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S.Res. 618 (112th): A resolution observing the 100th birthday of civil rights icon Rosa Parks and commemorating her legacy.

The text of the bill below is as of Dec 19, 2012 (Resolution Agreed to by Senate).



2d Session

S. RES. 618


December 13, 2012

(for himself, Ms. Stabenow, Mr. Sessions, Mr. Alexander, Ms. Landrieu, Mr. Cochran, Mr. Harkin, Mr. Shelby, Mr. Cornyn, Mrs. Boxer, Mrs. Murray, Mr. Coburn, Mr. Kerry, Mrs. Hutchison, Mrs. Gillibrand, Mr. Leahy, Mr. Sanders, Mr. Reid, Ms. Mikulski, Mr. Durbin, Mr. Pryor, Mr. Nelson of Florida, Mr. Brown of Ohio, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. Conrad, Mr. Lautenberg, Mr. Kohl, Ms. Cantwell, Mrs. McCaskill, Mr. Wyden, Mr. Coons, Mr. Baucus, Mr. Whitehouse, Mr. Manchin, Mr. Bennet, Mr. Cardin, Mrs. Hagan, Mr. Casey, Mr. Begich, Mr. Menendez, Mr. Warner, Mr. Udall of New Mexico, Ms. Klobuchar, Mr. Inouye, Mr. Corker, Mr. Johnson of South Dakota, Mr. Franken, Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. Udall of Colorado, Mr. Blumenthal, Mr. Akaka, Mr. Reed, Mrs. Shaheen, Mr. Webb, Mr. Lugar, Mr. McCain, and Mr. Grassley) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary

December 19, 2012

Committee discharged; considered and agreed to


Observing the 100th birthday of civil rights icon Rosa Parks and commemorating her legacy.

Whereas Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama, the first child of James and Leona (Edwards) McCauley;

Whereas Rosa Parks dedicated her life to the cause of universal human rights and truly embodied the love of humanity and freedom;

Whereas Rosa Parks was arrested on December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a White man, and her stand for equal rights became legendary;

Whereas news of the arrest of Rosa Parks resulted in approximately 42,000 African-Americans boycotting Montgomery buses for 381 days, beginning on December 5, 1955, until the bus segregation law was changed on December 21, 1956;

Whereas the United States Supreme Court ruled on November 13, 1956, that the Montgomery segregation law was unconstitutional, and on December 20, 1956, Montgomery officials were ordered to desegregate buses;

Whereas the civil rights movement led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law 88–352; 78 Stat. 241), which broke down the barrier of legal discrimination against African-Americans and made equality before the law a reality for all people of the United States;

Whereas Rosa Parks has been honored as the first lady of civil rights and the mother of the freedom movement, and her quiet dignity ignited the most significant social movement in the history of the United States;

Whereas, in 1987, Rosa Parks and her close associate Elaine Steele cofounded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development to motivate and direct youth to achieve their highest potential through Rosa Parks’ philosophy of quiet strength and cross-cultural exposure for nurturing a global and inclusive perspective;

Whereas Rosa Parks was the recipient of many awards and accolades for her efforts on behalf of racial harmony, including the Congressional Gold Medal, the Spingarn Award, which is the highest honor of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for civil rights contributions, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, which is the highest civilian honor in the United States, and was named one of the 20 most influential and iconic figures of the 20th century;

Whereas Rosa Parks sparked one of the largest movements in the United States against racial segregation, and by her quiet courage symbolizes all that is vital about nonviolent protest because of the way she endured threats of death and persisted as an advocate for the basic lessons she taught the people of the United States;

Whereas Rosa Parks and her husband Raymond Parks relocated to Michigan in 1957, and remained in Michigan until the death of Rosa Parks on October 24, 2005;

Whereas, on Tuesday, October 26, 2005 the United States Senate adopted a Resolution expressing its condolences on the passing of Rosa Parks, and honored her life and accomplishments;

Whereas, in recognition of the historic contributions of Rosa Parks, her remains were placed in the rotunda of the Capitol from October 30 to October 31, 2005, so that the people of the United States could pay their last respects to this great American;

Whereas, in November 2005, Congress authorized the Joint Committee on the Library to procure a statue of Rosa Parks to be placed in the Capitol;

Whereas the United States Postal Service will issue a stamp in February 2013 to honor Rosa Parks and her courage to act at a pivotal moment in the civil rights movement;

Whereas, the bus on which Rosa Parks sparked a new era in the American quest for freedom and equality is one of the most significant artifacts of the American civil rights movement and is on permanent display in the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan;

Whereas, on February 4, 2013, the Henry Ford Museum, will commemorate the 100th birthday of Rosa Parks by calling for a National Day of Courage and sponsoring a program that highlights her contributions to the civil rights movement, including a day-long celebration, with both virtual and on-site activities featuring nationally recognized speakers, musical and dramatic interpretative performances, a panel presentation of Rosa’s Story and a reading of the tale Quiet Strength, featuring the actual bus on which Rosa Parks sat as the centerpiece in commemorating Rosa Parks’ extraordinary life and accomplishments, and affording everyone the opportunity to board the bus and sit in the seat that Rosa Parks refused to give up; and

Whereas the Rosa Parks Museum at Troy University and the Mobile Studio will commemorate the birthday of Rosa Parks with the 100th Birthday Wishes Project, culminating on February 4, 2013, with a 100th birthday celebration at the Davis Theatre for the Performing Arts in Montgomery, Alabama, where 2,000 birthday wishes submitted by individuals throughout the United States will be transformed into 200 graphic messages: Now, therefore, be it

That the Senate—


observes the 100th birthday of civil rights icon Rosa Parks; and


commemorates the legacy of Rosa Parks to inspire all people of the United States to stand up for freedom and the principles of the Constitution.