S. 384 (111th): Global Food Security Act of 2009

111th Congress, 2009–2010. Text as of May 13, 2009 (Reported by Senate Committee).

Status & Summary | PDF | Source: GPO

II

Calendar No. 60

111th CONGRESS

1st Session

S. 384

[Report No. 111–19]

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

February 5, 2009

(for himself, Mr. Casey, Mr. Durbin, Mr. Harkin, Ms. Collins, Mr. Kerry, and Mr. Begich) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations

May 13, 2009

Reported by , with amendments

Omit the part struck through and insert the part printed in italic

A BILL

To authorize appropriations for fiscal years 2010 through 2014 to provide assistance to foreign countries to promote food security, to stimulate rural economies, and to improve emergency response to food crises, to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, and for other purposes.

1.

Short title; table of contents

(a)

Short title

This Act may be cited as the Global Food Security Act of 2009.

(b)

Table of contents

The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.

Sec. 2. Findings.

Sec. 3. Definitions.

TITLE I—Policy objectives, planning and coordination

Sec. 101. Statement of policy.

Sec. 102. Comprehensive food security strategy.

Sec. 103. Reports.

TITLE II—Bilateral programs

Sec. 201. Agriculture, rural development, and nutrition.

Sec. 202. Agricultural research.

TITLE III—University partnerships for agriculture

Sec. 301. Amendments to Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

TITLE IV—Emergency rapid response to food crises

Sec. 401. Emergency food assistance accountEmergency rapid response to food crises account.

Sec. 402. Authorization of appropriations.

2.

Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(1)

Nearly 1,000,000,000 people worldwide suffer from food insecurity, defined as a lack of access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for an active and healthy life.

(2)

The number of food insecure increased from 849,000,000 in 2006 to 982,000,000 in 2007, according to the Department of Agriculture.

(3)

The World Food Programme reports that 25,000 people die each day from malnutrition-related causes.

(4)

The food security situation of lower income countries is projected to continue to deteriorate over the next decade.

(5)

Nearly half of the world’s food insecure live in Sub-Saharan Africa.

(6)

The agricultural sector comprises large portions of the total labor force in many developing countries, as high as 70 to 80 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, where it also contributes about 35 percent of the total gross national product (GNP).

(7)

Agriculture has been shown to be an efficient engine of economic growth in developing countries, with the benefit of promoting income for the poorest, equity, and social justice.

(8)

A diverse and secure food supply has health benefits, including increasing child survival, improving cognitive and physical development of children, especially those under two years of age, increasing immune system function including resistance to HIV/AIDS, and improving human performance.

(9)

Rapid increases in global food costs since 2007in 2007 and 2008 and downturns in the global economy threaten to significantly undermine gains achieved in poverty reduction and health programs over the past decade.

(10)

The poor in developing countries spend as much as 50 to 70 percent of their incomes on food.

(11)

Three out of five of those suffering from hunger are rural small-scale agriculturalists. One out of five is a rural landless laborer, and another one-fifth are urban poor, according to the United Nations Hunger Task Force.

(12)

Women, who are often heads of households, comprise a large proportion of small holders and face unique challenges and heightened vulnerability to food insecurity. Studies show that increasing the incomes and access to food for women benefits the entire household as they are more likely to share these resources with family members.

(13)

A comprehensive approach to long-term food security should encompass improvements in nutrition, education, agricultural infrastructure and productivity, finance and markets, safety net programs, job creation, household incomes, research and technology, and the environment.

(14)

A comprehensive food security strategy should include expertise of private voluntary organizations and cooperatives, many of which have experience in working with the rural poor, community-based organizations, and local administrators to improve agriculture, businesses, and infrastructure and to address nutrition and food security needs at the household and community level.

3.

Definitions

In this Act:

(1)

Administrator

The term Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

(2)

Agricultural assistance

The term agricultural assistance means assistance that has the objective of improving agriculture and rural development through such strategies as raising agricultural productivity, strengthening infrastructure, enhancing human and institutional capacity at educational institutions, including those of higher education, creating markets and a conducive business environment, improving health and nutrition, particularly for vulnerable groups, and expanding access to technology through extension and related programs.

(2)(3)

Appropriate congressional committees

The term appropriate congressional committees means—

(A)

the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(B)

the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(3)(4)

Chronic food insecurity

The term chronic food insecurity means ongoing and persistent lack of access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for an active and healthy life.

(4)(5)

Extreme poverty

The term extreme poverty means income of less than half of the poverty level as defined by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development for the relevant year.

(5)(6)

Institution of higher education

The term institution of higher education means educational institutions providing post-secondary education and training.

I

Policy objectives, planning and coordination

101.

Statement of policy

It is the policy of the United States to promote global food security, to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, to alleviate poverty, to improve agricultural productivity and rural development, to support the development of institutions of higher learning that will enhance human capacity, entrepreneurial skills and job creation, agricultural research and technology, and the dissemination of farming techniques to all parts of the agriculture sector, and to support sustainable farming methods.

102.

Comprehensive food security strategy

(a)

Special coordinator

The President shall designate an individual to serve in the Executive Office of the President as the Special Coordinator for Food Security. The coordinator shall assist the President by—

(1)

advising the President on international food security issues;

(2)

taking such actions as are necessary to ensure the coordination of the food security efforts and programs of the United States, including the activities of Federal agencies; and

(3)

overseeing the development and implementation of the strategy described in subsection (b).

(b)

Content of strategy

The strategy referred to in subsection (a)(3) is a comprehensive food security strategy that—

(1)

includes specific and measurable goals, benchmarks and time frames, and a plan of action to achieve the objectives described in section 101;

(2)

seeks, to the greatest extent possible, to encourage the leverage of—

(A)

resources of private sector providers of agriculture inputs, processors, and marketers, including through the Global Development Alliances of the United States Agency for International Development and other measures;

(B)

consultation with the academic and research community, private voluntary organizations, and, cooperatives, and other program implementers;

(C)

the coordination of United States food security efforts with similar efforts of international organizations, international financial institutions, the governments of developing and developed countries, and United States and international nongovernmental organizations; and

(D)

the incorporation of approaches directed at reaching women living in poverty.

(3)

provides appropriate linkages with United States international health programs, such as the President’s Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief;

(4)

reflects a whole-of-government approach that incorporates and encompasses the programs of relevant Federal departments and agencies that engage in some aspect of food security, including the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, the Department of the Treasury, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, and the Department of Health and Human Services; and

(5)

provides annual monitoring and evaluation of the program addressing progress toward improving access to food, availability of food, utilization of food, and risk factors associated with food insecure populations.

(c)

Implementation

The United States Agency for International Development shall be the lead agency in implementing the strategy described in subsection (b).

103.

Reports

(a)

Annual reports

(1)

In general

Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, and not later than December 31 of each year thereafter through 2014, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of the strategy described in section 102(b).

(2)

Content

The report required under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A)

a copy of the strategy and an indication of any changes made in the strategy during the preceding calendar year;

(B)

an assessment of progress made during the preceding calendar year toward meeting the objectives described in section 101 and the specific goals, benchmarks, and time frames specified in the strategy described in section 102(b);

(C)

a description of United States Government programs contributing to the achievement of the objectives described in section 101, including the amounts expended on such programs during the preceding fiscal year; and

(D)

an assessment of United States efforts to encourage and leverage business and philanthropic participation in United States food security programs and to coordinate such programs with similar efforts of international organizations, international financial institutions, the governments of developing and developed countries, and United States and international nongovernmental organizations.

(3)

Government Accountability Office Report

Not later than 270 days after the submission of each report under paragraph (1), the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that contains—

(A)

a review of, and comments addressing, the report submitted under paragraph (1); and

(B)

recommendations relating to any additional actions the Comptroller General determines to be necessarybelieves are important to improve a global food security strategy and its implementation.

(b)

Program review

(1)

In general

Not later than 4 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing—

(A)

an assessment of progress made during the preceding four years toward meeting the objectives described in section 101 and the specific goals, benchmarks, and time frames specified in the strategy described in section 102(b); and

(B)

an evaluation of the impact during the preceding four years of United States food security programs on food security, health, and economic growth in countries suffering from chronic food insecurity.

(2)

Basis for report

The report required under paragraph (1) shall be based on assessments and impact evaluations utilizing sound quantitative and qualitative methodologies and techniques used in the behavioral sciences.

II

Bilateral programs

201.

Agriculture, rural development, and nutrition

(a)

Authority

Section 103(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a(a)(1)) is amended—

(1)

in subparagraph (B), by striking ; and and inserting a semicolon;

(2)

in subparagraph (C), by striking the period at the end and inserting ; and; and

(3)

by adding at the end the following new subparagraphs:

(D)

to expand the economic participation of people living in extreme poverty and those who lack access to agriculturally productive land, including through productive safety net programs and health and nutrition programs, and to integrate those living in extreme poverty into the economy;

(E)

to support conservation farming and other sustainable agricultural techniques to respond to changing climatic conditions and water shortages; and

(F)

to improve nutrition of vulnerable populations, such as children under the age of two years old, and pregnant or lactating women.

.

(b)

Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the President to provide assistance under section 103 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a) for the purpose of carrying out activities under this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purpose—

(1)

$750,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;

(2)

$1,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;

(3)

$1,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;

(4)

$2,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2013; and

(5)

$2,500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.

202.

Agricultural research

Section 103A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a–1) is amended in the first sentence—

(1)

by striking , and (3) make and inserting , (3) make; and

(2)

by striking the period at the end and inserting , and (4) include research on biotechnological advances appropriate to local ecological conditions, including genetically modified technology..

III

University partnerships for agriculture

301.

Amendment to Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2220a et seq.) is amended to read as follows:

XII

University partnerships for agriculture

296.

Findings and purpose

(a)

Findings

Congress makes the following findings:

(1)

Agriculture has been a driver of economic growth as the foundation of industry and commerce in developed countries.

(2)

Institutions of higher education, including vocational education, can promote a robust agriculture sector through the dissemination of knowledge, the building of human capital, research and technology, and extension.

(3)

According to a World Bank study, higher education contributes to national productivity, raises living standards, and improves the ability of a country to compete globally.

(4)

Enrollment rates in higher education are 5 percent in Africa, 10 percent in South Asia, 19 percent in East Asia, and 23 percent in North Africa and the Middle East.

(5)

Universities in the United States have a history of serving as engines of development.

(6)

Many universities in the United States have experience in partnering with foreign universities on faculty and student exchanges, curriculum development, joint research projects, and extension.

(7)

Land-grant universities and other universities in the United States have demonstrated their ability to cooperate with international agencies, educational and research institutionsinstitutions, and national and international research institutions in other countries, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide in expanding global agricultural production, processing, business and trade, and promoting better management of agricultural and natural resources, including adaptation to the effects of climate change, to the benefit of aid recipient countries and the United States.

(8)

Population growth will exert pressures on food supplies and prices and require investments in increased agricultural productivity, processing, marketing, trade, research, extension, and technology in order to provide food security, ensure health, and build the basis for economic growth.

(9)

United States foreign assistance support for higher education has declined from the 1990s.

(10)

Global food security is in the interest of the United States because it promotes stability and economic growth, increases trade opportunities, and alleviates hunger and poverty.

(b)

Purpose

The purpose of this title is to authorize United States assistance that promotes food security, agriculture productivity, rural development, poverty and malnutrition alleviation, and environmental sustainability by engaging the expertise of United States institutions of higher education in collaboration with public and private institutions in developing countries.

297.

Definitions

In this title:

(1)

United States universities

The terms United States universities and United States institutions of higher education mean those colleges or universities in each State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia—

(A)

now receiving, or which may hereafter receive, benefits under the Act of July 2, 1862 (commonly known as the First Morrill Act) (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (known as the Second Morrill Act) (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), which are commonly known as land-grant universities;

(B)

institutions now designated or which may hereafter be designated as sea-grant colleges under the National Sea Grant College and Program Act (33 U.S.C. 1121 et seq.), which are commonly known as sea-grant colleges;

(C)

Native American land-grant colleges as authorized under the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note); and

(D)

other United States colleges and universities thatcolleges, universities, and other educational institutions that

(i)

have demonstrable capacity in teaching, research, and extension (including outreach) activities in the agricultural sciences; and

(ii)

can contribute effectively to the attainment of the objective of this title.

(2)

Administrator

The term Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.

(3)

Public and private partners of universities

The term public and private partners of universities includes entities that have cooperative or contractual agreements with universities, which may include formal or informal associations of universities, other education institutions, national and international agriculture research institutions, United States Government and State agencies, private voluntary organizations, nongovernmental organizations, firms operated for profit, nonprofit organizations, multinational banks, and, as designated by the Administrator, any organizations, institutions, or agencies incorporated in foreign countries.

(4)

Agriculture

The term agriculture means the science and practice of activities related to food, feed, livestock, or fiber production, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization, and trade, and encompasses the study and practice of family and consumer sciences, nutrition, food sciences, forestry, wildlife, fisheries, aquaculture, floraculture, livestock management, veterinary medicine, and other environmental and natural resource sciences.

298.

Authority

(a)

In general

In order to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, establish global food security, promote growth in agricultural productivity, trade expansion, and the sustainable use of natural resources, and alleviate poverty, the President is authorized to provide assistance on such terms and conditions as he may determine to implement program components through United States land-grant universities, other eligible universities, and public and private partners of universities in the United States and other countries, consistent with sections 103 and 103A of this Act, for the following purposes:

(1)

Research on problems affecting food, agriculture, forestry, livestock, and fisheries.

(2)

Improved human capacity and institutional capacity for the global application of agricultural and related environmental sciences.

(3)

Agricultural development and trade research and extension services to support the access of rural populations to national and global markets.

(4)

The application of agricultural sciences to solving food, health, nutrition, rural income, and environmental problems, especially among chronically food insecure populations.

(b)

Types of support

Assistance provided pursuant to this section may include support for—

(1)

continued efforts by international agricultural research centers and other international research entities to provide a global network, including United States universities and foreign universities, for international scientific collaboration on crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, farming resources, sustainable agricultural and land management technology, and food systems of global importance;

(2)

long-term collaborative research support programs between United States and foreign institutions of higher education including the training of students, teachers, extension specialists, and researchers;

(3)

broad dissemination of agricultural research through extension, cooperatively with existing public or private extension systems;

(4)

the participation of universities and public and private partners of universities in programs of multilateral banks and agencies that receive United States assistance;

(5)

an expansion of learning opportunities about agriculture for students, teachers, school administrators, community leaders, entrepreneurs, and the general public through international internships and exchanges, graduate assistantships, faculty positions, and other means of education and extension;

(6)

competitive grants to United States universities, public and private partners of universities, and universities in other countries for research, institution and policy development, extension, training, and other programs for global agricultural development, trade and the responsible management of natural resources; and

(7)

support for developing and strengthening national agricultural research systems in developing countries.

(c)

Objectives

Programs under this title shall be carried out so as to utilize the capabilities of United States universities to assist—

(1)

in developing institutional capacity in recipient countries for classroom teaching in agriculture, plant and animal sciences, human nutrition, vocational training, extension services, and business training;

(2)

in agricultural research conducted in recipient countries, at international agricultural research centers, or in the United States;

(3)

in the planning, initiation, and development of extension services through which information concerning agriculture, farming techniques, environment, nutrition, and related subjects will be made available to farmers and farming communities in recipient countries; and

(4)

in the exchange of educators, students, and scientists for the purpose of assisting in successful development in recipient countries.

(d)

Role of administrator

The President shall exercise his authority under this title through the Administrator.

(e)

Collaborative research support program

Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201(b) of the Global Food Security Act of 2009, up to $45,000,000 may be made available annually for the Collaborative Research Support Program for fiscal years 2010 through 2014.

(f)

Consultative group on international agricultural research

Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201(b) of the Global Food Security Act of 2009, up to $50,000,000 may be made available annually for core long-term research for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research for fiscal years 2010 through 2014.

(g)

Board for higher education collaboration for technology, agriculture, research, and extension

(1)

Establishment

The Administrator shall establish a permanent Board for Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture, Research, and Extension (referred to as Board) for purposes of assisting the Administrator in the administration of the HECTARE Program, the Collaborative Research Support Program, and all other manner of university engagement authorized under this title.

(2)

Membership

The Board shall consist of at least 7 members, of whom—

(A)

not less than 4 shall be selected from United States universities; and

(B)

not less than 3 shall be selected from representatives of nongovernmental organizations or international education consortia devoted to agriculture research and education.

(3)

Duties

The duties of the Board shall include the following:

(A)

Responsibility for advising the Administrator on issues related to the planning, implementation, and monitoring of activities described in this title.

(B)

Advising the Administrator on the formulation of basic policy, program design, procedures, and criteria for the HECTARE Program.

(C)

Advising the Administrator on the qualifications of interested institutions of higher education based on—

(i)

their ability to work collaboratively to improve agricultural production, scientific research, and the dissemination of sustainable agricultural technologies;

(ii)

their commitment to expanding and applying their academic, teaching, research, and outreach capacities; and

(iii)

their commitment to partner with private organizations, civil society, other universities, and government entities.

(D)

Advising the Administrator on which countries could benefit from programs carried out under section 299 and have an interest in establishing or developing agricultural institutions that engage in teaching, research, or extension services.

(E)

Making recommendations to the Administrator on the means to improve the effectiveness of activities authorized by this title and undertaken by universities and public and private partners of universities.

(F)

Assessing the impact of programs carried out under this title in solving agricultural problems, improving global food security, addressing natural resource issues, and strengthening institutional capacity at foreign university partners in developing countries.

(G)

Reviewing issues concerning implementation of this title as requested by universities and making recommendations to the Administrator on their resolution.

(H)

Advising the Administrator on any and all issues as requested.

(4)

Review of collaborative research support program

Not later than 1 year after the appointment of the members of the Board, the Board shall conduct a review of the Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) with regard to the research focus of existing CRSP activities and their relevance to addressing hunger, malnutrition, agricultural productivity, and poverty alleviation, and shall make recommendations to the Administrator to strengthen the CRSP program.

(5)

Subordinate units

The Administrator may authorize the Board to create such subordinate units as may be necessary for the performance of its duties.

(6)

Annual report consultation

The Board shall be consulted in the preparation of the annual report required by section 299A and on other agricultural development activities related to programs under this title.

(7)

Term

The terms of members shall be set by the Administrator at the time they are appointed.

(8)

Reimbursement of expenses

Members of the Board shall be entitled to such reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their duties (including per diem in lieu of subsistence while away from their homes or regular place of business) as the Administrator deems appropriate on a case-by-case basis.

299.

Higher education collaboration for technology, agriculture, research and extension

(a)

Purpose

The purpose of this section is to provide United States assistance for the development of higher educational capacity in the field of agriculture in a manner that builds and strengthens institutional and human capacity of developing countries in the field of agriculture and related sciences, promotes entrepreneurship and economic growth in rural areas, increases agricultural productivity and sustainable agriculture, alleviates poverty and malnutrition, promotes nutritional diversity, and promotes good government through the participation of United States institutions of higher education.

(b)

Establishment of program

Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall establish a program to be known as the Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture, Research, and Extension (in this section referred to as the Program or HECTARE) for the purpose of providing assistance in support of policies and programs in eligible countries that advance hunger alleviation by increasing agricultural productivity and rural development through partnerships with institutions of higher education.

(c)

Definitions

In this section:

(1)

Assistance plan

The term assistance plan means a multi-year plan developed by the United States Agency for International Development in coordination with a foreign government or university to provide assistance for agricultural education programs at a country or regional level.

(2)

Board

The term Board means the Board for Higher Education Collaboration for Technology, Agriculture, Research, and Extension.

(3)

Hectare school

The term HECTARE school means an institution of higher education in an eligible country that is designated as the lead educational institution for purposes of a country or regional assistance plan.

(4)

Eligible country

The term eligible country means a country that meets the requirements of subsection (g).

(d)

Form of assistance

Assistance may be provided under this section in the form of grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts to or with eligible entities described in subsection (h) and shall be provided pursuant to assistance plans as described in subsection (f). Assistance may not be provided under this section in the form of loans.

(e)

Use of funds

Assistance provided under this section may be used to provide support to HECTARE schools or, where appropriate, other institutions of higher education in eligible countries for the following purposes:

(1)

Academic exchange programs for students, faculty members, extension educators, and school administrators with HECTARE schools, other institutions of higher education, and United States universities.

(2)

Strengthening agricultural sciences curricula, including vocational training.

(3)

Increasing research capacity, output, and quality.

(4)

Improving the dissemination of information and technology to farmers and others engaged in agriculture.

(5)

Identifying leading educational institutions uniquely able to serve as regional hubs to promote the purposes specified in paragraphs (1) through (4) and promoting cooperation between such institutions and other educational institutions through regional networks.

(f)

Assistance plans

(1)

In general

The Administrator shall provide assistance under this section pursuant to an assistance plan developed in coordination with an eligible country that establishes a multi-year plan for significantly improving agricultural productivity and investing in rural economies through the strengthening of agricultural programs at institutions of higher education.

(2)

Elements

An assistance plan should—

(A)

take into account the national development strategy of the eligible country or the participation of the eligible country in a regional development strategy;

(B)

identify an institution of higher education for designation as a HECTARE school that has programs in agricultural sciences;

(C)

identify the partnership between the HECTARE school and other institutions of higher education that may include schools or research institutions in the United States and foreign countries, government agencies, including local and regional governments, private business, and civil society;

(D)

identify appropriate channels for dissemination of farming techniques to the field; and

(E)

identify the plans of the HECTARE school for—

(i)

conducting agricultural research and technology transfer and extension;

(ii)

strengthening the teaching of agriculture science, including programs aimed at curriculum, faculty, and students;

(iii)

improving university administration; and

(iv)

establishing methods by which to engage with other institutions of higher education to fulfill the purposes of the Program.

(g)

Eligible countries

(1)

Criteria

The Administrator shall, in consultation with the Board, identify eligible countries for purposes of this section. Such determination shall be based, to the maximum extent possible, upon objective and quantifiable indicators of a country’s demonstrated commitment to the following:

(A)

Investments in, and support for, rural economies, including the protection of private property rights, the promotion of private sector growth and sustainable management of natural resources, the rights of women, and the well-being of women and children.

(B)

Raising agricultural productivity of small- and medium-sized farms.

(C)

Alleviating poverty and hunger among the entire population.

(D)

Strengthening the system of higher education with regard to agricultural sciences, teaching, research, and technology.

(E)

The wide dissemination of farming techniques, especially to small- and medium-sized farmers.

(F)

Good governance, transparency, and anti-corruption policies.

(2)

Additional factors

The Administrator, in selecting eligible countries, shall consider—

(A)

the extent to which the country clearly meets or exceeds the eligibility criteria;

(B)

the opportunity to increase agricultural productivity, enhance human and institutional capacity, and reduce hunger in the country;

(C)

the availability of funds to carry out this section;

(D)

the percentage of the country’s population that faces chronic food insecurity; and

(E)

the existence of an institution of higher education in a food secure country that can serve as a regional hub for assistance to other schools in need of assistance in countries experiencing chronic food insecurity.

(h)

Eligible entities

Entities eligible for assistance under this section are the following:

(1)

United States universities working in partnership with HECTARE schools in eligible countries.

(2)

HECTARE schools and other institutions of higher education in eligible countries.

(3)

Nongovernmental organizations or private entities.

(i)

Authorization of appropriations

Of the amounts authorized pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under section 201(b) of the Global Food Security Act of 2009, there is authorizedThere is authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purpose of carrying out activities under this section—

(1)

$100,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;

(2)

$200,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;

(3)

$300,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;

(4)

$400,000,000 for fiscal year 2013; and

(5)

$500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014.

(j)

Disclosure of funding received by United States universities

The Administrator shall prescribe regulations providing for the utilization by United States universities of alternative sources of public and private funding to carry out the purposes of this title and requiring the disclosure, not less than annually, of all such alternative funding, both prospective and received.

299A.

Annual report

Not later than October 1, 2010, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a report detailing the activities carried out under this title during the preceding fiscal year and containing a projection of programs and activities to be conducted in the following year.

.

IV

Emergency rapid response to food crises

401.

Emergency food assistance accountEmergency rapid response to food crises account

(a)

Authority

Whenever the President determines it to be important to the national interest, the President may furnish on such terms and conditions as he may determine appropriate assistance under this Act or the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) for the purpose of meeting unexpected urgent food assistance needs, notwithstanding any provision of law which restricts assistance to foreign countries.

(b)

Establishment of account

(1)

Establishment

There is established a United States Emergency Food Assistance FundUnited States Emergency Rapid Response to Food Crises Fund to carry out the purposes of this section (in this section referred to as the Fund).

(2)

Authorization of appropriations

There are authorizedSubject to the limitations in this title, and notwithstanding any other provision of this or any other Act, there are authorized to be appropriated to the President from time to time such sums as may be necessary for the Fund to carry out the purposes of this section, except that no amount of funds may be appropriated which, when added to amounts previously appropriated but not yet obligated for such purpose, would cause the total of such appropriated amounts to exceed $500,000,000.

(3)

Availability of funds

Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.

(c)

Use of funds

Assistance provided under this section may include—

(1)

the local and regional purchase and distribution of food; and

(2)

the provision of emergency non-food assistance, including vouchers or cash transfers, safety net programs, or other appropriate non-food assistance.

(d)

Limited delegation of authority

The authority under subsection (a) may be delegated to the Administrator, provided that not more than $100,000,000 may be made available in any fiscal year pursuant to determinations made by the Administrator pursuant to the delegation of such authority.

(e)

Reporting requirements

The Administration shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 5 days before providing assistance pursuant to a determination made under this section. The report shall indicate the unexpected urgent food needs to be addressed by the assistance and the amount of assistance to be provided.

402.

Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated $500,000,000 for fiscal year 2010 for the purpose of carrying out this title.

May 13, 2009

Reported with amendments