall include an agency-wide plan for raising student achievement against State standards through each of the following strategies:

      ‘(1) Supporting the alignment of curricula, assessments, classroom instructional strategies, and professional development with challenging State content and student performance standards.

      ‘(2) Carrying out activities to recruit fully qualified teachers, particularly in subject areas and in schools in which there is a shortage of such teachers with special consideration given to recruiting fully qualified teachers from minority and other historically underrepresented groups, including bilingual teachers.

      ‘(3) Ensuring that teachers employed by the local educational agency are proficient in teaching skills and in the content knowledge necessary to effectively teach the content called for by State and local standards in all subjects in which they provide instruction and are prepared to integrate technology into the classroom.

      ‘(4) Targeting funds to schools within the jurisdiction of the local educational agency that--

        ‘(A) have the highest proportion of teachers who are not fully qualified;

        ‘(B) have the largest average class size; or

        ‘(C) are identified for school improvement under section 1116(c).

      ‘(5) Carrying out activities to assist new teachers during their first 3 years in the classroom.

      ‘(6) Providing professional development in core academic subjects.

    ‘(b) ADDITIONAL CONTENTS- Each such application shall also--

      ‘(1) identify specific, measurable goals for achieving the purpose described in section 2002 that, at a minimum, reflect the performance indicators described in section 2041;

      ‘(2) describe how the local educational agency will use funds received under this subpart to help implement the plan described in subsection (a);

      ‘(3) include an assurance that the local educational agency will collect data that measure

progress toward the indicators of program performance described in section 2041;

      ‘(4) describe how the local educational agency will address the needs of high-poverty, low-performing schools within its jurisdiction;

      ‘(5) describe how the local educational agency will address the needs of teachers of students with limited English proficiency and other students with special needs; and

      ‘(6) describe how the local educational agency will coordinate funds under this subpart with the professional development activities funded through other State and Federal programs.

    ‘(c) APPROVAL- Notwithstanding section 2012(a)(1)(A), a State educational agency shall approve a local educational agency’s application under this section only if the application satisfies the requirements of this section and the State educational agency determines that the application holds reasonable promise of achieving the purpose described in section 2002.

    ‘(d) CONSOLIDATED APPLICATION- Local educational agencies may consolidate applications under this section and section 2018.

‘SEC. 2018. LOCAL APPLICATIONS FOR COMPETITIVE SUBGRANTS.

    ‘(a) IN GENERAL- Each State educational agency shall use the funds described in section 2012(A)(1)(B) for competitive grants to local educational agencies, and partnerships described in section 2016(b)(1), that focus primarily on those agencies and partnerships with the greatest need for--

      ‘(1) activities related to the development, and effective implementation, of curricula aligned with state content and student performance standards; and

      ‘(2) professional development activities that are aligned with those standards.

    ‘(b) SELECTION PROCESS-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The State educational agency shall award subgrants under this section through a peer-review process that includes reviewers who are knowledgeable in the academic content areas.

      ‘(2) PUBLIC AVAILABILITY- The State educational agency--

        ‘(A) shall provide local educational agencies and the general public with a list of the selection criteria that the State educational agency will use in making subgrants under this section; and

        ‘(B) at the completion of the awards process, make public a complete list of applicants and of the applicants that received awards.

    ‘(c) DEMONSTRATION OF NEED- The State educational agency shall identify the applicants with the greatest need for services, based on the following objective data supplied by the applicant:

      ‘(1) The number or percentage of children who fail to meet State performance standards on assessments used for part A of title I.

      ‘(2) The number or percentage of schools identified for school improvement under section 1116(c).

      ‘(3) The number or percentage of teachers employed who have not received full State certification or licensure.

      ‘(4) The number or percentage of secondary school teachers who do not have an academic major in a subject area directly related to the area in which they provide instruction.

      ‘(5) The number or percentage of students living in poverty.

      ‘(6) The number or percentage of students who have limited English proficiency.

      ‘(7) The applicant’s fiscal capacity to fund programs described in section 2019 without Federal assistance.

    ‘(d) SELECTION OF SUBGRANTEES- The State educational agency shall make awards to applicants based on--

      ‘(1) the quality of the applicant’s proposal and the likelihood of its success in improving classroom instruction and student academic achievement;

      ‘(2) the demonstrated need of the applicant under subsection (c); and

      ‘(3) the applicant’s need for professional development in mathematics and science.

    ‘(e) OPPORTUNITY TO COMPETE-

      ‘(1) STRATEGIES- To ensure that local educational agencies that have the greatest need are provided a reasonable opportunity to compete for an award, State educational agencies shall adopt at least one of the following strategies:

        ‘(A) Holding more than one competition for funds for a fiscal year and, before each such competition, providing technical assistance in developing a high-quality application to local educational agencies that have demonstrated the greatest need but were unsuccessful in the previous grant competition.

        ‘(B) Holding a competition restricted to local educational agencies that it has identified under subsection (c) as having the greatest need for services.

        ‘(C) Requiring recipients seeking a renewal of a subgrant under this section to form a partnership with an applicant that applied for, but failed to receive, such a subgrant.

        ‘(D) Providing a competitive priority to those local educational agencies the State educational agency has identified under subsection (c) as having the greatest need for services.

      ‘(2) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE- At a minimum, a State educational agency shall, after the completion of an award cycle and before the start of the next cycle, provide technical assistance in developing a high-quality application for future competitions to any local educational agency identified under subsection (c) as having the greatest need for services that did not receive a subgrant.

    ‘(f) SCOPE OF PROJECTS- The State educational agency shall award a subgrant under this section only for

projects that are of sufficient size, scope, and quality to achieve the purpose of this part.

‘SEC. 2019. USES OF FUNDS.

    ‘(a) PRIORITY FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE-

      ‘(1) APPROPRIATION EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN $300,000,000- Except as provided in section 2020(d), in any fiscal year for which the amount appropriated for this subpart is $300,000,000 or less, each local educational agency shall ensure that all funds received by the agency under this subpart are used for professional development in mathematics and science.

      ‘(2) APPROPRIATION GREATER THAN $300,000,000- Except as provided in section 2020(d), in any fiscal year for which the amount appropriated for this subpart is greater than $300,000,000, each local educational agency shall ensure that the amount of funds under this subpart that the agency uses for professional development in mathematics and science is at least as much as the amount that would have been made available to the agency if the amount appropriated had been $300,000,000.

      ‘(3) INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES- In meeting the requirement under paragraph (1) or (2), a local educational agency may use funds under this subpart for activities that focus on more than one core academic subject if those activities focus predominantly on improving instruction in mathematics or science.

      ‘(4) WAIVER-

        ‘(A) APPLICATION- A local educational agency, in consultation with teachers and principals, may seek a waiver of the requirements under paragraph (1) or (2) from a State in order to allow the local educational agency to use such funds for professional development in academic subjects other than mathematics and science.

        ‘(B) STANDARD FOR GRANTING- A State may not approve such a waiver unless the local educational agency is able to demonstrate that--

          ‘(i) the professional development needs of mathematics and science teachers, including elementary teachers responsible for teaching mathematics and science, have been adequately met and will continue to be adequately met if the waiver is approved;

          ‘(ii) State assessments in mathematics and science demonstrate that each school within the local educational agency has made and will continue to make progress toward meeting the challenging State content standards and student performance standards in these areas; and

          ‘(iii) State assessments in other academic subjects demonstrate a need to focus on subjects other than mathematics and science.

        ‘(C) GRANDFATHER OF OLD WAIVERS- A waiver provided to a local educational agency under part D of title XIV prior to the date of the enactment of the Smart Classrooms Act shall be deemed effective until such time as it otherwise would have ceased to be effective.

    ‘(b) OTHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES- Each local educational agency shall ensure that funds under this subpart that the agency uses for professional development, in areas other than mathematics or science, are used to provide professional development activities in one or more of the other core academic subjects.

    ‘(c) OTHER USES OF FUNDS- Subject to subsection (a), a local educational agency that receives funds under this subpart may use those funds for activities to raise student achievement against challenging State standards, in accordance with its plan described in section 2017(a), which may include the following:

      ‘(1) Activities to recruit fully qualified teachers, including teachers from historically underrepresented groups, such as the provision of signing bonuses and other financial incentives.

      ‘(2) Providing the necessary education and training, including paying (for programs that meet the criteria under section 203(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1023(b)(2)(A)(i))) the costs of college tuition and other student fees to assist current teachers or other school personnel who are not fully qualified teachers to become fully qualified, except that, to receive funds under this paragraph, an individual must be within 2 years of completing an undergraduate degree and must agree to teach in a high-poverty, low-performing school for a period of at least 3 years.

      ‘(3) Programs to assist new teachers during their first 3 years in the classroom, such as--

        ‘(A) mentoring and coaching by trained mentor teachers;

        ‘(B) team teaching with experienced teachers;

        ‘(C) observation by, and consultation with, experienced teachers;

        ‘(D) assignment of fewer course preparations; and

        ‘(E) provision of additional time for preparation.

      ‘(4) Provision of professional development aligned with State content and student performance standards.

      ‘(5) Provision of professional development programs that enable teachers to effectively communicate with parents and involve parents in the educational process to support classroom instruction and to work effectively with parent volunteers.

      ‘(6) Participation by teams of teachers in summer institutes and summer immersion activities that focus on preparing teachers to bring all students to high standards in one or more of the core academic subjects.

      ‘(7) Subsidizing fees for teachers who participate in the assessment process of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

      ‘(8) Teacher participation in working groups, task forces, or committees, charged with adapting and implementing high standards for all students, including district-wide and school-based teams of teachers charged with aligning curricula and lesson plans with State content and student performance standards and assessments.

      ‘(9) Programs to implement peer-assistance peer-review processes for teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff.

      ‘(10) Establishment and maintenance of local professional networks that provide a forum for interaction among teachers and that allow for the exchange of information on advances in content and pedagogy.

      ‘(11) Development of incentives to encourage teachers employed by the agency, and other qualified individuals, to obtain proficiency in content knowledge in a core academic subject area identified by the agency as having a shortage of qualified teachers.

      ‘(12) Development and acquisition of curricular materials and other instructional aids, if they are not normally provided by the local educational agency or the State as part of the regular instructional program, that will advance local reform efforts to raise student achievement against State content and student performance standards.

      ‘(13) Providing increased opportunities for minorities, individuals with disabilities, and other individuals underrepresented in the teaching profession.

‘SEC. 2020. LOCAL ACCOUNTABILITY.

    ‘(a) ANNUAL REPORTS- Each local educational agency that receives funds under this subpart shall, beginning in fiscal year 2002, annually compile, publish, and submit to the State educational agency a report on its activities under this subpart, at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the State educational agency may reasonably require.

    ‘(b) CONTENTS- Each report shall include the following information:

      ‘(1) The percentage of teachers teaching in the jurisdiction of the agency who have not met State qualifications and licensing criteria for the grade levels and subject areas in which they provide instruction.

      ‘(2) The percentage of teachers teaching in the jurisdiction of the agency under emergency or other provisional status through which State qualifications or licensing criteria have been waived.

      ‘(3) The percentage of teachers teaching in the jurisdiction of the agency who do not hold a postsecondary degree with a major in the subject areas in which they provide instruction.

      ‘(4) The average class size.

      ‘(5) Information on the progress of schools and teachers under this subpart, measured based on the program performance indicators described in section 2041 and any additional indicators included in the local educational agency’s application.

      ‘(6) Such other information as the State educational agency may reasonably require.

    ‘(c) DISAGGREGATED DATA- Data collected for the purpose of carrying out this section shall be disaggregated by local educational agency and school.

    ‘(d) FUNDING- A local educational agency may reserve up to 5 percent of the amount it receives under section 2012(a)(1)(A) to carry out this section.

‘SEC. 2021. PARENTS’ RIGHT TO KNOW.

    ‘Each local educational agency that receives funds under this subpart shall provide, upon request, to any parent of a student attending any school receiving funds under this subpart, in an understandable and uniform format, information regarding the professional qualifications of the student’s teacher, including--

      ‘(1) whether the teacher has met State qualification and licensing criteria for the grade levels and subject areas in which the teacher provides instruction;

      ‘(2) whether the teacher is teaching under emergency or other provisional status through which the State qualifications or licensing criteria have been waived;

      ‘(3) the college major of the teacher and any other graduate certification or degree held by the teacher, and the field or discipline of the certificate or degree; and

      ‘(4) the school or local educational agency’s hiring policy.

‘SEC. 2022. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE.

    ‘The State educational agency shall provide technical assistance to local educational agencies receiving a subgrant under this subpart that fail for 2 consecutive years to meet their goals, as measured using the performance indicators described in section 2041.

‘SEC. 2023. CORRECTIVE ACTION.

    ‘The State educational agency shall take corrective action, against any local educational agency that does not make sufficient effort to comply with this subpart within the time specified. In a case in which a State fails to take corrective action, the Secretary shall withhold funds from such State up to an amount equal to that described in section 2012(d).

‘SEC. 2024. MAINTENANCE OF EFFORT.

    ‘No funds may be provided to a local educational agency for a fiscal year under this subpart unless the State educational agency is satisfied that the local educational agency will spend, from other sources, at least as much for activities described in this subpart as the average amount it spent from other sources for those activities over the previous 3 fiscal years.

‘SEC. 2025. EQUIPMENT AND TEXTBOOKS.

    ‘A local educational agency may not use subgrant funds under this subpart for equipment, computer hardware, textbooks, telecommunications fees, or other items, that would otherwise be provided by the local educational agency, the State, or a private school whose students receive services under this part.

‘SEC. 2026. SUPPLEMENT, NOT SUPPLANT.

    ‘A local educational agency that receives funds under this subpart shall use those funds only to supplement the

amount of funds or resources that would, in the absence of those Federal funds, be made available from non-Federal sources for the purposes of the program authorized under this subpart, and not to supplant those non-Federal funds or resources.

‘Subpart 3--National Activities for the Improvement of Teaching and School Leadership

‘SEC. 2031. ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE.

    ‘(a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary may make grants to, and enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, local educational agencies, educational service agencies, State educational agencies, State agencies for higher education, institutions of higher education, and other public and private nonprofit agencies, organizations, and institutions to carry out subsection (b).

    ‘(b) ACTIVITIES- The Secretary--

      ‘(1) may support activities of national significance that are not supported through other sources and that the Secretary determines will contribute to the improvement of teaching and school leadership in the Nation’s schools, such as--

        ‘(A) supporting collaborative efforts by States, or consortia of States, to review and benchmark the quality, rigor, and alignment of State standards and assessments;

        ‘(B) supporting collaborative efforts by States, or consortia of States, to develop performance-based systems for assessing content knowledge and teaching skills prior to full teacher licensure;

        ‘(C) efforts to increase the portability of teacher pensions and reciprocity of teaching credentials across State lines; and

        ‘(D) research, evaluation, and dissemination activities related to effective strategies for increasing the portability of teachers’ credited years of experience across State and local educational agency lines;

      ‘(2) may support activities of national significance that the Secretary determines will contribute to the recruitment and retention of fully qualified teachers and principals in high-poverty local educational agencies and low-performing local educational agencies, such as--

        ‘(A) providing States with assistance in the development of alternative certification programs that lead to certification within 2 years and require applicants to meet the same standards and pass the same tests as other applicants;

        ‘(B) the development and implementation of a national teacher recruitment clearinghouse and job bank, which shall be coordinated and, to the extent feasible, integrated with the America’s Job Bank administered by the Secretary of Labor--

          ‘(i) to disseminate information and resources nationwide on entering the teaching profession to persons interested in becoming teachers;

          ‘(ii) to serve as a national resource center for effective practices in teacher recruitment and retention;

          ‘(iii) to link prospective teachers to local educational agencies and training resources with particular attention to high-poverty local educational agencies and low-performing local educational agencies with critical teacher shortages; and

          ‘(iv) to provide information and technical assistance to prospective teachers about certification and other State and local requirements related to teaching; and

        ‘(C) the development and implementation, or expansion, of programs that recruit talented individuals to become principals, including such programs that employ alternative routes to State certification, and that prepare both new and experienced principals to serve as instructional leaders, which may include the creation and operation of a national center for the preparation and support of principals as leaders of school reform; and

      ‘(3) may support the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

‘SEC. 2032. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR PRINCIPALS AS LEADERS OF SCHOOL REFORM.

    ‘(a) COMPETITIVE GRANTS- The Secretary may reserve not more than 5 percent of the amount appropriated under section 2003(b) for competitive grants to eligible partnerships--

      ‘(1) consisting of--

        ‘(A) one or more institutions of higher education that provide professional development for principals and other school administrators; and

        ‘(B) one or more local educational agencies; and

      ‘(2) that may include other entities, agencies, and organizations, such as a State educational agency, a State agency for higher education, or professional organizations for principals, administrators, teachers, and parents.

    ‘(b) APPLICATION- An eligible partnership that desires to receive a grant under this section shall submit an application at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary may require. Each such application shall include--

      ‘(1) a description of the activities the partnership will carry out to meet the purpose of this part;

      ‘(2) a description of how those activities will build on and be coordinated with other professional development activities, including activities under this title and title II of the Higher Education Act of 1965;

      ‘(3) a description of how principals, teachers, and other interested parties were involved in developing the application and will be involved in planning and carrying out the activities under this section; and

      ‘(4) a description of how the professional development will result in the acquisition of a license, degree, or continuing education unit.

    ‘(c) USE OF FUNDS- An eligible partnership that receives a grant under this section shall use the grant

funds to provide professional development to principals and other school administrators to enable them to be effective school leaders and prepare all students to achieve to challenging State content and student performance standards, including professional development on--

      ‘(1) comprehensive school reform;

      ‘(2) leadership skills;

      ‘(3) recruitment, assignment, retention and evaluation of teacher and other instructional staff;

      ‘(4) State content standards;

      ‘(5) effective instructional practice;

      ‘(6) using smaller classes effectively; and

      ‘(7) parental and community involvement.

‘SEC. 2033. SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY CENTERS.

    ‘(a) COMPETITIVE GRANTS- The Secretary may reserve not more than 5 percent of the amount appropriated under section 2003(b) for competitive grants to eligible partnerships consisting of--

      ‘(1) one or more institutions of higher education;

      ‘(2) one or more technology-deficient local educational agencies or schools;

      ‘(3) one or more technology-proficient local educational agencies or schools; and

      ‘(4) such other entities, agencies, and organizations, such as a State educational agency, a State agency for higher education, nonprofit organizations, or businesses, as the partners described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) determine to be appropriate.

    ‘(b) APPLICATION- An eligible partnership that desires to receive a grant under this section shall submit an application at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary may require. Each such application shall include--

      ‘(1) a description of the activities the partnership will carry out under this section;

      ‘(2) a description of how the partners will work together to build the capacity to use technology to improve teaching and learning in the partners described in subsection (a)(2); and

      ‘(3) a description of the goals of each partner and how progress toward those goals will be measured.

    ‘(c) USE OF FUNDS- An eligible partnership that receives a grant under this section shall use the grant funds to develop or expand a technology center serving the partners described in subsection (a)(2).

‘SEC. 2034. EISENHOWER NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION.

    ‘(a) ESTABLISHMENT OF CLEARINGHOUSE- The Secretary shall award a competitive grant or contract to establish the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Clearinghouse’).

    ‘(b) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES-

      ‘(1) APPLICATION AND AWARD BASIS-

        ‘(A) IN GENERAL- Each entity desiring to establish and operate the Clearinghouse shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

        ‘(B) PEER REVIEW- The Secretary shall establish a peer review process to make recommendations on the recipient of the award for the Clearinghouse.

        ‘(C) MERIT- The Secretary shall make the award for the Clearinghouse on the basis of merit.

      ‘(2) DURATION- The Secretary shall award the grant or contract for the Clearinghouse for a period of 5 years.

      ‘(3) ACTIVITIES- The award recipient shall use the award funds to--

        ‘(A) maintain a permanent collection of such mathematics and science education instructional materials and programs for elementary and secondary schools as the Secretary finds appropriate, with a priority for such materials and programs that have been identified as promising or exemplary, through a systematic approach such as the use of expert panels required under the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994;

        ‘(B) disseminate the materials and programs described in paragraph (1) to the public, State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and schools (particularly high-poverty, low-performing schools), including through the maintenance of an interactive national electronic information management and retrieval system accessible through the Worldwide Web and other advanced communications technologies;

        ‘(C) coordinate with other databases containing mathematics and science curriculum and instructional materials, including Federal,

non-Federal, and, where feasible, international databases;

        ‘(D) support the development and dissemination of model professional development materials in mathematics and science education;

        ‘(E) contribute materials or information, as appropriate, to other national repositories or networks; and

        ‘(F) gather qualitative and evaluative data on submissions to the Clearinghouse, and disseminate that data widely, including through the use of electronic dissemination networks.

      ‘(4) SUBMISSION TO CLEARINGHOUSE- Each Federal agency or department that develops mathematics or science education instructional materials or programs, including the National Science Foundation and the Department, shall submit copies of that material and those programs to the Clearinghouse.

      ‘(5) STEERING COMMITTEE- The Secretary may appoint a steering committee to recommend policies and activities for the Clearinghouse.

      ‘(6) APPLICATION OF COPYRIGHT LAWS-

        ‘(A) IN GENERAL- Nothing in this section shall be construed to allow the use or copying, in any medium, of any material collected by the Clearinghouse that is protected under the copyright laws of the United States unless the permission of the owner of the copyright is obtained.

        ‘(B) COMPLIANCE- In carrying out this section, the Clearinghouse shall ensure compliance with title 17 of the United States Code.

‘SEC. 2035. DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON RESEARCH-BASED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

    ‘The Secretary shall gather and disseminate information related to comprehensive, research-based professional development.

‘SEC. 2036. SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAM.

    ‘(a) IN GENERAL- The Secretary may award grants under this section to establish or expand elementary and secondary school counseling programs.

    ‘(b) PRIORITY- In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall give special consideration to applications describing programs that--

      ‘(1) demonstrate the greatest need for new or additional counseling services among the children in the elementary and secondary schools served by the applicant;

      ‘(2) propose the most promising and innovative approaches for initiating or expanding elementary and secondary school counseling; and

      ‘(3) show the greatest potential for replication and dissemination.

‘PART B--TRANSITION OF CAREER-CHANGING PROFESSIONALS TO TEACHING; TROOPS TO TEACHERS

‘SEC. 2101. FINDINGS.

    ‘The Congress finds as follows:

      ‘(1) School districts will need to hire more than 2,000,000 teachers during the first decade of the 21st century.

      ‘(2) The need for teachers in the areas of math, science, foreign languages, special education, and bilingual education, and for teachers able to teach in high-poverty school districts, will be particularly high. To meet this need, talented Americans of all ages should be recruited to become successful, qualified teachers.

      ‘(3) Nearly 13 percent of teachers of academic subjects have neither an undergraduate major nor minor in their main assignment fields. This problem is most acute in high-poverty local educational agencies, where the out-of-field teaching percentage is 22 percent.

      ‘(4) The Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) ranked United States high school seniors last among 16 countries in physics and next to last in math. It is also evident, mainly from the TIMSS data, that based on academic scores, a stronger emphasis needs to be placed on the academic preparation of our children in math and science.

      ‘(5) One-fourth of high-poverty local educational agencies find it very difficult to fill bilingual teaching positions, and nearly half of public school teachers have students in their classrooms for whom English is a second language.

      ‘(6) Many career-changing professionals with strong content-area skills are interested in a teaching career, but they need assistance in getting the appropriate pedagogical training and classroom experience.

      ‘(7) The teacher placement program known as the ‘troops-to-teachers program’, which was established by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation under section 1151 of title 10, United States Code, has been highly successful in securing high-quality teachers for teaching positions in high-poverty local educational agencies.

‘SEC. 2102. PURPOSE.

    ‘The purpose of this part is to address the need of local educational agencies that are high-poverty local educational agencies or low-performing local educational agencies for fully qualified teachers in particular subject areas, such as mathematics, science, foreign languages, bilingual education, and special education, by--

      ‘(1) continuing and enhancing the troops-to-teachers program for recruiting and supporting the placement of former members of the Armed Forces as teachers in such local educational agencies; and

      ‘(2) recruiting, preparing, placing, and supporting career-changing professionals who have knowledge and experience that will help them become such teachers.

‘SEC. 2103. CONTINUATION AND SUPPORT FOR TROOPS-TO-TEACHERS PROGRAM.

    ‘(a) CONTINUATION- The Secretary may enter into a written agreement with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation, or take such other steps as the Secretary determines are appropriate, to ensure effective continuation of the troops-to-teachers program,

notwithstanding the duration of the program specified in section 1151(c)(1)(A) of title 10, United States Code.

    ‘(b) SUPPORT- Before providing any assistance under section 2104 for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall first--

      ‘(1) consult with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation regarding the appropriate amount of funding needed to continue and enhance the troops-to-teachers program; and

      ‘(2) upon agreement, transfer that amount to the Secretary of Defense to carry out the troops-to-teachers program.

‘SEC. 2104. TRANSITION OF CAREER-CHANGING PROFESSIONALS TO TEACHING.

    ‘(a) AUTHORITY TO SUPPORT TRANSITION PROGRAMS- The Secretary may use funds appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations in section 2108 to award grants to, and enter into contracts or cooperative agreements with, institutions of higher education, including historically Black colleges and universities and Hispanic-serving institutions, and public and private nonprofit agencies or organizations to recruit, prepare, place, and support career-changing professionals as teachers in local educational agencies that are high-poverty local educational agencies or low-performing local educational agencies.

    ‘(b) APPLICATION- Each entity described in subsection (a) that desires assistance under subsection (a) shall submit an application to the Secretary containing such information as the Secretary may require, including--

      ‘(1) a description of the target group of career-changing professionals upon which the applicant will focus in carrying out its program under this part, including a description of the characteristics of that target group that shows how the knowledge and experience of its members are relevant to meeting the purpose of this part;

      ‘(2) a description of how the applicant will identify and recruit career-changing professional for its program under this part;

      ‘(3) a description of the training that career-changing professionals will receive in the program and how that training will relate to their certification as teachers;

      ‘(4) a description of how the applicant will ensure that career-changing professionals are placed and teach in high-poverty local educational agencies or low-performing local educational agencies;

      ‘(5) a description of the teacher induction services (which may be provided through existing induction programs) that the career-changing professionals in the program will receive throughout at least their first year of teaching;

      ‘(6) a description of how the applicant will collaborate, as needed, with other institutions, agencies, or organizations to recruit, train, place, and support career-changing professionals under this part, including evidence of the commitment of those institutions, agencies, or organizations to the applicant’s program;

      ‘(7) a description of how the applicant will evaluate the progress and effectiveness of its program, including--

        ‘(A) the program’s goals and objectives;

        ‘(B) the performance indicators the applicant will use to measure the program’s progress; and

        ‘(C) the outcome measures that will be used to determine the program’s effectiveness; and

      ‘(8) an assurance that the applicant will provide to the Secretary such information as the Secretary determines necessary to determine the overall effectiveness of programs under this part.

‘SEC. 2105. USES OF FUNDS AND PERIOD OF SERVICE.

    ‘(a) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- Funds provided under section 2104 may be used for--

      ‘(1) recruiting career-changing professionals, including informing them of opportunities under the program and putting them in contact with other institutions, agencies, or organizations that would train, place, and support them;

      ‘(2) training stipends and other financial incentives for career-changing professional in the program, such as moving expenses, not to exceed $5,000, in the aggregate, per participant;

      ‘(3) assisting institutions of higher education or other providers of teacher training to tailor their training to meet the particular needs of career-changing professionals;

      ‘(4) placement activities, including identifying high-poverty, low-performing local educational agencies with needs for the particular skills and characteristics of the newly trained career-changing professionals and assisting those persons to obtain employment in those local educational agencies; and

      ‘(5) post-placement induction or support activities.

    ‘(b) PERIOD OF SERVICE- A career-changing professional selected to participant in a program under this part who completes his or her training shall serve in a high-poverty local educational agency or a low-performing local educational agency for at least three years.

    ‘(c) REPAYMENT- The Secretary shall establish such requirements as the Secretary determines appropriate to ensure that career-changing professionals who receive a training stipend or other financial incentive under subsection (a)(2), but who fail to complete their service obligation under subsection (b), repay all or a portion of such stipend or other incentive.

‘SEC. 2106. EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION.

    ‘To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall make awards and enter into contracts and cooperative agreements under section 2104 to support teacher placement programs for career-changing professionals in different geographic regions of the United States.

‘SEC. 2107. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    ‘For the purpose of carrying out this part, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $18,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005.

‘PART C--CLASS SIZE REDUCTION

‘SEC. 2201. FINDINGS.

    ‘The Congress finds as follows:

      ‘(1) Rigorous research has shown that students attending small classes in the early grades make more rapid educational progress than students in larger classes, and that these achievement gains persist through at least the elementary grades.

      ‘(2) The benefits of smaller classes are greatest for lower achieving, minority, poor, and inner-city children. One study found that urban fourth-graders in smaller-than-average classes were 3/4 of a school year ahead of their counterparts in larger-than-average classes.

      ‘(3) Teachers in small classes can provide students with more individualized attention, spend more time on instruction and lesson other tasks, cover more material effectively, and are better able to work with parents to further their children’s education.

      ‘(4) Smaller classes allow teachers to identify and work more effectively with students who have learning disabilities and, potentially, can reduce those students’ need for special education services in the later grades.

      ‘(5) Students in smaller classes are able to become more actively engaged in learning than their peers in large classes.

      ‘(6) Efforts to improve educational achievement by reducing class sizes in the early grades are likely to be more successful if--

        ‘(A) well-prepared teachers are hired and appropriately assigned to fill additional classroom positions; and

        ‘(B) teachers receive intensive, continuing training in working effectively in smaller classroom settings.

      ‘(7) Several States have begun a serious effort to reduce class sizes in the early elementary grades, but these actions may be impeded by financial limitations or difficulties in hiring well-prepared teachers.

      ‘(8) The Federal Government can assist in this effort by providing funding for class-size reductions in grades 1 through 3, and by helping to ensure that the new teachers brought into the classroom are well prepared.

‘SEC. 2202. PURPOSE.

    ‘The purpose of this part is to help States and local educational agencies recruit, train, and hire 100,000 additional fully qualified teachers over a 7-year period in order to--

      ‘(1) reduce class sizes nationally, in grades 1 through 3, to an average of 18 students per classroom; and

      ‘(2) improve teaching in the early grades so that all students can learn to read independently and well by the end of the third grade.

‘SEC. 2203. PROGRAM AUTHORIZED.

    ‘(a) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- For the purpose of carrying out this part, there are authorized to be appropriated, $1,400,000,000 for fiscal year 2000, $1,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $1,700,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, $1,735,000,000 for fiscal year 2003, $2,300,000,000 for fiscal year 2004, and $2,800,000,000 for fiscal year 2005.

    ‘(b) ALLOTMENTS- From the amount appropriated under subsection (a) for a fiscal year, the Secretary--

      ‘(1) shall make a total of 1 percent available to the Secretary of the Interior (on behalf of the Bureau of Indian Affairs) and the outlying areas for activities that meet the purpose of this part; and

      ‘(2) shall allot to each State the same percentage of the remaining funds as the percentage it received of funds allocated to States for the previous fiscal year under section 1122 or section 2011(c) (or, as applicable, section 2202(b) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Smart Classrooms Act)), whichever percentage is greater, except that such allotments shall be ratably decreased as necessary.

    ‘(c) WITHIN-STATE DISTRIBUTION- --

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each State that receives an allotment under this section shall distribute the amount of the allotted funds that remain after using funds in accordance with subsection (b)(3) to local educational agencies in the State, of which--

        ‘(A) 80 percent of such remainder shall be allocated to such local educational agencies in proportion to the relative number of children, aged 5 to 17, who reside in the jurisdiction served by such local educational agency and are from families with incomes below the poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and revised annually in accordance with section 673(2) of the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2)) applicable to a family of the size involved) for the most recent fiscal year for which satisfactory data is available compared to the number of such individuals who reside in the jurisdictions served by all the local educational agencies in the State for that fiscal year; and

        ‘(B) 20 percent of such remainder shall be allocated to such local educational agencies in accordance with the relative enrollments of children, aged 5 to 17, in public and private nonprofit elementary schools and secondary schools in the jurisdictions within the boundaries of such agencies.

      ‘(2) AWARD RULE- Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if the award to a local educational agency under this section is less than the starting salary for a new teacher in that agency, the State shall not make the award unless--

        ‘(A) the local educational agency agrees to form a consortium with not less than 1 other local educational agency for the purpose of reducing class size;

        ‘(B) the local educational agency agrees to supplement the award with non-Federal funds sufficient to pay the cost of hiring a teacher; or

        ‘(C) the local educational agency agrees to use the funds for professional development related to teaching smaller classes.

‘SEC. 2204. USE OF FUNDS.

    ‘(a) IN GENERAL- Each local educational agency that receives funds under this part shall use such funds to carry out effective approaches to reducing class size with fully qualified teachers to improve educational achievement for both regular and special-needs children, with particular consideration given to reducing class size in the early elementary grades for which research has shown class size reduction is most effective.

    ‘(b) CLASS REDUCTION-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each such local educational agency may pursue the goal of reducing class size through--

        ‘(A) recruiting, hiring, and training fully qualified regular and special education teachers and teachers of special-needs children;

        ‘(B) testing new teachers for academic content knowledge, and to meet the State qualifications and licensing criteria in the areas in which they teach; and

        ‘(C) providing professional development to teachers, including special education teachers and teachers of special-needs children.

      ‘(2) RESTRICTION(S)- A local educational agency may use not more than a total of 15 percent of the funds received under this part for each of the fiscal years 2000 through 2005, to carry out activities described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 2204(b)(1).

      ‘(3) SPECIAL RULE- A local educational agency that has already reduced class size in the early grades to 18 or fewer children may use funds received under this part--

        ‘(A) to make further class-size reductions in grades 1 through 3;

        ‘(B) to reduce class size in kindergarten or other grades; or

        ‘(C) to carry out activities to improve teacher quality, including providing--

          ‘(i) professional development;

          ‘(ii) financial incentives to new or veteran fully qualified teachers to join the instructional staff of schools in which at least 50 percent of the students are from low-income families; and

          ‘(iii) financial incentives to fully qualified teachers who are currently teaching in schools in which at least 50 percent of the students are from low-income families,

    ‘(c) SUPPLEMENT NOT SUPPLANT- A local educational agency shall use funds under this part only to supplement, and not to supplant, State and local funds that, in the absence of such funds, would otherwise be spent for activities under this part.

    ‘(d) PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT- If a local educational agency uses funds made available under this part for professional development activities, the agency shall ensure the equitable participation of private nonprofit elementary and secondary schools in such activities.

    ‘(e) ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES- A local educational agency that receives funds under this part may use not more than 3 percent of such funds for local administrative expenses.

    ‘(f) CONSORTIA REQUIREMENT- Notwithstanding subsection (b)(3), if a local educational agency has already reduced class size in the early grades to 18 or fewer children and intends to use funds provided under this section to carry out professional development activities, including activities to improve teacher quality, then the State shall make the award under subsection (b) to the local educational agency without requiring the formation of a consortium.

‘SEC. 2205. COST-SHARING REQUIREMENT.

    ‘(a) FEDERAL SHARE- The Federal share of the cost of activities carried out under this part--

      ‘(1) may be up to 100 percent in local educational agencies with child-poverty levels of 50 percent or greater; and

      ‘(2) shall be no more than 65 percent for local educational agencies with child-poverty rates of less than 50 percent.

    ‘(b) LOCAL SHARE- A local educational agency shall provide the non-Federal share of a project under this part through cash expenditures from non-Federal sources, except that if an agency has allocated funds under section 1113(c) to one or more schoolwide programs under section 1114, it may use those funds for the non-Federal share of activities under this program that benefit those schoolwide programs, to the extent consistent with section 1120A(c) and notwithstanding section 1114(a)(3)(B).

‘SEC. 2206. REQUEST FOR FUNDS.

    ‘Each local educational agency that desires to receive funds under this part shall include in the application submitted under section 2017 a description of the agency’s program under this part to reduce class size by hiring additional fully qualified teachers.

‘SEC. 2207. REPORTS.

    ‘Each State educational agency receiving funds under this part shall report on activities in the State under this section as a part of its report under section 2014.’.

    (b) NATIONAL WRITING PROJECT; SABBATICAL LEAVE FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT; GENERAL PROVISIONS- Title II of such Act is amended by striking part E and inserting the following:

‘PART E--NATIONAL WRITING PROJECT

‘SEC. 2301. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

    ‘(a) FINDINGS- Congress finds that--

      ‘(1) the United States faces a continuing crisis in writing in schools and in the workplace;

      ‘(2) the writing problem has been magnified by the rapidly changing student population, the growing number of at-risk students due to limited English proficiency, the shortage of adequately trained teachers, and the specialized knowledge required of teachers to teach students with special needs who are now part of mainstream classrooms;

      ‘(3) nationwide reports from universities and colleges show that entering students are unable to meet the demands of college level writing, almost all 2-year institutions of higher education offer remedial writing courses, and three-quarters of public 4-year institutions of higher education and half of all private 4-year institutions of higher education must provide remedial courses in writing;

      ‘(4) American businesses and corporations are concerned about the limited writing skills of both entry-level workers and executives whose promotions are denied due to inadequate writing abilities;

      ‘(5) writing is fundamental to learning, including learning to read, yet writing has been neglected historically in schools and in teacher training institutions;

      ‘(6) writing is a central feature in State and school district education standards in all disciplines;

      ‘(7) since 1973, the only national program to address the writing problem in the Nation’s schools has been the National Writing Project, a network of collaborative university-school programs the goals of which are to improve student achievement in writing and student learning through improving the teaching and uses of writing at all grade levels and in all disciplines;

      ‘(8) the National Writing Project is a nationally recognized and honored nonprofit organization that improves the quality of teaching and teachers through developing teacher leaders who teach other teachers in summer and school year programs;

      ‘(9) evaluations of the National Writing Project document the positive impact the project has had on improving the teaching of writing, student performance in writing, and student learning;

      ‘(10) the National Writing Project has become a model for programs to improve teaching in such other fields as mathematics, science, history, reading and literature, performing arts and foreign languages;

      ‘(11) each year over 150,000 participants benefit from National Writing Project programs in 1 of 156 United States sites located in 46 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and

      ‘(12) the National Writing Project is a cost-effective program and leverages over 6 dollars for every 1 Federal dollar.

    ‘(b) PURPOSE- It is the purpose of this part--

      ‘(1) to support and promote the expansion of the National Writing Project network of sites so that teachers in every region of the United States will have access to a National Writing Project program;

      ‘(2) to ensure the consistent high quality of the sites through ongoing review, evaluation and technical assistance;

      ‘(3) to support and promote the establishment of programs to disseminate effective practices and research findings about the teaching of writing; and

      ‘(4) to coordinate activities assisted under this part with activities assisted under this Act.

‘SEC. 2302. AUTHORIZATION.

    ‘(a) AUTHORIZATION- The Secretary is authorized to make a grant to the National Writing Project (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘grantee’), a nonprofit educational organization that has as its primary purpose the improvement of the quality of student writing and learning, to improve the teaching and uses of writing to learn in our Nation’s classrooms.

    ‘(b) REQUIREMENTS OF GRANT- The grant shall provide that--

      ‘(1) the grantee will enter into contracts with institutions of higher education or other nonprofit educational providers (hereafter in this section referred to as ‘contractors’) under which the contractors will agree to establish, operate, and provide the non-Federal share of the cost of teacher training programs in effective approaches and processes for the teaching of writing;

      ‘(2) funds made available by the Secretary to the grantee pursuant to any contract entered into under this section will be used to pay the Federal share of the cost of establishing and operating teacher training programs as provided in paragraph (1); and

      ‘(3) the grantee will meet such other conditions and standards as the Secretary determines to be necessary to assure compliance with the provisions of this section and will provide such technical assistance as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

    ‘(c) TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS- The teacher training programs authorized in subsection (a) shall--

      ‘(1) be conducted during the school year and during the summer months;

      ‘(2) train teachers who teach grades kindergarten through college;

      ‘(3) select teachers to become members of a National Writing Project teacher network whose members will conduct writing workshops for other teachers in the area served by each National Writing Project site; and

      ‘(4) encourage teachers from all disciplines to participate in such teacher training programs.

    ‘(d) FEDERAL SHARE-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3) and for purposes of subsection (a), the term ‘Federal share’ means, with respect to the costs of teacher training programs authorized in subsection (a), 50 percent of such costs to the contractor.

      ‘(2) WAIVER- The Secretary may waive the provisions of paragraph (1) on a case-by-case basis if the National Advisory Board described in subsection (e) determines, on the basis of financial need, that such waiver is necessary.

      ‘(3) MAXIMUM- The Federal share of the costs of teacher training programs conducted pursuant to subsection (a) may not exceed $100,000 for any one contractor, or $200,000 for a statewide program administered by any one contractor in at least five sites throughout the State.

    ‘(e) NATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD-

      ‘(1) ESTABLISHMENT- The National Writing Project shall establish and operate a National Advisory Board.

      ‘(2) COMPOSITION- The National Advisory Board established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall consist of--

        ‘(A) national educational leaders;

        ‘(B) leaders in the field of writing; and

        ‘(C) such other individuals as the National Writing Project deems necessary.

      ‘(3) DUTIES- The National Advisory Board established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall--

        ‘(A) advise the National Writing Project on national issues related to student writing and the teaching of writing;

        ‘(B) review the activities and programs of the National Writing Project; and

        ‘(C) support the continued development of the National Writing Project.

    ‘(f) EVALUATION-

      ‘(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary shall conduct an independent evaluation by grant or contract of the teacher training programs administered pursuant to this Act in accordance with section 14701. Such evaluation shall specify the amount of funds expended by the National Writing Project and each contractor receiving assistance under this section for administrative costs. The results of such evaluation shall be made available to the appropriate committees of the Congress.

      ‘(2) FUNDING LIMITATION- The Secretary shall reserve not more than $150,000 from the total amount appropriated pursuant to the authority of subsection (h) for fiscal year 1994 and the four succeeding fiscal years to conduct the evaluation described in paragraph (1).

    ‘(g) APPLICATION REVIEW-

      ‘(1) REVIEW BOARD- The National Writing Project shall establish and operate a National Review Board that shall consist of--

        ‘(A) leaders in the field of research in writing; and

        ‘(B) such other individuals as the National Writing Project deems necessary.

      ‘(2) DUTIES- The National Review Board shall--

        ‘(A) review all applications for assistance under this subsection; and

        ‘(B) recommend applications for assistance under this subsection for funding by the National Writing Project.

    ‘(h) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated for the grant to the National Writing Project, $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2000 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

‘PART F--SABBATICAL LEAVE FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

‘SEC. 2351. GRANTS FOR SALARY DURING SABBATICAL LEAVE.

    ‘(a) PROGRAM AUTHORIZED- The Secretary may make grants to State educational agencies and local educational agencies to pay such agencies for one-half of the amount of the salary that otherwise would be earned by an eligible teacher described in subsection (b), if, in lieu of fulfilling the teacher’s ordinary teaching assignment, the teacher completes a course of study described in subsection (c) during a sabbatical term described in subsection (d).

    ‘(b) ELIGIBLE TEACHERS- An eligible teacher described in this subsection is a teacher who--

      ‘(1) has been employed for the 3 previous years by a local educational agency that is both a high-poverty local educational agency and a low-performing local educational agency;

      ‘(2) has secured from such agency, and any other person or agency whose approval is required under State law, approval to take sabbatical leave for a sabbatical term described in subsection (d); and

      ‘(3) has submitted to the agency an application for a subgrant at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the agency may require, including--

        ‘(A) written proof--

          ‘(i) of the approval described in paragraph (2); and

          ‘(ii) of the teacher’s having been accepted for enrollment in a course of study described in subsection (c); and

        ‘(B) assurances that the teacher--

          ‘(i) will notify the agency in writing within a reasonable time if the teacher terminates enrollment in the course of study described in subsection (c) for any reason;

          ‘(ii) in the discretion of the agency, will reimburse to the agency some or all of the amount of the subgrant if the teacher fails to complete the course of study; and

          ‘(iii) otherwise will provide the agency with proof of having completed such course of study not later than 60 days after such completion;

      ‘(4) has agreed to continue teaching in the high-poverty, low-performing local educational agency for a period of 3 years following the sabbatical;

      ‘(5) has agreed to collaborate with other teachers of the same subject in the local educational agency following the sabbatical to share the skills and knowledge obtained through the sabbatical; and

      ‘(6) has been selected by the agency to receive a subgrant based on the agency’s plan for meeting its classroom needs.

    ‘(c) COURSE OF STUDY- A course of study described in this subsection is a course of study at an institution of higher education that--

      ‘(1) requires not less than one academic semester and not more than one academic year to complete;

      ‘(2) is open for enrollment for professional development purposes to an eligible teacher described in subsection (b); and

      ‘(3) is designed to improve the classroom teaching of such teachers through academic and child development studies.

    ‘(d) SABBATICAL TERM- A sabbatical term described in this subsection is a leave of absence from teaching duties granted to an eligible teacher for not less than one academic semester and not more than one academic year, during which period the teacher receives--

      ‘(1) one-half of the amount of the salary that otherwise would be earned by the teacher, if the teacher had not been granted a leave of absence, from State or local funds made available by a State educational agency or a local educational agency; and

      ‘(2) one-half of such amount from Federal funds received by such agency through a grant under this section.

    ‘(e) PAYMENTS-

      ‘(1) TO ELIGIBLE TEACHERS- In making a subgrant to an eligible teacher under this section, a State educational agency or a local educational agency shall agree to pay the teacher, for tax and administrative purposes, as if the teacher’s regular employment and teaching duties had not been suspended.

      ‘(2) REPAYMENT OF SECRETARY- A State educational agency or a local educational agency receiving a grant under this section shall agree to pay over to the Secretary the Federal share of any amount recovered by the agency pursuant to subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii).

    ‘(f) FUNDING- For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2000 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

‘PART G--GENERAL PROVISIONS

‘SEC. 2401. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS.

    ‘(a) MINIMUM INDICATORS- At a minimum, the indicators of program performance under this title, against which recipients of funds under this title shall report their progress in such manner as the Secretary may determine, are the following:

      ‘(1) Improvement in student achievement.

      ‘(2) Closing of the achievement gap between groups of students.

      ‘(3) An increase in the percentage of fully qualified teachers, including teachers from minority and other historically underrepresented groups.

      ‘(4) An equalization, between high- and low-poverty schools in a local educational agency, of classes in core academic areas taught by fully qualified teachers.

      ‘(5) An increase in the percentage of new teachers receiving support during their first 3 years of teaching.

      ‘(6) An increase in the percentage of teachers participating in high-quality professional development.

      ‘(7) An increase in the percentage of paraprofessionals enrolled in certification programs.

      ‘(8) A decrease in the average class size.

‘SEC. 2402. DEFINITIONS.

    ‘As used in this title:

      ‘(1) CAREER-CHANGING PROFESSIONAL- The term ‘career-changing professional’ means a person who--

        ‘(A) holds at least a baccalaureate degree;

        ‘(B) demonstrates a commitment to changing the person’s current professional career and becoming a teacher; and

        ‘(C) has knowledge and experience that is relevant to teaching a high-need subject area in a high-poverty local educational agency.

      ‘(2) CORE ACADEMIC SUBJECTS- The term ‘core academic subjects’ means--

        ‘(A) mathematics;

        ‘(B) science;

        ‘(C) reading (or language arts) and English;

        ‘(D) social studies (history, civics/government, geography, and economics);

        ‘(E) foreign languages; and

        ‘(F) fine arts (music, dance, drama, and the visual arts).

      ‘(3) FULLY QUALIFIED- The term ‘fully qualified’--

        ‘(A) when used with respect to an elementary or secondary school teacher, means that the teacher has obtained certification or passed the State licensing exam and holds a license; and

        ‘(B) when used with respect to--

          ‘(i) an elementary school teacher, means that the teacher holds a bachelor’s degree and demonstrates general knowledge, teaching skill, and subject matter knowledge required to teach at the elementary school level the academic subjects described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (2); or

          ‘(ii) a middle or secondary school teacher, means that the teacher holds a bachelor’s degree and demonstrates a high level of competency in all subject areas in which he or she teaches through--

            ‘(I) a high level of performance on a rigorous academic subject area test; or

            ‘(II) completion of an academic major in each of the subject areas in which he or she provides instruction.

      ‘(4) HIGH-POVERTY LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCY- The term ‘high-poverty local educational agency’ means a local educational agency in which--

        ‘(A) the percentage of children, ages 5 through 17, from families below the poverty level (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and revised annually in accordance with section 673(2) of the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9902(2))) applicable to a family of the size involved for the most recent fiscal year for which satisfactory data are available is 33 percent or greater; or

        ‘(B) the number of such children exceeds 10,000.

      ‘(5) LOW-PERFORMING LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCY- The term ‘low-performing local educational agency’ means--

        ‘(A) a local educational agency that includes a school identified by the agency for school improvement under section 1116(c); or

        ‘(B) a local educational agency that includes a school in which at least 50 percent of the students fail to meet State student performance standards based on assessments the agency is using under part A of title I.

      ‘(6) PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT- The term ‘professional development’ means sustained and intensive activities that improve teachers’ content knowledge and teaching skills and that--

        ‘(A) enhance the ability of teachers to help all students, including females, minorities, children with disabilities, children with limited English proficiency and economically disadvantaged children, reach high State and local content and student performance standards;

        ‘(B) advance teacher understanding of one or more of the core academic subject areas and effective instructional strategies for improving student achievement in those areas, including technology;

        ‘(C) are directly related to the subject area in which the teacher provides instruction;

        ‘(D) are of sufficient duration to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction;

        ‘(E) are an integral part of broader school and district-wide plans for raising student achievement to State and local standards;

        ‘(F) are aligned with State content and student performance standards;

        ‘(G) are based on the best available research on teaching and learning;

        ‘(H) include professional development activities that involve collaborative groups of teachers and administrators from the same school or district and, to the greatest extent possible, include follow-up and school-based support such as coaching or study groups; and

        ‘(I) as a whole, are regularly evaluated for their impact on increased teacher effectiveness and improved student achievement, with the findings of such evaluations used to improve the quality of professional development.

      ‘(7) TECHNOLOGY DEFICIENT- The term ‘technology deficient’, when used with respect to a local educational agency or a school, means that the agency or school does not possess the equipment, networking, or skills to use technology to enhance teaching and learning.

      ‘(8) TECHNOLOGY PROFICIENT- The term ‘technology proficient’, when used with respect to a local educational agency or a school, means that the agency or school possesses the equipment, networking, and skills to use technology to enhance teaching and learning.

      ‘(9) TROOPS-TO-TEACHERS PROGRAM- The term ‘troops-to-teachers program’ means the teachers and teachers’ aide placement program for separated members of the Armed Forces that was established by the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard, under section 1151 of title 10, United States Code.

      ‘(10) UNQUALIFIED TEACHER- The term ‘unqualified teacher’ means a teacher who is not fully qualified.’.

    (c) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS-

      (1) NATIONAL WRITING PROJECT- Part K of title X of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8331 et seq.) is repealed.

      (2) REFERENCE TO NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION- Section 13302(1) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8672(1)) is amended by striking ‘2102(b)’ and inserting ‘2032(b)’.

      (3) DEFINITION OF COVERED PROGRAM- Section 14101(10)(C) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 8801(10)(C)) is amended by striking ‘(other than section 2103 and part D)’ and inserting ‘(other than subpart 3 of part A)’.

      (4) PRIVATE SCHOOL PARTICIPATION- Section 14503(b)(1)(B) (20 U.S.C. 8893(b)(1)(B)) of such Act is amended by striking ‘(other than section 2103 and part D of such title)’.

SEC. 3. READING EXCELLENCE ACT.

    Section 2260 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6661i) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      ‘(3) FISCAL YEARS 2001 TO 2004- There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $286,000,000 for fiscal year 2001 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2002 through 2004.’.