IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
July 11, 2005
Mr. Brownback introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary
To amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human chimeras.
This Act may be cited as the
Human Chimera Prohibition Act of
Congress finds that—
advances in research and technology have made possible the creation of chimeras, which are beings with diverse human and non-human tissue;
serious ethical objections are raised to some types of chimeras because they blur the lines between human and animal, male and female, parent and child, and one individual and another individual;
respect for human dignity and the integrity of the human species may be threatened by chimeras;
the uniqueness of individual human beings is manifested in a particular way through their brain and their reproductive organs/cells; and
with an increase in emerging zoonotic infection threatening the public health, both domestically and abroad, chimeras present a particularly optimal means of genetic transfers that could increase the efficiency or virulence of diseases threatening both humans and animals.
Prohibition on human chimeras
Part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after chapter 15 the following:
302. Prohibition on human chimeras.
In this chapter the following definitions apply:
The term human chimera means—
a human embryo into which a non-human cell or cells (or the component parts thereof) have been introduced to render its membership in the species Homo sapiens uncertain through germline or other changes;
a hybrid human/animal embryo produced by fertilizing a human egg with non-human sperm;
a hybrid human/animal embryo produced by fertilizing a non-human egg with human sperm;
an embryo produced by introducing a non-human nucleus into a human egg;
an embryo produced by introducing a human nucleus into a non-human egg;
an embryo containing haploid sets of chromosomes from both a human and a non-human life form;
a non-human life form engineered such that human gametes develop within the body of a non-human life form; or
a non-human life form engineered such that it contains a human brain or a brain derived wholly or predominantly from human neural tissues.
The term human embryo means an organism of the species Homo sapiens during the earliest stages of development, from 1 cell up to 8 weeks.
Prohibition on human chimeras
It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly, in or otherwise affecting interstate commerce—
create or attempt to create a human chimera;
transfer or attempt to transfer a human embryo into a non-human womb;
transfer or attempt to transfer a non-human embryo into a human womb; or
transport or receive for any purpose a human chimera.
Whoever violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
Whoever violates subsection (a) and derives pecuniary gain from such violation shall be subject to a civil fine of the greater of $1,000,000 and an amount equal to the amount of the gross gain multiplied by 2.
The table of chapters for part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item relating to chapter 15 the following:
|“16. Human chimeras||301”.|