Calendar No. 125
[Report No. 111–58]
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
April 22, 2009
Mr. Carper (for himself, Mr. Inhofe, Mrs. Boxer, Mr. Kerry, Ms. Collins, Mr. Voinovich, Mr. Merkley, and Ms. Klobuchar) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works
July 22, 2009
Reported by Mrs. Boxer, without amendment
To require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study on black carbon emissions.
Congress finds that—
is a component of ambient particulate matter, the mixture of which has been found to harm public health by causing serious respiratory and cardiovascular effects in developed and developing countries;
plays a role in climate change by—
absorbing solar radiation; and
reducing the reflectivity of snow and ice; and
is emitted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and biofuels;
recent studies have shown that, in the United States, old diesel engines are a major contributor of black carbon;
the United States has made great progress in reducing black carbon emissions through regulations on new vehicles and engines and a voluntary national diesel retrofit program; but
there remain in the United States more than 11,000,000 diesel engines lacking the latest diesel emission control technology; and
the collection of information relating to, and research regarding, black carbon would be useful to identify cost-effective methods of reducing black carbon emissions in ways and from sources that would have beneficial effects on the public health and the climate.
In this Act:
The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
The term black carbon means any light-absorbing graphitic (such as elemental) particle produced by incomplete combustion.
Study of black carbon emissions
The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of State, and the heads of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the United States Agency for International Development, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other relevant Federal departments and agencies and representatives of appropriate industry and environmental groups, shall conduct a 4-phase study of black carbon emissions, the phases of which shall be the following:
Phase I–Universal definition
The Administrator shall conduct phase I of the study under this subsection to carry out measures to establish for the scientific community standard definitions of the terms—
black carbon; and
Phase II–Sources and technologies
The Administrator shall conduct phase II of the study under this subsection to summarize the available scientific and technical information concerning—
the identification of the major sources of black carbon emissions in the United States and throughout the world;
an estimate of—
the quantity of current and projected future black carbon emissions from those sources; and
the net climate effects of the emissions;
the most recent scientific data relevant to the public health- and climate-related impacts of black carbon emissions and associated emissions of organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides from the sources identified under subparagraph (A);
the most effective control strategies for additional domestic and international reductions in black carbon emissions, taking into consideration lifecycle analysis, cost-effectiveness, and the net climate impact of technologies, operations, and strategies, such as—
diesel particulate filters on existing diesel on- and off-road engines; and
particulate emission reduction measures for marine vessels;
carbon dioxide equivalency factors, global or regional modeling, or other metrics to compare the global warming and other climate effects of black carbon emissions with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions; and
the health benefits associated with additional black carbon emission reductions.
Phase III–International funding
The Administrator shall conduct phase III of the study under this subsection—
to summarize the amount, type, and direction of all actual and potential financial, technical, and related assistance provided by the United States to foreign countries to reduce, mitigate, or otherwise abate—
black carbon emissions; and
any health, environmental, and economic impacts associated with those emissions; and
to identify opportunities, including action under existing authority, to achieve significant black carbon emission reductions in foreign countries through the provision of technical assistance or other approaches.
Phase IV–Research and development opportunities
The Administrator conduct phase IV of the study under this subsection for the purpose of providing to Congress recommendations regarding—
areas of focus for additional research for cost-effective technologies, operations, and strategies with the highest potential to reduce black carbon emissions and protect public health in the United States and internationally; and
actions that the Federal Government could take to encourage or require additional black carbon emission reductions.
The Administrator shall submit to Congress—
by not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, a report describing the results of phases I and II of the study under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a);
by not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act, a report describing the results of phase III of the study under subsection (a)(3); and
by not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, a report describing the recommendations developed for phase IV of the study under subsection (a)(4).
Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.
July 22, 2009
Reported without amendment