IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
May 9, 2013
Mr. Cornyn introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations
To impose sanctions on individuals who are complicit in human rights abuses committed against nationals of Vietnam or their family members, and for other purposes.
This Act may be cited as
Vietnam Human Rights Sanctions
Congress makes the following findings:
The relationship between the United States and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has grown substantially since the end of the trade embargo in 1994, with annual trade between the countries reaching more than $24,800,000,000 in 2012.
However, the transition by the Government of Vietnam toward greater economic activity and trade, which has led to increased bilateral engagement between the United States and Vietnam, has not been matched by greater political freedom or substantial improvements in basic human rights for the people of Vietnam.
Vietnam remains an authoritarian state ruled by the Communist Party of Vietnam, which continues to deny the right of the people of Vietnam to participate in free and fair elections.
According to the
Department of State’s 2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Vietnam’s
most significant human rights problems . . . continued to be severe
government restrictions on citizens’ political rights, particularly their right
to change their government; increased measures to limit citizens’ civil
liberties; and corruption in the judicial system and police.
Reports also state that the Government of Vietnam
freedoms of speech and press and suppressed dissent; further restricted
Internet freedom; reportedly continued to be involved in attacks against Web
sites containing criticism; maintained spying on dissident bloggers; and
continued to limit privacy rights and freedoms of assembly, association, and
Department of State documents that
arbitrary arrest and detention,
particularly for political activists, remained a problem, with the
Government of Vietnam sentencing
at least 35 arrested activists during
 to a total of 131 years in jail and 27 years of probation for exercising
At the end of 2012, the Government of Vietnam reportedly held more than 120 political prisoners, and diplomatic sources maintained that 4 reeducation centers in Vietnam held approximately 4,000 prisoners.
On September 24, 2012, 3 prominent Vietnamese bloggers—Nguyen Van Hai (also known as Dieu Cay), Ta Phong Tan, and Phan Thanh Hai (also known as Anh Ba Saigon)—were sentenced to prison based on 3-year-old blog postings criticizing the Government and leaders of Vietnam and the Communist Party of Vietnam.
High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay responded to the sentencing of
the bloggers on September 25, 2012, stating that
[t]he harsh prison
terms handed down to bloggers exemplify the severe restrictions on freedom of
expression in Vietnam and calling the sentences an
development that undermines the commitments Vietnam has made internationally .
. . to protect and promote the right to freedom of expression.
On March 21,
2013, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and
Labor Daniel B. Baer testified before the Subcommittee on East Asian and
Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that
in Vietnam we’ve been disappointed in recent years to see backsliding,
particularly on . . . freedom of expression issues . . . people are being
prosecuted for what they say online under really draconian national security
laws . . . that is an issue that we continue to raise, both in our human rights
dialogue with the Vietnamese as well as in other bilateral
Constitution of Vietnam provides for freedom of religion, the Department of
State’s 2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices maintains that
Vietnamese who exercise their right to freedom of religion continued to
be subject to harassment, differing interpretations and applications of the
law, and inconsistent legal protection, especially at provincial and village
United States Commission on International Religious Freedom 2013 Annual Report
[r]eligious freedom conditions remain very poor in
Vietnam and the
Vietnamese government continues to imprison individuals
for religious activity or religious freedom advocacy using a
specialized religious police force . . . and vague national security
laws to suppress independent Buddhist, Protestant, Hoa Hao, and Cao Dai
activities, and seeks to stop the growth of ethnic minority Protestantism and
Catholicism via discrimination, violence and forced renunciations of their
The 2013 Annual
Report notes that in 2004 the United States designated Vietnam as a country of
particular concern for religious freedom pursuant to
section 402(b)(1) of the
International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (
22 U.S.C. 6442(b)(1)
), and that
Vietnam responded at that time by releasing prisoners, prohibiting the policy
of forced renunciations of faith, and expanding protections for religious
groups, and that
[m]ost religious leaders in Vietnam attributed these
positive changes to the [country of particular concern] designation and the
priority placed on religious freedom concerns in U.S.-Vietnamese bilateral
2013 Annual Report concludes that since the designation as a country of
particular concern was lifted from Vietnam in 2006,
conditions in Vietnam remain mixed, and therefore recommends to the
Department of State that Vietnam should be redesignated as a country of
Secretary of State Baer likewise testified that
[i]n Vietnam the right
to religious freedom, which seemed to be improving several years ago, has been
stagnant for several years.
Imposition of sanctions on certain individuals who are complicit in human rights abuses committed against nationals of Vietnam or their family members
In this section:
Admitted; alien; immigration laws; national; spouse
The terms admitted, alien, immigration laws, national, and spouse have the meanings given those terms in section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101 ).
Appropriate congressional committees
The term appropriate congressional committees means—
the Committee on Finance, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate; and
the Committee on Ways and Means, the Committee on Financial Services, and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.
Convention against Torture
The term Convention against Torture means the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York on December 10, 1984.
United States person
The term United States person means—
a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence to the United States; or
an entity organized under the laws of the United States or of any jurisdiction within the United States, including a foreign branch of such an entity.
Imposition of sanctions
Except as provided in subsections (e) and (f), the President shall impose the sanctions described in subsection (d) with respect to each individual on the list required by subsection (c)(1).
List of individuals who are complicit in certain human rights abuses
Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a list of individuals who are nationals of Vietnam that the President determines are complicit in human rights abuses committed against nationals of Vietnam or their family members, regardless of whether such abuses occurred in Vietnam.
Updates of list
The President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated list under paragraph (1) as new information becomes available and not less frequently than annually.
The list required by paragraph (1) shall be made available to the public and posted on the Web sites of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of State.
Consideration of data from other countries and nongovernmental organizations
In preparing the list required by paragraph (1), the President shall consider data already obtained by other countries and nongovernmental organizations, including organizations in Vietnam, that monitor the human rights abuses of the Government of Vietnam.
Prohibition on entry and admission to the United States
An individual on the list required by subsection (c)(1) may not—
be admitted to, enter, or transit through the United States;
receive any lawful immigration status in the United States under the immigration laws, including any relief under the Convention Against Torture; or
file any application or petition to obtain such admission, entry, or status.
The President shall freeze and prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in property of an individual on the list required by subsection (c)(1) if such property and interests in property are in the United States, come within the United States, or are or come within the possession or control of a United States person.
Exceptions To comply with international agreements
The President may, by regulation, authorize exceptions to the imposition of sanctions under this section to permit the United States to comply with the Agreement between the United Nations and the United States of America regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, signed June 26, 1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947, and other applicable international agreements.
The President may waive the requirement to impose or maintain sanctions with respect to an individual under subsection (b) or the requirement to include an individual on the list required by subsection (c)(1) if the President—
determines that such a waiver is in the national interest of the United States; and
submits to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing the reasons for the determination.
Termination of sanctions
The provisions of this section shall terminate on the date on which the President determines and certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that the Government of Vietnam has—
unconditionally released all political prisoners;
ceased its practices of violence, unlawful detention, torture, and abuse of nationals of Vietnam while those nationals are engaging in peaceful political activity; and
conducted a transparent investigation into the killings, arrest, and abuse of peaceful political activists in Vietnam and prosecuted those responsible.
Sense of Congress on designation of Vietnam as a country of particular concern with respect to religious freedom
It is the sense of Congress that—
the relationship between the United States and Vietnam cannot progress while the record of the Government of Vietnam with respect to human rights and the rule of law continues to deteriorate;
the designation of Vietnam as a country of particular concern for religious freedom pursuant to section 402(b)(1) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6442(b)(1)) would be a powerful and effective tool in highlighting abuses of religious freedom in Vietnam and in encouraging improvement in the respect for human rights in Vietnam; and
the Secretary of State should, in accordance with the recommendation of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, designate Vietnam as a country of particular concern for religious freedom.