H. R. 3077
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
June 26, 2009
Ms. McCollum (for herself, Mr. Payne, Mrs. Emerson, Mr. Jackson of Illinois, Mr. Grijalva, Ms. Lee of California, Mr. McGovern, Mr. Honda, and Ms. Schakowsky) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs
To authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2010 through 2014 to provide assistance to foreign countries to promote food security and agricultural development, to develop rural infrastructure and stimulate rural economies, and to improve emergency response to food crises, to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, and for other purposes.
Short title; table of contents
This Act may be cited as the
Global Food Security Act of
Table of contents
The table of contents for this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings.
Sec. 3. Definitions.
Title I—Policy objectives, planning and coordination
Sec. 101. Policy objectives.
Sec. 102. International investments in developing country agricultural land.
Sec. 103. Comprehensive food security strategy.
Sec. 104. Reports.
Title II—Bilateral programs
Sec. 201. Agriculture, rural development, and nutrition.
Sec. 202. Agricultural research.
Title III—University partnerships for agriculture
Sec. 301. Amendment to Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
Title IV—Emergency response to food crises
Sec. 401. Emergency rapid response to food crises account.
Sec. 402. Authorization of appropriations.
Congress makes the following findings:
Nearly 1,000,000,000 people worldwide suffer from food insecurity, defined as a lack of access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
The number of food insecure increased from 849,000,000 in 2006 to 982,000,000 in 2007, according to the Department of Agriculture.
The United Nations World Food Program reports that 25,000 people die each day from malnutrition-related causes.
The food security situation of lower income countries is projected to continue to deteriorate over the next decade.
Nearly one-half of the world’s food insecure live in sub-Saharan Africa.
The agricultural sector comprises large portions of the total labor force in many developing countries, as high as 70 to 80 percent in sub-Saharan Africa, where it also contributes about 35 percent of the total gross national product (GNP).
Agriculture has the potential to be an efficient engine for promoting economic growth and increasing the incomes of the poor in developing countries.
A diverse, secure, affordable, and universally available food supply has health benefits, including increasing child survival, improving cognitive and physical development of children, especially those under two years of age, and strengthening the immune system to bolster resistance to disease.
Under-nutrition is responsible for 35 percent of child deaths and 11 percent of the total global disease burden is attributable to maternal and child under-nutrition according to a review of literature published in The Lancet.
Rapid increases in global food costs since 2007 and the subsequent global financial crisis threaten to significantly undermine gains achieved in poverty reduction and health programs.
The poor in developing countries spend as much as 50 to 70 percent of their incomes on food.
Three out of five of those suffering from hunger are rural small-scale agriculturalists. One out of five is a rural landless laborer, and another one-fifth are urban poor, according to the United Nations Secretary General’s High Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis.
Women, who are often heads of households, comprise a large proportion of small holders and face unique challenges and heightened vulnerability to food insecurity. Women produce 80 percent of food in sub-Saharan Africa, but have access to less than 5 percent of land, credit, and extension services.
Many food insecure countries also suffer from natural resource degradation and the resulting decrease in food and other ecosystem services these resources provide. Many of these countries are also among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
A comprehensive approach to long-term food security should encompass improvements in nutrition, education, agricultural infrastructure and productivity, finance and markets, safety net programs, job creation, household incomes, research and technology, ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of land and natural resources.
The comprehensive, long-term global food security strategy of the United States should be integrated into a new national strategy for global development.
In this Act:
The term Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
Appropriate congressional committees
The term appropriate congressional committees means—
the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and
the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.
Chronic food insecurity
The term chronic food insecurity means ongoing and persistent lack of access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
The term agricultural development means methods to use agriculture as a basis for food security, family livelihood, and economic growth by increasing the productivity of those involved in the production of food, fuel, and fiber, including farmers, fishers, foresters, and pastoralists, particularly those that operate on a small scale, and linking them and their products to consumers through markets, including post harvest activities such as storage, processing, transport, and improving market efficiency.
The term rural infrastructure—
means public and private facilities and services necessary for agricultural production and other activities in non-urban (rural) areas; and
includes roads or other means of transportation, water supplies including irrigation, rural electrification, communication technology, financial services, storage, warehousing, and processing facilities needed for increasing agricultural production and linking producers to markets, including policies and regulations of such sectors in addition to physical infrastructure.
Policy objectives, planning and coordination
Congress finds that food insecurity is expanding rapidly in developing countries, forcing tens of millions of people into poverty, contributing to political and social instability, eroding economic growth, and undermining United States foreign assistance investments in areas including basic education, global health, environmental protection, and democratic institutions.
Congress declares the following to be the policy objectives of the United States with respect to food security:
The United States will respond with renewed urgency and increased commitment to the problem of chronic food insecurity through a comprehensive approach that targets the underlying causes of hunger and poverty.
This approach will link emergency food assistance with sustained investments in nutritional support and productive safety nets, agricultural development activities, and rural infrastructure for the purposes of promoting global food security, eradicating hunger and malnutrition, alleviating poverty, improving agricultural productivity and rural development, and expanding economic opportunity for poor and vulnerable populations.
To achieve these goals, the United States will focus on strengthening agricultural systems and markets in developing countries in partnership with government agencies, including local and regional governments, civil society, farmer organizations, cooperatives, institutions of higher learning, private entities, multilateral institutions, and nongovernmental organizations.
These efforts will enhance human capacity, nutrition, entrepreneurial skills and job creation, improve agricultural research and technology, and facilitate the dissemination of economically and environmentally sustainable techniques to all parts of the agriculture sector.
Congress finds that, for the purpose of enhancing program sustainability and effectiveness, a comprehensive strategy to fight global hunger and promote global food security through agricultural development should be integrated into a new national strategy for global development which establishes broad priorities and guidelines for development programs, and articulates how development policy is integrated into an overall national security strategy and will be coordinated with other United States Government policies governing trade, climate change, human rights, food safety, and related areas.
International investments in agricultural lands in developing countries
Congress finds the following:
A growing trend in large-scale acquisitions and lease agreements of farmland in Africa, Latin America, and Central and Southeast Asia has been documented by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and the International Institute for Environment and Development. These organizations found that nearly 2.5 million hectares of land have been allocated in just five sub-Saharan African countries since 2004.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimates between 15 and 20 million hectares of farmland in developing countries, valued between $20 billion to $30 billion, have been subject to international transactions or negotiations since 2006.
Evidence suggests these large land acquisitions and leases are led primarily by private investors seeking to capitalize on increased agricultural commodity prices and demand for biofuels and also by governments seeking to bolster their domestic food security.
While the investment that accompanies these land acquisitions and leases may contribute to short-term economic development, the ventures may threaten the food security of developing nations and deepen local poverty unless adequate legal and procedural mechanisms are in place and functioning to protect local rights and the welfare of rural poor people who depend on agriculture for their livelihood.
These land acquisitions may also threaten political stability if they involve land for which tenure and use rights are complex or in dispute or if they result in loss of access or use by poor people without free, prior, and informed consent.
Sense of Congress
It is the sense of Congress that it should be the policy of the United States Government to—
uphold and promote the principle of free, prior, and informed consent in relation to the land access and use rights of poor people in developing countries;
monitor and document the trend of large scale land acquisitions and lease agreements in developing countries, including by working with other governments and international organizations;
promote global standards of transparency for large international land deals and identify the drivers of the new trend, such as the imposition of export restrictions during periods of global food insecurity;
expand and prioritize United States assistance programs that strengthen land management in developing countries and provide support for organizations that empower the rural poor to maximize the potential benefits from land investments and minimize potential negative effects;
actively support the current effort led by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization to develop and promote Voluntary Guidelines on Good Governance in Land and Resource Management; and
actively support the testing and application of the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework as a tool to enable governments to identify areas of land governance that require strengthening.
Comprehensive food security strategy
The President shall designate an individual to serve in the Executive Office of the President as the Special Coordinator for Food Security. The coordinator shall assist the President by—
advising the President on international food security issues;
taking such actions as are necessary to ensure the coordination of the global food security efforts and programs of the United States, including the activities of Federal departments and agencies;
facilitating the development and implementation of the strategy described in subsection (b); and
establishing a mechanism for regular consultations with representatives of relevant Federal departments and agencies, multilateral institutions, private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, the private sector, and other nongovernmental organizations to develop the strategy described in subsection (b) and to consult on methodologies, conditions in targeted countries, progress toward goals, and other relevant information about needs and interventions.
Content of strategy
The strategy referred to in subsection (a) (3) and (4) is a comprehensive food security strategy that shall—
recognize chronic hunger as a symptom of under-development;
target the underlying causes of food insecurity with approaches that link emergency assistance with productive safety nets, increased agricultural productivity, market development, food-based approaches to nutrition, and rural infrastructure development;
utilize data to target and customize packages of interventions within regions and countries to best meet recipient needs and most effectively utilize resources;
focus, concentrate, and sustain resources to ensure the scale and duration of effort necessary to produce long-term change in the most food insecure countries, regions, and populations;
utilize investments in agricultural development to improve family livelihood and stimulate broad-based economic growth whenever appropriate;
prioritize and support the central role of women in agricultural production and related activities in the countries of operation;
include assessment and monitoring of the effects of global climate change in the countries of operation as well as activities focused on adapting to observed and anticipated effects;
prioritize the enhancement of natural resources and ecosystem goods and services, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts from agricultural activities through sustainable natural resource management practices including by building local capacity and transferring skills and knowledge;
utilize low-technology, appropriate technology, and advanced technology solutions as necessary to promote program sustainability and cost-effectiveness;
incorporate land tenure, resource rights, and legal reform programs, especially those targeted at securing equal protections for women;
include specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, and time frames, and a plan of action to achieve the objectives described in section 101;
to the greatest extent possible—
build upon recipient country and regional strategies for addressing sustainable agricultural development, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program;
leverage the resources of private sector providers of agriculture inputs, processors, and marketers, including through the Global Development Alliances of the United States Agency for International Development and other measures;
utilize the skills and knowledge of the academic and research community, private voluntary organizations and cooperatives, and other program implementers;
coordinate, harmonize, and align United States food security efforts with similar efforts of international organizations, international financial institutions, the governments of developing and developed countries, and United States and international nongovernmental organizations;
incorporate approaches directed at reaching people living in extreme poverty, considering the full range of food security needs, including availability, access, consumption and utilization of food; and
ensure programs and approaches address the special needs of women farmers, women living in poverty, and the needs of all poor people who are agriculturalists, pastoralists, or otherwise engaged in agriculture-related enterprises;
include and provide appropriate linkages with United States international health programs, such as the Maternal and Child Health programs and the President’s Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief;
include and provide appropriate linkages with existing United States international water, energy, and biodiversity programs, as well as any future international forest and global climate change programs;
reflect a whole-of-government approach that incorporates and encompasses the programs of relevant Federal departments and agencies that engage in some aspect of food security, including the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Agriculture, the Peace Corps, the Department of Defense, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, the Department of the Treasury, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, and the Department of Health and Human Services; and
provide annual monitoring and evaluation of the program that includes the use of gender analysis to assess progress against the specific goals, benchmarks, and time frames identified in paragraph (11) and spanning the key components of the strategy of emergency nutritional assistance, agricultural development, and associated infrastructure, and productive safety nets.
The United States Agency for International Development shall be the lead agency in implementing the strategy described in subsection (b). The Administrator shall ensure that the Agency’s bureaus, offices, overseas missions, and programs relating to food security or supporting food security objectives are coordinated in a manner that promotes achievement of the policy objectives described in section 101 and to leverage and improve program effectiveness.
Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, and not later than December 31 of each year thereafter through 2014, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of the strategy described in section 103(b) and how it fulfills the policy objectives described in section 101.
The report required under paragraph (1) shall include—
a copy of the strategy and an indication of any changes made in the strategy during the preceding calendar year;
an assessment of progress made during the preceding calendar year toward meeting the objectives described in section 101 and the specific goals, benchmarks, and time frames specified in the strategy described in section 103(b);
a description of United States Government bilateral programs, and investments in multilateral institutions, contributing to the achievement of the objectives described in section 101, including the amounts expended on such programs during the preceding fiscal year;
an assessment of United States efforts to encourage and leverage business and philanthropic participation in United States food security programs and to coordinate, harmonize, and align such programs with similar efforts of international organizations, international financial institutions, the governments of developing and developed countries, and United States and international nongovernmental organizations; and
an assessment of progress made toward coordinating and integrating global food security activities with other United States bilateral and multilateral development efforts in the areas of operation.
Government Accountability Office Report
Not later than 270 days after the submission of each report under paragraph (1), the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains—
a review of, and comments addressing, the report submitted under paragraph (1); and
recommendations relating to any additional actions the Comptroller General determines to be necessary to improve a global food security strategy and its implementation, including potential structural or programmatic modifications within and among Federal departments and agencies involved in the implementation of the strategy for the purpose of enhancing coordination and effectiveness, and measures to improve coordination, harmonization, and alignment with other governments, international organizations, international financial institutions, and non-governmental organizations.
Not later than 4 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing—
an assessment of progress made during the preceding four years toward meeting the objectives described in section 101 and the specific goals, benchmarks, and time frames specified in the strategy described in section 103(b); and
an evaluation of the impact during the preceding four years of United States food security programs on food security, health, and economic growth in countries suffering from chronic food insecurity.
Basis for report
The report required under paragraph (1) shall be based on assessments and impact evaluations utilizing sound quantitative and qualitative methodologies and techniques used in the behavioral sciences.
Agriculture, rural development, and nutrition
Section 103 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a) is amended to read as follows:
Agriculture, rural development, and nutrition
Finding; declaration of policy
Congress finds the efforts of developing countries to enhance their national food security deserves encouragement as a matter of United States development assistance and foreign policy, with particular concern for the needs of women, the poor, and the special needs of nutritionally vulnerable populations.
Declaration of policy
Therefore, Congress declares that United States food security efforts shall be incorporated into United States diplomatic and foreign assistance efforts with developing countries, including under this Act, the Food for Peace Act, the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003, and as a part of United States participation in multilateral institutions in order to expand and to improve food production, rural development, and complementary assistance for the purpose of ensuring access to sufficient food and nutrition for all people for a healthy and productive life.
The President is authorized to provide assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition, including—
to alleviate chronic starvation, hunger, and malnutrition;
to improve rural infrastructure (as defined in section 3 of the Global Food Security Act of 2009), to conserve natural resources and to expand significantly the provision of basic services to rural poor people to enhance their capacity for self-help;
to help create productive farm and off-farm employment in rural areas to provide a more viable economic base, to increase agriculture and food production, and to enhance opportunities for improved incomes, living standards, and contributions by rural poor people to the economic and social development of their countries;
to expand the economic participation of women, people living in extreme poverty, and those who lack access to agriculturally productive land, including through productive safety net programs and health and nutrition programs, and to integrate those living in extreme poverty into the economy;
to support natural resource management, conservation farming and other sustainable agricultural techniques to respond to changing climatic conditions and ensure adequate water supply and quality; and
to improve nutrition of vulnerable populations such as children under the age of two years old, and pregnant and lactating women, including through food-based approaches such as biofortification of staple crops through breeding and biotechnology, diet diversification, home gardening, and nutritional education linked to agricultural extension.
Private voluntary organizations and cooperatives
In providing assistance under this section for the purposes described in subsection (b), the President shall enter into partnerships with and provide grants, cooperative agreements, and other assistance to private voluntary organizations and cooperatives to mobilize and assist poor populations.
Priority and other requirements
In providing assistance under this section, the President shall meet the following priority and other requirements:
Assistance under this section shall be used primarily for activities that are specifically designed to meet the purposes described in subsection (b) (2) and (3), including such activities as—
expansion and improvement of agricultural and food enterprises, cooperatives and associations that can increase the productivity and incomes of the poor in part through the transfer of skills and knowledge;
linking farmers, entrepreneurs, enterprises and institutions in poor areas with regional and national businesses, institutions and systems;
providing access to markets, inputs, financing, extension services, and appropriate technologies for the rural poor;
expansion of rural infrastructure (as defined in section 3 of the Global Food Security Act of 2009) and utilities such as farm-to-market roads, water management systems, land improvement, storage facilities, and energy, specifically renewable energy whenever practicable;
establishment of more equitable and more secure land tenure and resource rights arrangements; and
creation and strengthening of systems to provide other services and supplies needed by farmers, such as extension, research, training, financing, fertilizer, water, forestry, soil conservation, and improved seed, in ways which assure gender equitable access to such services and supplies by small farmers.
In circumstances in which development of major infrastructure is necessary to achieve the purposes of subsection (b), assistance for those purposes may only be provided under this section in association with significant contributions from other countries working together in a multilateral framework. Infrastructure projects so assisted should be environmentally sensitive and complemented by other measures to ensure that the benefits of the infrastructure projects reach the poor.
Congress recognizes that the accelerating loss and degradation of natural ecosystems, including forests, in developing countries undermines and offsets efforts to improve agricultural production and nutrition and otherwise to meet the basic human needs of the poor. Degradation and destruction of natural ecosystems results in the loss of valuable ecosystem goods and services including, crop pollination, pest and disease control, productive soil, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, clean and abundant water, highly nutritious fish and animals, and commercially valuable products such as pharmaceuticals and wood.
Where appropriate to meet the purposes of subsection (b), assistance shall be provided under this section to maintain, enhance and value ecosystem goods and services in developing countries. Such assistance shall include the protection of watersheds and soil, sustainable agricultural, forest, fisheries, and agro-forest management, and the provision of alternative household fuels that reduce demand for and emissions from the combustion of local forest resources.
Allocation of funds
Congress finds that—
the greatest potential for significantly expanding availability of food for people in rural areas and augmenting world food production at relatively low cost lies in increasing the productivity of small farmers who constitute a majority of the agricultural producers in developing countries; and
increasing the emphasis on rural development and expanded food production in the poorest nations of the developing world is a matter of social justice and a principal element contributing to broadly based economic growth, as well as an important factor in alleviating inflation in the industrialized countries.
Allocation of funds
In allocating funds for the provision of assistance under
this section, special attention shall be given to increasing agricultural
production in countries that have been designated as
developed by the United Nations General Assembly.
Coordination with population and health assistance
The President is encouraged to coordinate assistance provided under this section with programs carried out under section 104 of this Act to help improve nutrition of the people of developing countries through—
encouragement of increased production of crops with greater nutritional value;
improvement of planning, research, and education with respect to nutrition, particularly with reference to improvement and expanded use of indigenous foodstuffs; and
the undertaking of pilot or demonstration programs explicitly addressing the problem of malnutrition of poor and vulnerable people.
In particular, the President is further encouraged—
to devise and carry out in partnership with developing countries a strategy for programs of nutrition and health improvement for mothers and children, including breastfeeding and all other optimal infant and young child feeding; and
to provide technical, financial, and material support to individuals or groups at the local level for such programs.
Local currency proceeds
Local currency proceeds from sales of commodities provided under the Food for Peace Act that are owned by foreign governments shall be used whenever practicable to carry out the provisions of this section.
Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this section $1,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, $1,250,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, $1,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2012, $2,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2013, and $2,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.
Relation to other funds
Amounts authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) are in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes.
Section 103A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a–1) is amended in the first sentence—
, and (3) make
, (3) make;
by striking the period at the end and
, and (4) include research on technological advances
appropriate to local ecological condition.; and
by striking the period at the end and
, and (5) include research to address the effects of climate
change on agriculture and the measures necessary to adapt to observed or
anticipated effects and to identify methods to valuate and enhance carbon
sequestration through conservation agriculture and other
University partnerships for agriculture
Amendment to Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
Title XII of chapter 2 of part I the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2220a et seq.) is amended to read as follows:
University partnerships for agriculture
Findings and purpose
Congress makes the following findings:
Agriculture has been a driver of economic growth as the foundation of industry and commerce in developed countries.
Institutions of higher education, including vocational education, can promote a robust agriculture sector through the dissemination of knowledge, the building of human capital, research and technology, and extension.
According to a World Bank study, higher education contributes to national productivity, raises living standards, and improves the ability of a country to compete globally.
Enrollment rates in higher education are 5 percent in Africa, 10 percent in South Asia, 19 percent in East Asia, and 23 percent in North Africa and the Middle East.
Universities in the United States have a history of serving as engines of development.
Many universities in the United States have experience in partnering with foreign universities on faculty and student exchanges, curriculum development, joint research projects, and extension.
Land-grant universities and other universities in the United States have demonstrated their ability to cooperate with international agencies, educational and research institutions in other countries, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide in expanding global agricultural production, processing, business and trade, and promoting better management of agricultural and natural resources, including adaptation to the effects of climate change, to the benefit of aid recipient countries and the United States.
Population growth will exert pressures on food supplies and prices and require investments in increased agricultural productivity, processing, marketing, trade, research, extension, and technology in order to provide food security, ensure health and nutrition, and build the basis for economic growth.
United States foreign assistance support for higher education has declined from the 1990s.
Global food security is in the interest of the United States because it promotes stability and economic growth, increases trade opportunities, and alleviates hunger and poverty.
The purpose of this title is to authorize United States assistance that promotes food security, agriculture productivity, rural development, poverty and malnutrition alleviation, and environmental sustainability by engaging the expertise of United States institutions of higher education in collaboration with public and private institutions in developing countries.
In this title:
The term Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
The term agriculture means the science and practice of activities related to the production, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization, and trade of animal, fish, and plant produces and encompasses the study and practice of various fields related to the sciences, including environmental and social sciences.
Institution of higher education
The term institution of higher education means educational institutions providing post-secondary education and training.
Public and private partners of universities
The term public and private partners of universities includes entities that have cooperative or contractual agreements with universities, which may include formal or informal associations of universities, other education institutions, United States Government and State agencies, private voluntary organizations, nongovernmental organizations, firms operated for profit, nonprofit organizations, multinational banks, and, as designated by the Administrator, any organizations, institutions, or agencies incorporated in foreign countries.
United States universities
The terms United States universities and United States institutions of higher education mean those colleges or universities in each State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia—
now receiving, or which may hereafter
receive, benefits under the Act of July 2, 1862 (commonly known as the First
Morrill Act) (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as
the Second Morrill Act) (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), which are commonly known as
institutions now designated or which may hereafter be designated as sea-grant colleges under the National Sea Grant College and Program Act (33 U.S.C. 1121 et seq.), which are commonly known as sea-grant colleges;
Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note); and
other United States colleges and universities that—
have demonstrable capacity in teaching, research, and extension (including outreach) activities in the agricultural sciences; and
can contribute effectively to the attainment of the objective of this title.
In order to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, establish global food security, promote growth in agricultural productivity, trade expansion, and the sustainable use of natural resources, and alleviate poverty, the President is authorized to provide assistance on such terms and conditions as the President may determine to implement program components through United States land-grant universities, other eligible universities, and public and private partners of universities in the United States and other countries, consistent with sections 103 and 103A of this Act, for the following purposes:
Research on problems affecting food availability, accessibility and consumption, agriculture, ecosystem goods and services, climate adaption, forestry, livestock, and fisheries.
Improved human capacity and institutional capacity for the global application of agricultural and related environmental sciences.
Agricultural development and trade research and extension services, particularly for women and other vulnerable populations, to support the access of rural populations to national and global markets.
The application of agricultural and nutritional sciences to solving food, health, nutrition, rural income, and environmental problems, especially among populations experiencing chronic food insecurity (as defined in section 3 of the Global Food Security Act of 2009), in particular among women who are landless or smallholder farmers.
Types of support
Assistance provided pursuant to this section may include support for—
continued efforts by international agricultural research centers and other international research entities to provide a global network, including United States universities and foreign universities, for international scientific collaboration on crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, farming resources, sustainable agricultural and land management technology, water management, source water protection and watershed conservation, and food systems of global importance;
long-term collaborative research support programs between United States and foreign institutions of higher education including the training of students, teachers, extension specialists, and researchers;
broad dissemination of agricultural research through extension, cooperatively with existing public or private extension systems, and with farmer associations, cooperatives, and other non-governmental organizations;
the participation of universities and public and private partners of universities in programs of multilateral banks and agencies that receive United States assistance;
an expansion of learning opportunities about agriculture for students, teachers, school administrators, community leaders, entrepreneurs, and the general public through international internships and exchanges, graduate assistantships, faculty positions, and other means of education and extension, with a focus on reaching women farmers;
competitive grants to United States universities, public and private partners of universities, and universities in other countries for research, institution and policy development, extension, training, and other programs for global agricultural development, trade and the responsible management of natural resources; and
support for developing and strengthening national agricultural research and extension systems in developing countries.
Programs under this title shall be carried out so as to utilize the capabilities of United States universities to assist—
in developing institutional capacity in recipient countries for classroom teaching in agriculture, plant and animal sciences, human nutrition, vocational training, extension services, and business training;
in agricultural research conducted in recipient countries, at international agricultural research centers, or in the United States;
in the planning, initiation, and development of extension services through which information concerning agriculture, farming techniques, environment, nutrition, and related subjects will be made available to farmers and farming communities in recipient countries; and
in the exchange of educators, students, and scientists for the purpose of assisting in successful development in recipient countries.
Role of administrator
The President shall exercise his authority under this title through the Administrator.
Collaborative research support program
Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201(b) of the Global Food Security Act of 2009, up to $45,000,000 may be made available annually for the Collaborative Research Support Program for fiscal years 2010 through 2014.
Consultative group on international agricultural research
Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201(b) of the Global Food Security Act of 2009, up to $50,000,000 may be made available annually for core long-term research for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research for fiscal years 2010 through 2014.
Board for higher education collaboration for technology, agriculture, research, and extension
The Administrator shall establish a
permanent Board for Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture,
Research, and Extension (referred to as
Board) for purposes of
assisting the Administrator in the administration of the HECTARE Program, the
Collaborative Research Support Program, and all other manner of university
engagement authorized under this title.
The Board shall consist of at least 7 members, of whom—
not less than 4 shall be selected from United States universities; and
not less than 3 shall be selected from representatives of nongovernmental organizations or international education consortia devoted to agriculture research and education.
The duties of the Board shall include the following:
Responsibility for advising the Administrator on issues related to the planning, implementation, and monitoring of activities described in this title.
Advising the Administrator on the formulation of basic policy, program design, procedures, and criteria for the HECTARE Program.
Advising the Administrator on the qualifications of interested institutions of higher education based on—
their ability to work collaboratively to improve agricultural production, scientific research, and the dissemination of sustainable agricultural technologies;
their commitment to expanding and applying their academic, teaching, research, and outreach capacities; and
their commitment to partner with private sector entities, non-governmental organizations, civil society, other universities, and government entities.
Advising the Administrator on which countries could benefit from programs carried out under section 299 and have an interest in establishing or developing agricultural institutions that engage in teaching, research, or extension services.
Making recommendations to the Administrator on the means to improve the effectiveness of activities authorized by this title and undertaken by universities and public and private partners of universities.
Assessing the impact of programs carried out under this title in solving agricultural problems, improving global food security, addressing natural resource issues, and strengthening institutional capacity at foreign university partners in developing countries.
Reviewing issues concerning implementation of this title as requested by universities and making recommendations to the Administrator on their resolution.
Advising the Administrator on any and all issues as requested.
Review of collaborative research support program
Not later than 1 year after the appointment of the members of the Board, the Board shall conduct a review of the Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) with regard to the research focus of existing CRSP activities and their relevance to addressing hunger, malnutrition, agricultural productivity, and poverty alleviation, and shall make recommendations to the Administrator to strengthen the CRSP program.
The Administrator may authorize the Board to create such subordinate units as may be necessary for the performance of its duties.
Annual report consultation
The Board shall be consulted in the preparation of the annual report required by section 299A and on other agricultural development activities related to programs under this title.
The terms of members shall be set by the Administrator at the time they are appointed.
Reimbursement of expenses
Members of the Board shall be entitled to such reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their duties (including per diem in lieu of subsistence while away from their homes or regular place of business) as the Administrator deems appropriate on a case-by-case basis.
Higher education collaboration for technology, agriculture, research and extension
The purpose of this section is to provide United States assistance for the development of higher educational capacity in the field of agriculture in a manner that builds and strengthens institutional and human capacity of developing countries in the field of agriculture and related sciences, promotes entrepreneurship and economic growth in rural areas, increases agricultural productivity and sustainable agriculture, alleviates poverty and malnutrition, promotes nutritional diversity to include consumption of highly nutritious indigenous foods, and promotes good government through the participation of United States institutions of higher education.
Establishment of program
Not later than 90 days after the date of
the enactment of this section, the Administrator shall establish a program to
be known as the Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture,
Research, and Extension (in this section referred to as the
HECTARE) for the purpose of providing
assistance in support of policies and programs in eligible countries that
advance hunger alleviation by increasing agricultural productivity and rural
development through partnerships with institutions of higher education.
In this section:
The term assistance plan means a multi-year plan developed by the United States Agency for International Development in coordination with a foreign government or university to provide assistance for agricultural education programs at a country or regional level.
The term Board means the Board for Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture, Research, and Extension.
The term HECTARE school means an institution of higher education in an eligible country that is designated as the lead educational institution for purposes of a country or regional assistance plan.
The term eligible country means a country that meets the requirements of subsection (g).
Form of assistance
Assistance may be provided under this section in the form of grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts to or with eligible entities described in subsection (h) and shall be provided pursuant to assistance plans as described in subsection (f). Assistance may not be provided under this section in the form of loans.
Use of funds
Assistance provided under this section may be used to provide support to HECTARE schools or, where appropriate, other institutions of higher education in eligible countries for the following purposes:
Academic exchange programs for students, faculty members, extension educators, and school administrators with HECTARE schools, other institutions of higher education, and United States universities.
Strengthening agricultural sciences curricula, including vocational training.
Increasing research capacity, output, and quality.
Improving the dissemination of information and technology to farmers and others engaged in agriculture, especially women and other small farmers.
Identifying leading educational institutions uniquely able to serve as regional hubs to promote the purposes specified in paragraphs (1) through (4) and promoting cooperation between such institutions and other educational institutions through regional networks.
The Administrator shall provide assistance under this section pursuant to an assistance plan developed in coordination with an eligible country that establishes a multi-year plan for significantly improving agricultural productivity and investing in rural economies through the strengthening of agricultural programs at institutions of higher education.
An assistance plan should—
take into account the national development strategy of the eligible country or the participation of the eligible country in a regional development strategy;
identify an institution of higher education for designation as a HECTARE school that has programs in agricultural sciences;
identify the partnership between the government agencies, including local and regional governments, civil society, farmer organizations, cooperatives, institutions of higher learning, private entities, multilateral institutions, and nongovernmental organizations;
identify appropriate channels for dissemination of farming techniques to the field, especially women and other small farmers; and
identify the plans of the HECTARE school for—
conducting agricultural research and technology transfer and extension;
strengthening the teaching of agriculture science, including programs aimed at curriculum, faculty, and students;
improving university administration; and
establishing methods by which to engage with other institutions of higher education to fulfill the purposes of the Program.
The Administrator shall, in consultation with the Board, identify eligible countries for purposes of this section. Such determination shall be based, to the maximum extent possible, upon objective and quantifiable indicators of a country’s demonstrated commitment to the following:
Investments in, and support for, rural economies, including the protection of private property rights, the promotion of private sector growth and sustainable management of natural resources, the rights of women, and the well-being of women and children.
Raising agricultural productivity of small- and medium-sized farms.
Alleviating poverty and hunger among the entire population.
Strengthening the system of higher education with regard to agricultural sciences, teaching, research, and technology.
The wide dissemination of farming techniques, especially to small- and medium-sized farmers.
Good governance, transparency, and anti-corruption policies.
The Administrator, in selecting eligible countries, shall consider—
the extent to which the country clearly meets or exceeds the eligibility criteria;
the opportunity to increase agricultural productivity, enhance human and institutional capacity, and reduce hunger and malnutrition in the country;
the availability of funds to carry out this section;
the percentage of the country’s population that faces chronic food insecurity (as defined in section 3 of the Global Food Security Act of 2009); and
the existence of an institution of higher education in a food secure country that can serve as a regional hub for assistance to other schools in need of assistance in countries experiencing chronic food insecurity (as defined in section 3 of the Global Food Security Act of 2009).
Entities eligible for assistance under this section are the following:
United States universities working in partnership with HECTARE schools in eligible countries.
HECTARE schools and other institutions of higher education in eligible countries.
Nongovernmental organizations or private entities.
Authorization of appropriations
There is authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purpose of carrying out activities under this section—
$100,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
$200,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;
$300,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;
$400,000,000 for fiscal year 2013; and
$500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.
Disclosure of funding received by United States universities
The Administrator shall prescribe regulations providing for the utilization by United States universities of alternative sources of public and private funding to carry out the purposes of this title and requiring the disclosure, not less than annually, of all such alternative funding, both prospective and received.
Not later than September 30, 2011, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a report detailing the activities carried out under this title during the preceding fiscal year and containing a projection of programs and activities to be conducted in the following year.
Emergency response to food crises
Emergency rapid response to food crises account
Whenever the President determines it to be important to the national interest, the President may furnish on such terms and conditions as the President may determine appropriate assistance under this Act or the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) for the purpose of meeting unexpected urgent food assistance and related needs, notwithstanding any provision of law which restricts assistance to foreign countries.
Establishment of account
There is established a United States
Emergency Rapid Response to Food Crises Fund to carry out the purposes of this
section (in this section referred to as the
Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to the President from time to time such sums as may be necessary for the Fund to carry out the purposes of this section, except that no amount of funds may be appropriated which, when added to amounts previously appropriated but not yet obligated for such purpose, would cause the total of such appropriated amounts to exceed $500,000,000.
Availability of funds
Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.
Use of funds
Assistance provided under this section may include—
the local and regional purchase and distribution of food; and
the provision of emergency non-food assistance, including vouchers or cash transfers, safety net programs, or other appropriate non-food assistance.
Limited delegation of authority
The authority under subsection (a) may be delegated to the Administrator, provided that not more than $100,000,000 may be made available in any fiscal year pursuant to determinations made by the Administrator pursuant to the delegation of such authority.
The Administrator shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 5 days before providing assistance pursuant to a determination made under this section. The report shall describe—
the emergency food and related needs to be addressed by the assistance;
the population that will receive the aid; and
the amount and type of assistance to be provided.
Authorization of appropriations
There is authorized to be appropriated $500,000,000 for fiscal year 2010 for the purpose of carrying out this title.