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Text of the Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act

This bill was introduced on June 27, 2007, in a previous session of Congress, but was not enacted. The text of the bill below is as of Aug 3, 2007 (Reported by House Committee).

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Union Calendar No. 189

110th CONGRESS

1st Session

H. R. 2773

[Report No. 110–302]

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

June 19, 2007

introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science and Technology

August 3, 2007

Reported with an amendment, committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, and ordered to be printed

Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert the part printed in italic

For text of introduced bill, see copy of bill as introduced on June 19, 2007

A BILL

To enhance research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of biofuels related technologies, and for other purposes.

1.

Short title

This Act may be cited as the Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act.

2.

Biofuels and biorefinery information center

(a)

In general

The Secretary of Energy (in this Act referred to as the Secretary), in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall establish a technology transfer center to make available information on research, development, and commercial application of technologies related to biofuels and biorefineries, including—

(1)

biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies capable of making fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks;

(2)

biotechnology processes capable of making biofuels with an emphasis on development of biorefinery technologies using enzyme-based processing systems;

(3)

biogas collection and production technologies suitable for vehicular use;

(4)

cost-effective reforming technologies that produce hydrogen fuel from biogas sources;

(5)

biogas production from cellulosic and recycled organic waste sources and advancement of gaseous storage systems and advancement of gaseous storage systems; and

(6)

other advanced processes and technologies that will enable the development of biofuels.

(b)

Administration

In administering this section, the Secretary shall ensure that the center shall—

(1)

continually update information provided by the center;

(2)

make information available on biotechnology processes; and

(3)

make information and assistance provided by the center available for those involved in energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application.

3.

Biofuels and advanced biofuels infrastructure

Section 932 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16232) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:

(f)

Biofuels and advanced biofuels infrastructure

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Assistant Administrator for Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall carry out a program of research, development, and demonstration as it relates to existing transportation fuel distribution infrastructure and new alternative distribution infrastructure. The program shall focus on the physical and chemical properties of biofuels and efforts to prevent or mitigate against adverse impacts of those properties in the following areas:

(1)

Corrosion of metal, plastic, rubber, cork, fiberglass, glues, or any other material used in pipes and storage tanks.

(2)

Dissolving of storage tank sediments.

(3)

Clogging of filters.

(4)

Contamination from water or other adulterants or pollutants.

(5)

Poor flow properties related to low temperatures.

(6)

Oxidative and thermal instability in long-term storage and use.

(7)

Microbial contamination.

(8)

Problems associated with electrical conductivity.

(9)

Such other areas as the Secretary considers appropriate.

.

4.

Biodiesel

(a)

Biodiesel study

Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on any research and development challenges inherent in increasing to 2.5 percent the proportion of diesel fuel sold in the United States that is biodiesel (within the meaning of section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act).

(b)

Materials for the Establishment of Standards

The Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall make publicly available the physical property data and characterization of biodiesel, as is defined in subsection (a), in order to encourage the establishment of standards that will promote their utilization in the transportation and fuel delivery system.

5.

Biogas

Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on any research and development challenges inherent in increasing to 5 percent of the transportation fuels sold in the United States fuel with biogas or a blend of biogas and natural gas.

6.

Bioresearch centers for systems biology program

Section 977(a)(1) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16317(a)(1)) is amended by inserting before the period at the end the following: , including the establishment of at least 5 bioresearch centers of varying sizes, as appropriate, that focus on biofuels, of which at least 1 center shall be located in each of the 5 Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts, which shall be established for a period of 5 years, after which the grantee may reapply for selection on a competitive basis.

7.

Grants for biofuel production research and development in certain States

(a)

In general

The Secretary shall provide grants to eligible entities for research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of biofuel production technologies in States with low rates of ethanol production, including low rates of production of cellulosic biomass ethanol, as determined by the Secretary.

(b)

Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall—

(1)
(A)

be an institution of higher education (as defined in section 2 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801)) located in a State described in subsection (a); or

(B)

be a consortium including at least 1 such institution of higher education, and industry, State agencies, Indian tribal agencies, National Laboratories, or local government agencies located in the State; and

(2)

have proven experience and capabilities with relevant technologies.

(c)

Authorization of Appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2010.

8.

Biorefinery energy efficiency

Section 932 of Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16232), is amended by adding at the end the following new subsections:

(g)

Biorefinery energy efficiency

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption in the operation of biorefinery facilities.

(h)

Retrofit Technologies for the Development of Ethanol from Cellulosic Materials

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on technologies and processes to enable biorefineries that exclusively use corn grain or corn starch as a feedstock to produce ethanol to be retrofitted to accept a range of biomass, including lignocellulosic feedstocks.

.

9.

Study of increased consumption of ethanol-blended gasoline with higher levels of ethanol

(a)

In general

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Secretary of Transportation, shall conduct a study of the methods of increasing consumption in the United States of ethanol-blended gasoline with levels of ethanol that are not less than 10 percent and not more than 40 percent.

(b)

Study

The study under subsection (a) shall include—

(1)

a review of production and infrastructure constraints on increasing consumption of ethanol;

(2)

an evaluation of the environmental consequences of the ethanol blends described in subsection (a) on evaporative and exhaust emissions from on-road, off-road, and marine vehicle engines;

(3)

an evaluation of the consequences of the ethanol blends described in subsection (a) on the operation, durability, and performance of on-road, off-road, and marine vehicle engines; and

(4)

an evaluation of the life cycle impact of the use of the ethanol blends described in subsection (a) on carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions.

(c)

Report

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing the results of the study conducted under this section.

10.

Study of optimization of flexible fueled vehicles to use E–85 fuel

(a)

In General

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall conduct a study of whether optimizing flexible fueled vehicles to operate using E–85 fuel would increase the fuel efficiency of flexible fueled vehicles.

(b)

Report

Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report that describes the results of the study under this section, including any recommendations of the Secretary.

11.

Study of engine durability and performance associated with the use of biodiesel

(a)

In general

Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall initiate a study on the effects of the use of biodiesel on the performance and durability of engines and engine systems.

(b)

Components

The study under this section shall include—

(1)

an assessment of whether the use of biodiesel lessens the durability and performance of conventional diesel engines and engine systems; and

(2)

an assessment of the effects referred to in subsection (a) with respect to biodiesel blends at varying concentrations, including the following percentage concentrations of biodiesel:

(A)

5 percent biodiesel.

(B)

10 percent biodiesel.

(C)

20 percent biodiesel.

(D)

30 percent biodiesel.

(E)

100 percent biodiesel.

(c)

Report

Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report that describes the results of the study under this section, including any recommendations of the Secretary.

12.

Bioenergy research and development, authorization of appropriation

(a)

Section 931 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16231) is amended—

(1)

in subsection (b)—

(A)

at the end of paragraph (2) by striking and;

(B)

at the end of paragraph (3) by striking the period and inserting ; and; and

(C)

by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

(4)

$963,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

; and

(2)

in subsection (c)—

(A)

in paragraph (2), by striking $251,000,000 and inserting $377,000,000;

(B)

in paragraph (3), by striking $274,000,000 and inserting $398,000,000; and

(C)

by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

(4)

$419,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which $150,000,00 shall be for section 932(d).

.

13.

Environmental research and development

(a)

Amendments

Section 977 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16317) is amended—

(1)

in subsection (a)(1), by striking and computational biology and inserting computational biology, and environmental science; and

(2)

in subsection (b)—

(A)

in paragraph (1), by inserting in sustainable production systems that reduce greenhouse gas emissions after hydrogen;

(B)

at the end of paragraph (3), by striking and;

(C)

by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (5); and

(D)

by inserting after paragraph (3) the following new paragraph:

(4)

develop cellulosic and other feedstocks that are less resource and land intensive and that promote sustainable use of resources, including soil, water, energy, forests, and land, and ensure protection of air, water, and soil quality; and

.

(b)

Tools and evaluation

The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall establish a research and development program to—

(1)

improve and develop analytical tools to facilitate the analysis of life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions, including emissions related to direct and indirect land use changes, attributable to all potential biofuel feedstocks and production processes; and

(2)

promote the systematic evaluation of the impact of expanded biofuel production on the environment, including forestlands, and on the food supply for humans and animals.

(c)

Small-scale production and use of biofuels

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall establish a research and development program to facilitate small-scale production, local, and on-farm use of biofuels, including the development of small-scale gasification technologies for production of biofuel from cellulosic feedstocks.

14.

Study of optimization of biogas used in natural gas vehicles

(a)

In general

The Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of methods of increasing the fuel efficiency of vehicles using biogas by optimizing natural gas vehicle systems that can operate on biogas, including the advancement of vehicle fuel systems and the combination of hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive platforms with natural gas vehicle systems using biogas.

(b)

Report

Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives a report that describes the results of the study, including any recommendations of the Secretary.

15.

Standards for biofuels dispensers

In the absence of appropriate private sector standards adopted prior to the date of enactment of this Act, and consistent with the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall develop standards for biofuel dispenser systems in order to promote broader biofuels adoption and utilization.

16.

Algal biomass

Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report on the progress of the research and development that is being conducted on the use of algae as a feedstock for the production of biofuels. The report shall identify continuing research and development challenges and any regulatory or other barriers found by the Secretary that hinder the use of this resource, as well as recommendations on how to encourage and further its development as a viable transportation fuel.

August 3, 2007

Reported with an amendment, committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, and ordered to be printed