S. 876 (109th): Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act of 2005

109th Congress, 2005–2006. Text as of Apr 21, 2005 (Introduced).

Status & Summary | PDF | Source: GPO

II

109th CONGRESS

1st Session

S. 876

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

April 21, 2005

(for himself, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Specter, Mr. Kennedy, and Mr. Harkin) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary

A BILL

To prohibit human cloning and protect stem cell research.

1.

Short title

This Act may be cited as the Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act of 2005.

2.

Purposes

It is the purpose of this Act to prohibit human cloning and to protect important areas of medical research, including stem cell research.

I

Prohibition on human cloning

101.

Prohibition on human cloning

(a)

In general

Title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after chapter 15, the following:

16

Prohibition on human cloning

301. Prohibition on human cloning.

301.

Prohibition on human cloning

(a)

Definitions

In this section:

(1)

Human cloning

The term human cloning means implanting or attempting to implant the product of nuclear transplantation into a uterus or the functional equivalent of a uterus.

(2)

Human somatic cell

The term human somatic cell means any human cell other than a haploid germ cell.

(3)

Nuclear transplantation

The term nuclear transplantation means transferring the nucleus of a human somatic cell into an oocyte from which the nucleus or all chromosomes have been or will be removed or rendered inert.

(4)

Nucleus

The term nucleus means the cell structure that houses the chromosomes.

(5)

Oocyte

The term oocyte means the female germ cell, the egg.

(6)

Unfertilized blastocyst

The term unfertilized blastocyst means an intact cellular structure that is the product of nuclear transplantation. Such term shall not include stem cells, other cells, cellular structures, or biological products derived from an intact cellular structure that is the product of nuclear transplantation.

(b)

Prohibitions on human cloning

It shall be unlawful for any person or other legal entity, public or private—

(1)

to conduct or attempt to conduct human cloning;

(2)

to ship the product of nuclear transplantation in interstate or foreign commerce for the purpose of human cloning in the United States or elsewhere; or

(3)

to export to a foreign country an unfertilized blastocyst if such country does not prohibit human cloning.

(c)

Protection of research

Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict practices not expressly prohibited in this section.

(d)

Penalties

(1)

Criminal penalties

Whoever intentionally violates paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (b) shall be fined under this title and imprisoned not more than 10 years.

(2)

Civil penalties

Whoever intentionally violates paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (b) shall be subject to a civil penalty of $1,000,000 or three times the gross pecuniary gain resulting from the violation, whichever is greater.

(3)

Forfeiture

Any property, real or personal, derived from or used to commit a violation or attempted violation of the provisions of subsection (b), or any property traceable to such property, shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States in accordance with the procedures set forth in chapter 46 of title 18, United States Code.

(e)

Right of action

Nothing in this section shall be construed to give any individual or person a private right of action.

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102.

Oversight reports on actions to enforce certain prohibitions

(a)

Report on actions by Attorney General to enforce chapter 16 of title 18

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that—

(1)

describes the actions taken by the Attorney General to enforce the provisions of chapter 16 of title 18, United States Code (as added by section 101);

(2)

describes the personnel and resources the Attorney General has utilized to enforce the provisions of such chapter; and

(3)

contain a list of any violations, if any, of the provisions of such chapter 16.

(b)

Report on actions of State attorneys general to enforce similar State laws

(1)

Definition

In this subsection and subsection (c), the term similar State law relating to human cloning means a State or local law that provides for the imposition of criminal penalties on individuals who are determined to be conducting or attempting to conduct human cloning (as defined in section 301 of title 18, United States Code (as added by section 101)).

(2)

Report

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that—

(A)

describes any similar State law relating to human cloning;

(B)

describes the actions taken by the State attorneys general to enforce the provisions of any similar State law relating to human cloning;

(C)

contains a list of violations, if any, of the provisions of any similar State law relating to human cloning; and

(D)

contains a list of any individual who, or organization that, has violated, or has been charged with violating, any similar State law relating to human cloning.

(c)

Report on coordination of enforcement actions among the Federal and State and local governments with respect to human cloning

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that—

(1)

describes how the Attorney General coordinates the enforcement of violations of chapter 16 of title 18, United States Code (as added by section 101), with enforcement actions taken by State or local government law enforcement officials with respect to similar State laws relating to human cloning; and

(2)

describes the status and disposition of—

(A)

Federal appellate litigation with respect to such chapter 16 and State appellate litigation with respect to similar State laws relating to human cloning; and

(B)

civil litigation, including actions to appoint guardians, related to human cloning.

(d)

Report on international laws relating to human cloning

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that—

(1)

describes the laws adopted by foreign countries related to human cloning;

(2)

describes the actions taken by the chief law enforcement officer in each foreign country that has enacted a law described in paragraph (1) to enforce such law; and

(3)

describes the multilateral efforts of the United Nations and elsewhere to ban human cloning.

II

Ethical requirements for nuclear transplantation research

201.

Ethical requirements for nuclear transplantation research

Title IV of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 281 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following:

J

Ethical requirements for nuclear transplantation research

499A.

Ethical requirements for nuclear transplantation research, including informed consent, institutional review board review, and protection for safety and privacy

(a)

Definitions

(1)

In general

The definitions contained in section 301(a) of title 18, United States Code, shall apply for purposes of this section.

(2)

Other definitions

In this section:

(A)

Donating

The term donating means giving without receiving valuable consideration.

(B)

Fertilization

The term fertilization means the fusion of an oocyte containing a haploid nucleus with a male gamete (sperm cell).

(C)

Valuable consideration

The term valuable consideration does not include reasonable payments—

(i)

associated with the transportation, processing, preservation, or storage of a human oocyte or of the product of nuclear transplantation research; or

(ii)

to compensate a donor of one or more human oocytes for the time or inconvenience associated with such donation.

(b)

Applicability of Federal ethical standards to nuclear transplantation research

Research involving nuclear transplantation shall be conducted in accordance with subpart A of part 46 of title 45, or parts 50 and 56 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the date of enactment of the Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act of 2003), as applicable.

(c)

Prohibition on conducting nuclear transplantation on fertilized eggs

A somatic cell nucleus shall not be transplanted into a human oocyte that has undergone or will undergo fertilization.

(d)

Fourteen-Day rule

An unfertilized blastocyst shall not be maintained after more than 14 days from its first cell division, not counting any time during which it is stored at temperatures less than zero degrees centigrade.

(e)

Voluntary donation of oocytes

(1)

Informed consent

In accordance with subsection (b), an oocyte may not be used in nuclear transplantation research unless such oocyte shall have been donated voluntarily by and with the informed consent of the woman donating the oocyte.

(2)

Prohibition on purchase or sale

No human oocyte or unfertilized blastocyst may be acquired, received, or otherwise transferred for valuable consideration if the transfer affects interstate commerce.

(f)

Separation of in vitro fertilization laboratories from locations at which nuclear transplantation is conducted

Nuclear transplantation may not be conducted in a laboratory in which human oocytes are subject to assisted reproductive technology treatments or procedures.

(g)

Civil penalties

Whoever intentionally violates any provision of subsections (b) through (f) shall be subject to a civil penalty in an amount that is appropriate for the violation involved, but not more than $250,000.

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