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The summary below was written by the Congressional Research Service, which is a nonpartisan division of the Library of Congress, and was published on Nov 16, 2017.
Military Justice Improvement Act of 2017
This bill amends the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) to grant independent military prosecutors the authority to decide whether to convene courts-martial for sexual assault cases and other serious crimes punishable by confinement of more than one year (currently, this authority lies within the chain of command). The bill allows the chain of command to retain authority to decide whether to prosecute serious crimes uniquely military in nature and all crimes punishable by less than one year of confinement.