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The summary below was written by the Congressional Research Service, which is a nonpartisan division of the Library of Congress, and was published on Apr 14, 2016.
American Space Renaissance Act
This bill directs the President to develop:
a doctrine for the Armed Forces and the intelligence community governing the U.S. response to efforts by state and nonstate actors deliberately to deny the United States or its allies or partners access to space or space operations, or degrade or destroy any of their government or commercial space assets; and a doctrine for the Armed Forces with respect to the rules of engagement for space forces. The Department of Defense (DOD) shall designate a DOD official to be Principal Defense Space Advisor on all space matters.
develop and implement a strategy to increase interoperability across DOD space and cyberspace enterprises between systems that electronically share cyberspace situational awareness and space situational awareness data, and assess desirable protection capabilities to enhance integration of commercial space systems into national security space architectures. The President shall establish a National Executive Committee on Weather.
develop a follow-on geomagnetic storm warning capability, carry out a pilot program to assess the potential viability of using commercial weather data in DOD weather modeling and forecasting, and establish a program to award up to four launch services contracts for venture-class launch missions. The Air Force shall contract with a private entity to carry out Satellite Control Network operations.
The bill requires U.S. aeronautical and space activities to contribute materially to:
the expansion of the human sphere of influence throughout the Solar System, being among the first to arrive at a destination in space and open it for subsequent use and development, and creation of infrastructure precursors to support future use and development of space. The bill establishes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Leadership and Advising Commission.
NASA shall develop:
a 20-year plan that outlines broad goals, including a designated five-year range for American astronauts to land on Mars; a 10-year plan that in part addresses the efficacy of the Asteroid Redirect Mission; multi-year budgets beginning in FY2018. NASA shall:
formulate a plan for the remaining life of the International Space Station and continued human presence in low-Earth orbit, and establish a Commercial Habitat Pilot Program to demonstrate the viability of using commercially built on-orbit habitats to meet NASA human exploration and science missions. The bill establishes an Office of Commercial Space Transportation within the Department of Transportation (DOT), which shall in turn establish within it an Office of Spaceports to support and establish domestic commercial spaceports.
DOT shall also designate a lead government agency for space traffic management activities and services.
The Department of State shall seek to convene a meeting of nations to develop a unified space traffic management regime.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce shall promulgate rules regarding its treatment of weather data acquired from commercial space-based systems.
Commerce shall report on the feasibility and benefits of reorganizing the Department to better coordinate and support its space-related economic and regulatory activities.
The bill amends the Internal Revenue Code to allow a business-related tax credit for 10% of the insured value of all payloads launched by a licensed domestic launch provider or on a launch vehicle meeting Buy American requirements
Commerce shall make loan guarantees to a domestic commercial entity or a Federal Aviation Administation-licensed spaceport to promote job creation in the U.S. space sector and encourage startup companies.
DOT shall establish a program to allow commercial entities to operate space training flights.
The Internal Revenue Code is amended to allow an individual to elect to include in gross income gains from the sale or other disposal of stock or option-related compensation received for services rendered from a startup domestic commercial space company.