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S. 4421 (116th): TREAT Act

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About the bill

Should a doctor only be allowed to practice in their own home state?


Under current law, doctors’ and physicians’ licenses are only valid in the state where they practice. During the COVID-19 pandemic, with the rise of virtual telemedicine or telehealth, a legal gray area has increasingly emerged. Is it legal if a doctor is only licensed in one state, but either they or their patient are physically in another state during a virtual telehealth visit?

While the answer is “mostly yes,” it’s not “fully yes.”

In 2020, due to the pandemic, most states have temporarily allowed greater levels of medical licensing reciprocity across state lines. Starting in 2017, a few years before the pandemic, a number of states had jointly formed an agreement called the Interstate Medical ...

Sponsor and status

Christopher Murphy

Sponsor. Junior Senator for Connecticut. Democrat.

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Last Updated: Aug 4, 2020
Length: 11 pages
Aug 4, 2020
116th Congress (2019–2021)
Died in a previous Congress

This bill was introduced on August 4, 2020, in a previous session of Congress, but it did not receive a vote.


4 Cosponsors (3 Democrats, 1 Republican)



Aug 4, 2020

Bills and resolutions are referred to committees which debate the bill before possibly sending it on to the whole chamber.

S. 4421 (116th) was a bill in the United States Congress.

A bill must be passed by both the House and Senate in identical form and then be signed by the President to become law.

Bills numbers restart every two years. That means there are other bills with the number S. 4421. This is the one from the 116th Congress.

This bill was introduced in the 116th Congress, which met from Jan 3, 2019 to Jan 3, 2021. Legislation not passed by the end of a Congress is cleared from the books.

How to cite this information.

We recommend the following MLA-formatted citation when using the information you see here in academic work:

“S. 4421 — 116th Congress: TREAT Act.” 2020. June 19, 2021 <>

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GovTrack automatically collects legislative information from a variety of governmental and non-governmental sources. This page is sourced primarily from, the official portal of the United States Congress. is generally updated one day after events occur, and so legislative activity shown here may be one day behind. Data via the congress project.