H. R. 3246
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
September 17, 2009
Received; read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
To provide for a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application in vehicle technologies at the Department of Energy.
This Act may be cited as the
Advanced Vehicle Technology Act of
Congress finds the following:
According to the Energy Information Administration, the transportation sector accounts for approximately 28 percent of the United States primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, and 24 percent of global oil demand.
The United States transportation sector is over 95 percent dependent on petroleum, and over 60 percent of petroleum demand is met by imported supplies.
United States heavy truck fuel consumption will increase 23 percent by 2030, while overall transportation energy use will decline by 1 percent.
The domestic automotive and commercial vehicle manufacturing sectors have increasingly limited resources for research and development of advanced technologies.
Vehicle, engine, and component manufacturers are playing a more important role in vehicle technology development, and should be better integrated into Federal research efforts.
Priorities for the Department of Energy’s vehicle technologies research have shifted drastically in recent years among diesel hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in electric hybrids, with little continuity among them.
The integration of vehicle, communication, and infrastructure technologies has great potential for efficiency gains through better management of the total transportation system.
The Federal Government should balance its role in researching longer-term exploratory concepts and developing nearer-term transformational technologies for vehicles.
The objectives of this Act are to—
develop technologies and practices that—
improve the fuel efficiency and emissions of all vehicles produced in the United States; and
reduce vehicle reliance on petroleum-based fuels;
support domestic research, development, demonstration, and commercial application and manufacturing of advanced vehicles, engines, and components;
enable vehicles to move larger volumes of goods and more passengers with less energy and emissions;
develop cost-effective advanced technologies for wide-scale utilization throughout the passenger, commercial, government, and transit vehicle sectors;
allow for greater consumer choice of vehicle technologies and fuels;
shorten technology development and integration cycles in the vehicle industry;
ensure a proper balance and diversity of Federal investment in vehicle technologies; and
strengthen partnerships between Federal and State governmental agencies and the private and academic sectors.
For the purposes of this Act:
the Department of Energy.
Secretary means the
Secretary of Energy.
Authorization of appropriations
The following sums are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of vehicles and related technologies, including activities authorized under this Act:
$550,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.
$560,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
$570,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.
$580,000,000 for fiscal year 2013.
$590,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.
Medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles
From the amounts authorized under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out title II—
$200,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
$210,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;
$220,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;
$230,000,000 for fiscal year 2013; and
$240,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.
From the amounts authorized under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out section 104—
$35,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
$30,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;
$15,000,000 for fiscal year 2013; and
$15,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.
Non-Road pilot program
From the amounts authorized under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated for carrying out section 204—
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2012.
Vehicle Research and Development
The Secretary shall conduct a program of basic and applied research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities on materials, technologies, and processes with the potential to substantially reduce or eliminate petroleum use and the emissions of the Nation’s passenger and commercial vehicles, including activities in the areas of—
hybridization or full electrification of vehicle systems;
batteries and other energy storage devices;
vehicle, component, and subsystem manufacturing technologies and processes;
engine efficiency and combustion optimization;
waste heat recovery;
transmission and drivetrains;
hydrogen vehicle technologies, including fuel cells and internal combustion engines, and hydrogen infrastructure;
aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and accessory power loads of vehicles and associated equipment;
vehicle weight reduction;
friction and wear reduction;
engine and component durability;
innovative propulsion systems;
advanced boosting systems;
hydraulic hybrid technologies;
engine compatibility with and optimization for a variety of transportation fuels including liquid and gaseous fuels;
predictive engineering, modeling, and simulation of vehicle and transportation systems;
refueling and charging infrastructure for alternative fueled and electric or plug-in electric hybrid vehicles, including the unique challenges facing rural areas;
gaseous fuels storage system integration and optimization;
sensing, communications, and actuation technologies for vehicle, electrical grid, and infrastructure;
efficient use and recycling of rare earth materials, and reduction of precious metals and other high-cost materials in vehicles;
thermal management of battery systems;
retrofitting advanced vehicle technologies to existing vehicles;
development of common standards, specifications, and architectures for both transportation and stationary battery applications; and
other research areas as determined by the Secretary.
The Secretary shall ensure that the Department continues to support activities and maintains competency in mid- to long-term transformational vehicle technologies with potential to achieve deep reductions in petroleum use and emissions, including activities in the areas of—
hydrogen vehicle technologies, including fuel cells, internal combustion engines, hydrogen storage, infrastructure, and activities in hydrogen technology validation and safety codes and standards;
multiple battery chemistries and novel energy storage devices, including nonchemical batteries and electromechanical storage technologies such as hydraulics, flywheels, and compressed air storage;
communication and connectivity among vehicles, infrastructure, and the electrical grid; and
other innovative technologies research and development, as determined by the Secretary.
To the maximum extent practicable, activities under this Act shall be carried out in partnership or collaboration with automotive manufacturers, heavy commercial and transit vehicle manufacturers, qualified plug-in electric vehicle manufacturers, vehicle and engine equipment and component manufacturers, manufacturing equipment manufacturers, advanced vehicle service providers, fuel producers and energy suppliers, electric utilities, universities, national laboratories, and independent research laboratories. In carrying out this Act the Secretary shall—
determine whether a wide range of companies that manufacture or assemble vehicles or components in the United States are represented in ongoing public private partnership activities, including firms that have not traditionally participated in federally-sponsored research and development activities, and where possible, partner with such firms that conduct significant and relevant research and development activities in the United States;
leverage the capabilities and resources of, and formalize partnerships with, industry-led stakeholder organizations, nonprofit organizations, industry consortia, and trade associations with expertise in the research and development of, and education and outreach activities in, advanced automotive and commercial vehicle technologies;
develop more efficient processes for transferring research findings and technologies to industry;
give consideration to conversion of existing or former vehicle technology development or manufacturing facilities for the purposes of this Act, and support public-private partnerships dedicated to overcoming barriers in commercial application of transformational vehicle technologies that utilize such industry-led facilities; and
promote efforts to ensure that technologies developed under this Act are produced in the United States.
Interagency and intraagency coordination
To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall coordinate research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities among—
relevant programs within the Department, including—
the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy;
the Office of Science;
the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability;
the Office of Fossil Energy;
the Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy; and
other offices as determined by the Secretary; and
relevant technology research and development programs within other Federal agencies, as determined by the Secretary.
Coordination and nonduplication
In coordinating activities the Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that activities do not duplicate those of other programs within the Department or other relevant research agencies.
Federal demonstration of technologies
The Secretary shall make information available to procurement programs of Federal agencies regarding the potential to demonstrate technologies resulting from activities funded through programs under this Act.
The Secretary shall seek opportunities to leverage resources and support initiatives of State and local governments in developing and promoting advanced vehicle technologies, manufacturing, and infrastructure.
Sensing and communications technologies
The Secretary, in coordination with the relevant research programs of other Federal agencies, shall conduct research, development, and demonstration activities on connectivity of vehicle and transportation systems, including on sensing, computation, communication, and actuation technologies that allow for reduced fuel use, optimized traffic flow, and vehicle electrification, including technologies for—
onboard vehicle, engine, and component sensing and actuation;
vehicle-to-vehicle sensing and communication;
vehicle-to-infrastructure sensing and communication; and
vehicle integration with the electrical grid.
The Secretary shall carry out a research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program of advanced vehicle manufacturing technologies and practices, including innovative processes to—
increase the production rate and decrease the cost of advanced battery manufacturing;
vary the capability of individual manufacturing facilities to accommodate different battery chemistries and configurations;
reduce waste streams, emissions, and energy-intensity of vehicle, engine, advanced battery and component manufacturing processes;
recycle and remanufacture used batteries and other vehicle components for reuse in vehicles or stationary applications;
produce cost-effective lightweight materials such as advanced metal alloys, polymeric composites, and carbon fiber;
produce lightweight high pressure storage systems for gaseous fuels;
design and manufacture purpose-built hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles and components;
improve the calendar life and cycle life of advanced batteries; and
produce permanent magnets for advanced vehicles.
User testing facilities
Activities under this Act may include construction, expansion, or modification of new and existing vehicle, engine, and component research and testing facilities for—
testing or simulating interoperability of a variety of vehicle components and systems;
subjecting whole or partial vehicle platforms to fully representative duty cycles and operating conditions;
developing and demonstrating a range of chemistries and configurations for advanced vehicle battery manufacturing; and
developing and demonstrating test cycles for new and alternative fuels, and other advanced vehicle technologies.
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act and annually thereafter through 2015, the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report regarding the technologies developed as a result of the activities authorized by this title, with a particular emphasis on whether the technologies were successfully adopted for commercial applications, and if so, whether those technologies are manufactured in the United States.
At the end of each fiscal year the Secretary shall submit to the relevant Congressional committees of jurisdiction an annual report describing activities undertaken in the previous year under this title, active industry participants, efforts to recruit new participants, progress of the program in meeting goals and timelines, and a strategic plan for funding of activities across agencies.
Innovative Automotive Demonstration Program
The Secretary shall establish an Innovative Automotive Demonstration Program, within the existing Vehicle Technologies Program, to encourage the introduction of new vehicles into the marketplace that are designed in their entirety to achieve very high energy efficiency but still provide the capabilities required by the American consumer. This program shall encourage introduction of new light duty vehicles into the marketplace capable of achieving energy efficiencies significantly greater than required under current and pending Federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This program shall also encourage the use of materials and manufacturing techniques that minimize environmental impacts. Awards under this section shall be made on a competitive basis for demonstration of vehicles that—
carry at least four passengers;
meet all Federal safety requirements;
achieve at least 70 miles per gallon or the equivalent on the Environmental Protection Agency drive cycle;
provide vehicle performance that is judged acceptable to the United States consumer;
be affordable to the American consumer;
use materials and manufacturing processes that minimize environmental impacts;
meet all Federal and State emission requirements; and
provide new high technology engineering and production employment opportunities.
Medium and Heavy Duty Commercial and Transit Vehicles
The Secretary, in partnership with relevant research and development programs in other Federal agencies, and a range of appropriate industry stakeholders, shall carry out a program of cooperative research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities on advanced technologies for medium- to heavy-duty commercial, recreational, and transit vehicles, including activities in the areas of—
engine efficiency and combustion research;
on board storage technologies for compressed and liquefied natural gas;
development and integration of engine technologies designed for natural gas operation of a variety of vehicle platforms;
waste heat recovery and conversion;
improved aerodynamics and tire rolling resistance;
energy and space-efficient emissions control systems;
heavy hybrid, hybrid hydraulic, plug-in hybrid, and electric platforms, and energy storage technologies;
friction and wear reduction;
engine idle and parasitic energy loss reduction;
electrification of accessory loads;
onboard sensing and communications technologies;
advanced lightweighting materials and vehicle designs;
increasing load capacity per vehicle;
thermal management of battery systems;
complete vehicle modeling and simulation;
hydrogen vehicle technologies, including fuel cells and internal combustion engines, and hydrogen infrastructure;
retrofitting advanced technologies onto existing truck fleets; and
integration of these and other advanced systems onto a single truck and trailer platform.
The Secretary shall appoint a full-time Director to coordinate research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities in medium- to heavy-duty commercial, recreational, and transit vehicle technologies. Responsibilities of the Director shall be to—
improve coordination and develop consensus between government agency and industry partners, and propose new processes for program management and priority setting to better align activities and budgets among partners;
regularly convene workshops, site visits, demonstrations, conferences, investor forums, and other events in which information and research findings are shared among program participants and interested stakeholders;
develop a budget for the Department’s activities with regard to the interagency program, and provide consultation and guidance on vehicle technology funding priorities across agencies;
determine a process for reviewing program technical goals, targets, and timetables and, where applicable, aided by life-cycle impact and cost analysis, propose revisions or elimination based on program progress, available funding, and rate of technology adoption;
evaluate ongoing activities of the program and recommend project modifications, including the termination of projects, where applicable;
recruit new industry participants to the interagency program, including truck, trailer, and component manufacturers who have not traditionally participated in federally sponsored research and technology development activities; and
other responsibilities as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with interagency and industry partners.
At the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress an annual report describing activities undertaken in the previous year, active industry participants, efforts to recruit new participants, progress of the program in meeting goals and timelines, and a strategic plan for funding of activities across agencies.
Class 8 truck and trailer systems demonstration
The Secretary shall conduct a competitive grant program to demonstrate the integration of multiple advanced technologies on Class 8 truck and trailer platforms with a goal of improving overall freight efficiency, as measured in tons and volume of freight hauled or other work performance-based metrics, by 50 percent, including a combination of technologies listed in section 201(a). Applicant teams may be comprised of truck and trailer manufacturers, engine and component manufacturers, fleet customers, university researchers, and other applicants as appropriate for the development and demonstration of integrated Class 8 truck and trailer systems.
Technology testing and metrics
The Secretary, in coordination with the partners of the interagency research program described in section 201(a)—
shall develop standard testing procedures and technologies for evaluating the performance of advanced heavy vehicle technologies under a range of representative duty cycles and operating conditions, including for heavy hybrid propulsion systems;
shall evaluate heavy vehicle performance using work performance-based metrics other than those based on miles per gallon, including those based on units of volume and weight transported for freight applications, and appropriate metrics based on the work performed by nonroad systems; and
may construct heavy duty truck and bus testing facilities.
Nonroad systems pilot program
The Secretary shall undertake a pilot program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications of technologies to improve total machine or system efficiency for nonroad mobile equipment including agricultural and construction equipment, and shall seek opportunities to transfer relevant research findings and technologies between the nonroad and on-highway equipment and vehicle sectors.
Passed the House of Representatives September 16, 2009.
Lorraine C. Miller,