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S. 881: PROSWIFT Act


The text of the bill below is as of Sep 11, 2020 (Preprint (Suspension)).


116TH CONGRESS
   2D SESSION
                     S. 881

                    AN ACT
To improve understanding and forecasting of space weather
             events, and for other purposes.

1      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

2 1 SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. 2 This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Promoting Research 3 and Observations of Space Weather to Improve the Fore- 4 casting of Tomorrow Act’’ or the ‘‘PROSWIFT Act’’. 5 SEC. 2. SPACE WEATHER. 6 (a) POLICY.—It shall be the policy of the United 7 States to prepare and protect against the social and eco- 8 nomic impacts of space weather phenomena by supporting 9 actions to improve space weather forecasts and predictions 10 including: sustaining and enhancing critical observations, 11 identifying research needs and promoting opportunities for 12 research-to-operations and operations-to-research collabo- 13 rations both within and outside of the Federal Govern- 14 ment, advancing space weather models, engaging with all 15 sectors of the space weather community, including aca- 16 demia, the commercial sector, and international partners, 17 and understanding the needs of space weather end users. 18 (b) AMENDMENT TO TITLE 51, UNITED STATES 19 CODE.—Subtitle VI of title 51, United States Code, is 20 amended by adding after chapter 605 the following: 21 ‘‘CHAPTER 606—SPACE WEATHER ‘‘Sec. ‘‘60601. Space weather. ‘‘60602. Integrated strategy. ‘‘60603. Sustaining and advancing critical space weather observations. ‘‘60604. Research activities. ‘‘60605. Space weather data. ‘‘60606. Space weather knowledge transfer and information exchange. ‘‘60607. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sector space weather data. ‘‘60608. Space weather benchmarks. † S 881 ES
3 1 ‘‘§ 60601. Space weather 2 ‘‘(a) FINDINGS.— 3 ‘‘(1) SPACE WEATHER.—Congress makes the 4 following findings with respect to space weather: 5 ‘‘(A) Space weather phenomena pose a sig- 6 nificant threat to ground-based and space-based 7 critical infrastructure, modern technological 8 systems, and humans working in space. 9 ‘‘(B) The effects of severe space weather 10 on the electric power grid, satellites and sat- 11 ellite communications and information, aviation 12 operations, astronauts living and working in 13 space, and space-based position, navigation, and 14 timing systems could have significant societal, 15 economic, national security, and health impacts. 16 ‘‘(C) Space-based and ground-based obser- 17 vations provide crucial data necessary to under- 18 stand, forecast, and prepare for space weather 19 phenomena. 20 ‘‘(D) Clear roles and accountability of Fed- 21 eral departments and agencies are critical for 22 efficient and effective response to threats posed 23 by space weather. 24 ‘‘(E) Space weather observation and fore- 25 casting are essential for the success of human 26 and robotic space exploration. † S 881 ES
4 1 ‘‘(F) In October 2015, the National 2 Science and Technology Council published a 3 National Space Weather Strategy and a Na- 4 tional Space Weather Action Plan seeking to in- 5 tegrate national space weather efforts and add 6 new capabilities to meet increasing demand for 7 space weather information. 8 ‘‘(G) In March 2019, the National Science 9 and Technology Council published an updated 10 National Space Weather Strategy and Action 11 Plan to enhance the preparedness and resilience 12 of the United States to space weather. 13 ‘‘(2) ROLE OF FEDERAL AGENCIES.—Congress 14 makes the following findings with respect to the role 15 of Federal agencies on space weather: 16 ‘‘(A) The National Oceanic and Atmos- 17 pheric Administration provides operational 18 space weather monitoring, forecasting, and 19 long-term data archiving and access for civil ap- 20 plications, maintains ground-based and space- 21 based assets to provide observations needed for 22 space weather forecasting, prediction, and 23 warnings, provides research to support oper- 24 ational responsibilities, and develops require- † S 881 ES
5 1 ments for space weather forecasting tech- 2 nologies and science. 3 ‘‘(B) The Department of Defense provides 4 operational space weather research, monitoring, 5 and forecasting for the Department’s unique 6 missions and applications. 7 ‘‘(C) The National Aeronautics and Space 8 Administration provides increased under- 9 standing of the fundamental physics of the 10 Sun-Earth system through basic research, 11 space-based observations and modeling, devel- 12 oping new space-based technologies and mis- 13 sions, and monitoring of space weather for the 14 National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 15 tion’s space missions. 16 ‘‘(D) The National Science Foundation 17 provides increased understanding of the Sun- 18 Earth system through ground-based measure- 19 ments, technologies, and modeling. 20 ‘‘(E) The Department of the Interior col- 21 lects, distributes, and archives operational 22 ground-based magnetometer data in the United 23 States and its territories, works with the inter- 24 national community to improve global geo- 25 physical monitoring, and develops crustal con- † S 881 ES
6 1 ductivity models to assess and mitigate risks 2 from space weather-induced electric ground cur- 3 rents. 4 ‘‘(F) The Federal Aviation Administration 5 provides operational requirements for space 6 weather services in support of aviation and for 7 coordination of these requirements with the 8 International Civil Aviation Organization, and 9 integrates space weather data and products into 10 the Next Generation Air Transportation Sys- 11 tem. 12 ‘‘(b) COORDINATION BY OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND 13 TECHNOLOGY POLICY.—The Director of the Office of 14 Science and Technology Policy shall— 15 ‘‘(1) coordinate the development and implemen- 16 tation of Federal Government activities conducted 17 with respect to space weather to improve the ability 18 of the United States to prepare for, avoid, mitigate, 19 respond to, and recover from potentially devastating 20 impacts of space weather; and 21 ‘‘(2) coordinate the activities of the interagency 22 working group on space weather established under 23 subsection (c). 24 ‘‘(c) SPACE WEATHER INTERAGENCY WORKING 25 GROUP.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enact- † S 881 ES
7 1 ment of the PROSWIFT Act, the National Science and 2 Technology Council shall establish an interagency working 3 group on space weather (in this chapter referred to as the 4 ‘interagency working group’) to coordinate executive 5 branch actions that improve the understanding and pre- 6 diction of and preparation for space weather phenomena, 7 and coordinate Federal space weather activities. 8 ‘‘(1) MEMBERSHIP.—The following entities 9 shall be members of the interagency working group: 10 ‘‘(A) The National Oceanic and Atmos- 11 pheric Administration. 12 ‘‘(B) The National Aeronautics and Space 13 Administration. 14 ‘‘(C) The National Science Foundation. 15 ‘‘(D) The Department of Defense. 16 ‘‘(E) The Department of the Interior. 17 ‘‘(F) Such other Federal agencies as the 18 Director of the Office of Science and Tech- 19 nology Policy deems appropriate. 20 ‘‘(2) INTERAGENCY AGREEMENTS.— 21 ‘‘(A) The members of the interagency 22 working group may enter into one or more 23 interagency agreements providing for coopera- 24 tion and collaboration in the development of 25 space weather spacecraft, instruments, tech- † S 881 ES
8 1 nologies, and research to operations and oper- 2 ations to research in accordance with this chap- 3 ter. 4 ‘‘(B) The Administrator of the National 5 Aeronautics and Space Administration and the 6 Administrator of the National Oceanic and At- 7 mospheric Administration shall enter into one 8 or more interagency agreements providing for 9 cooperation and collaboration in the develop- 10 ment of space weather spacecraft, instruments, 11 and technologies in accordance with this chap- 12 ter. 13 ‘‘(3) INTERNATIONAL, ACADEMIC COMMUNITY, 14 AND COMMERCIAL SECTOR COLLABORATION.—Each 15 Federal agency participating in the space weather 16 interagency working group established under this 17 subsection shall, to the extent practicable, increase 18 engagement and cooperation with the international 19 community, academic community, and commercial 20 space weather sector on the observational infrastruc- 21 ture, data, and scientific research necessary to ad- 22 vance the monitoring, forecasting, and prediction of, 23 preparation for, and protection from, space weather 24 phenomena. 25 ‘‘(d) SPACE WEATHER ADVISORY GROUP.— † S 881 ES
9 1 ‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.— 2 ‘‘(A) ESTABLISHMENT.—Not later than 3 180 days after the date of the enactment of the 4 PROSWIFT Act, the Administrator of the Na- 5 tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 6 in consultation with other relevant Federal 7 agencies, shall establish a space weather advi- 8 sory group (in this chapter referred to as the 9 ‘advisory group’) for the purposes of receiving 10 advice from the academic community, the com- 11 mercial space weather sector, and space weath- 12 er end users that informs the interests and 13 work of the interagency working group. 14 ‘‘(B) COMPOSITION.—The advisory group 15 shall be composed of not more than 15 mem- 16 bers appointed by the interagency working 17 group, of whom— 18 ‘‘(i) 5 members shall be representa- 19 tives of the academic community; 20 ‘‘(ii) 5 members shall be representa- 21 tives of the commercial space weather sec- 22 tor; and 23 ‘‘(iii) 5 members shall be nongovern- 24 mental representatives of the space weath- 25 er end user community. † S 881 ES
10 1 ‘‘(C) CHAIR.—Not later than 30 days after 2 the date on which the last member of the advi- 3 sory group is appointed under subparagraph 4 (B), the Administrator of the National Oceanic 5 and Atmospheric Administration shall appoint 1 6 member as the Chair of the advisory group. 7 ‘‘(D) TERMS.—The length of the term of 8 each member of the advisory group shall be 3 9 years beginning on the date on which the mem- 10 ber is appointed. 11 ‘‘(E) TERM LIMITS.— 12 ‘‘(i) IN GENERAL.—A member of the 13 advisory group may not serve on the advi- 14 sory group for more than 2 consecutive 15 terms. 16 ‘‘(ii) CHAIR.—A member of the advi- 17 sory group may not serve as the Chair of 18 the advisory group for more than 2 terms, 19 regardless of whether the terms are con- 20 secutive. 21 ‘‘(2) DUTIES.—The advisory group shall advise 22 the interagency working group on the following: 23 ‘‘(A) Facilitating advances in the space 24 weather enterprise of the United States. † S 881 ES
11 1 ‘‘(B) Improving the ability of the United 2 States to prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and 3 recover from space weather phenomena. 4 ‘‘(C) Enabling the coordination and facili- 5 tation of research to operations and operations 6 to research, as described in section 60604(d). 7 ‘‘(D) Developing and implementing the in- 8 tegrated strategy under section 60602 including 9 subsequent updates and reevaluations. 10 ‘‘(3) USER SURVEY.— 11 ‘‘(A) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 180 12 days after the establishment of the advisory 13 group, the advisory group shall conduct a com- 14 prehensive survey of the needs of users of space 15 weather products to identify the space weather 16 research, observations, forecasting, prediction, 17 and modeling advances required to improve 18 space weather products. 19 ‘‘(B) SURVEY CONSIDERATIONS.—The sur- 20 vey conducted under subparagraph (A) shall— 21 ‘‘(i) assess the adequacy of current 22 Federal Government goals for lead time, 23 accuracy, coverage, timeliness, data rate, 24 and data quality for space weather obser- 25 vations and forecasting; † S 881 ES
12 1 ‘‘(ii) identify options and methods to, 2 in consultation with the academic commu- 3 nity and the commercial space weather sec- 4 tor, improve upon the advancement of the 5 goals described in clause (i); 6 ‘‘(iii) identify opportunities for collec- 7 tion of new data to address the needs of 8 the space weather user community; 9 ‘‘(iv) identify methods to increase co- 10 ordination of space weather research to op- 11 erations and operations to research; 12 ‘‘(v) identify opportunities for new 13 technologies, research, and instrumentation 14 to aid in research, understanding, moni- 15 toring, modeling, prediction, forecasting, 16 and warning of space weather; and 17 ‘‘(vi) identify methods and tech- 18 nologies to improve preparedness for po- 19 tential space weather phenomena. 20 ‘‘(C) COORDINATION WITH AGENCIES.—In 21 carrying out the requirements of this sub- 22 section, the advisory group shall communicate 23 and coordinate with the interagency working 24 group to ensure the needs of the governmental 25 space weather user community are adequately † S 881 ES
13 1 and appropriately identified by the survey under 2 subparagraph (A). 3 ‘‘(D) BRIEFING TO CONGRESS.—Not later 4 than 30 days after the completion of the survey 5 under subparagraph (A), the advisory group 6 shall provide to the Committee on Science, 7 Space, and Technology of the House of Rep- 8 resentatives and the Committee on Commerce, 9 Science, and Transportation of the Senate a 10 briefing on the results of the survey under sub- 11 paragraph (A). 12 ‘‘(E) PUBLICATION.—Within 30 days of 13 the briefing to Congress, the advisory group 14 shall make the results of the survey under sub- 15 paragraph (A) publicly available. 16 ‘‘(F) REEVALUATION.—The advisory group 17 shall review and assess the survey under sub- 18 paragraph (A) not less than every 3 years and 19 update, resubmit, and republish the survey in 20 accordance with the requirements of subpara- 21 graphs (D) and (E). 22 ‘‘(4) FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT.— 23 Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act 24 (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the advisory 25 group. † S 881 ES
14 1 ‘‘§ 60602. Integrated strategy 2 ‘‘(a) IN GENERAL.—The Director of the Office of 3 Science and Technology Policy, in collaboration with the 4 interagency working group and upon the advice of the ad- 5 visory group, shall develop a strategy for coordinated ob- 6 servation of space weather among members of the inter- 7 agency working group (in this chapter, referred to as the 8 ‘integrated strategy’). The integrated strategy shall iden- 9 tify— 10 ‘‘(1) observations and measurements that must 11 be sustained beyond the lifetime of current ground- 12 based and space-based assets, as described under 13 section 60603, that are essential for space weather 14 research, models, forecasting, and prediction; 15 ‘‘(2) new observations and measurements that 16 may significantly improve space weather forecasting 17 and prediction; and 18 ‘‘(3) plans for follow-on space-based observa- 19 tions under section 60603. 20 ‘‘(b) CONSIDERATIONS.—In developing the integrated 21 strategy in subsection (a), the Director of the Office of 22 Science and Technology Policy shall consider, as appro- 23 priate, the following: 24 ‘‘(1) Potential contributions of commercial solu- 25 tions, prize authority, academic and international 26 partnerships, microsatellites, small satellite options, † S 881 ES
15 1 ground-based instruments, and hosted payloads for 2 observations identified in section 60602(a)(2). 3 ‘‘(2) Work conducted before the date of enact- 4 ment of the PROSWIFT Act by the National 5 Science and Technology Council with respect to 6 space weather. 7 ‘‘(3) The survey under section 60601(d). 8 ‘‘(4) Any relevant recommendations from the 9 most recent National Academies of Sciences, Engi- 10 neering, and Medicine Decadal Survey for Solar and 11 Space Physics (Heliophysics). 12 ‘‘(c) REVIEW OF INTEGRATED STRATEGY.— 13 ‘‘(1) REVIEW.—The Administrator of the Na- 14 tional Aeronautics and Space Administration and 15 the Administrator of the National Oceanic and At- 16 mospheric Administration, in consultation with Fed- 17 eral agencies participating in the interagency work- 18 ing group, shall enter into an agreement with the 19 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 20 Medicine to review the integrated strategy developed 21 in this section. 22 ‘‘(2) CONSIDERATIONS.—The review from para- 23 graph (1) shall also consider the current state, capa- 24 bility, and feasibility of the commercial space weath- 25 er sector to provide new and supplemental observa- † S 881 ES
16 1 tions and measurements that may significantly im- 2 prove space weather forecasting and prediction. 3 ‘‘(3) TRANSMITTAL.—The Director of the Of- 4 fice of Science and Technology Policy, the Adminis- 5 trator of the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 6 ministration, and the Administrator of the National 7 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall 8 transmit the integrated strategy and the results of 9 the review required under paragraph (1) to the Com- 10 mittee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 11 House of Representatives and the Committee on 12 Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Sen- 13 ate not later than 1 year after the date of the com- 14 pletion of the survey under section 60601(d)(3). The 15 integrated strategy and its review shall be made 16 publicly available within 30 days of submittal to 17 Congress. 18 ‘‘(d) IMPLEMENTATION PLAN.—Not later than 180 19 days after delivery of the review of the integrated strategy 20 in subsection (c)(3), the interagency working group shall 21 develop a plan to implement the integrated strategy, in- 22 cluding an estimate of the cost and schedule required for 23 implementation. Upon completion, the interagency work- 24 ing group shall submit the implementation plan to the 25 Committees on Science, Space, and Technology and † S 881 ES
17 1 Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the 2 Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation 3 and Armed Services of the Senate. The implementation 4 plan shall be made publicly available within 30 days of 5 submittal to Congress. 6 ‘‘(e) REEVALUATION.—The Director, in collaboration 7 with the interagency working group, shall update the inte- 8 grated strategy not later than 1 year after the reevaluation 9 of the user survey from section 60601(d)(3)(F) in accord- 10 ance with the requirements of subsections (a) through (d). 11 ‘‘§ 60603. Sustaining and advancing critical space 12 weather observations 13 ‘‘(a) POLICY.—It is the policy of the United States 14 to— 15 ‘‘(1) establish and sustain a baseline capability 16 for space weather observations and to make such ob- 17 servations and data publicly available; and 18 ‘‘(2) obtain enhanced space weather observa- 19 tions, as practicable, to advance forecasting and pre- 20 diction capability, as informed by the integrated 21 strategy in section 60602. 22 ‘‘(b) SUSTAINING BASELINE SPACE-BASED OBSER- 23 VATIONAL CAPABILITIES.— 24 ‘‘(1) The Administrator of the National Aero- 25 nautics and Space Administration shall, in coopera- † S 881 ES
18 1 tion with the European Space Agency and other 2 international and interagency partners, maintain op- 3 erations of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ 4 Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (re- 5 ferred to in this section as ‘SOHO/LASCO’) for as 6 long as the satellite continues to deliver quality ob- 7 servations. 8 ‘‘(2) The Administrator of the National Aero- 9 nautics and Space Administration shall prioritize the 10 reception of SOHO/LASCO data. 11 ‘‘(3) The Administrator of the National Oceanic 12 and Atmospheric Administration shall maintain, for 13 as long as is practicable, operations of current 14 space-based observational assets, including but not 15 limited to the Geostationary Operational Environ- 16 mental Satellites system, and the Deep Space Cli- 17 mate Observatory. 18 ‘‘(c) BACKUP SPACE-BASED OBSERVATIONAL CAPA- 19 BILITY.—The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 20 Atmospheric Administration, in coordination with the Sec- 21 retary of Defense and the Administrator of the National 22 Aeronautics and Space Administration, shall work with 23 Federal and international partners in order to secure reli- 24 able backup baseline capability for near real-time coronal 25 mass ejection imagery, solar wind, solar imaging, coronal † S 881 ES
19 1 imagery, and other relevant observations required to pro- 2 vide space weather forecasts. 3 ‘‘(d) SOHO/LASCO OPERATIONAL CONTINGENCY 4 PLAN.—The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 5 Atmospheric Administration shall develop an operational 6 contingency plan to provide continuous space weather 7 forecasting in the event of an unexpected SOHO/LASCO 8 failure, and prior to the implementation of the backup 9 space-based baseline observational capability in section 10 60603(c). 11 ‘‘(e) BRIEFING.—Not later than 120 days after the 12 date of enactment of the PROSWIFT Act, the Adminis- 13 trator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- 14 tration shall provide a briefing to the Committee on 15 Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Rep- 16 resentatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 17 and Transportation of the Senate on the plan to secure 18 reliable backup baseline capability described in subsection 19 (c) and the SOHO/LASCO operational contingency plan 20 developed under subsection (d). 21 ‘‘(f) SUSTAINING GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONAL 22 CAPABILITY.—The Director of the National Science 23 Foundation, the Director of the United States Geological 24 Survey, the Secretary of the Air Force, and, as practicable † S 881 ES
20 1 in support of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, 2 shall each— 3 ‘‘(1) maintain and improve ground-based obser- 4 vations of the Sun, as necessary and advisable, to 5 help meet the needs identified in the survey under 6 section 60601(d)(3); and 7 ‘‘(2) continue to provide space weather data 8 through ground-based facilities, including radars, 9 lidars, magnetometers, neutron monitors, radio re- 10 ceivers, aurora and airglow imagers, spectrometers, 11 interferometers, and solar observatories. 12 ‘‘(g) CONSIDERATIONS.—In implementing sub- 13 sections (b), (c), and (d), the Administrators of the Na- 14 tional Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Na- 15 tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Di- 16 rectors of the National Science Foundation and United 17 States Geological Survey, and the Secretaries of the Air 18 Force and the Navy shall prioritize cost-effective and reli- 19 able solutions. 20 ‘‘(h) GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONAL DATA.—The 21 Director of the National Science Foundation shall— 22 ‘‘(1) make available to the public key data 23 streams from the platforms and facilities described 24 in subsection (d) for research and to support space 25 weather model development; † S 881 ES
21 1 ‘‘(2) develop experimental models for scientific 2 purposes; and 3 ‘‘(3) support the transition of the experimental 4 models to operations where appropriate. 5 ‘‘(i) ENHANCED SPACE-BASED OBSERVATIONS.—The 6 Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 7 Administration, in coordination with the Secretary of De- 8 fense, should develop options to build and deploy space- 9 based observational capabilities, beyond the baseline capa- 10 bilities referenced in subsection (b), that may improve 11 space weather measurements and observations. These sup- 12 plemental observational capabilities could include commer- 13 cial solutions, prize authority, academic partnerships, 14 microsatellites, ground-based instruments, and opportuni- 15 ties to deploy the instrument or instruments as a sec- 16 ondary payload on an upcoming planned launch. 17 ‘‘§ 60604. Research activities 18 ‘‘(a) BASIC RESEARCH.—The Director of the Na- 19 tional Science Foundation, the Administrator of the Na- 20 tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Sec- 21 retary of Defense, shall— 22 ‘‘(1) continue to carry out basic research on 23 heliophysics, geospace science, and space weather; 24 and † S 881 ES
22 1 ‘‘(2) support competitive, peer-reviewed pro- 2 posals for conducting research, advancing modeling, 3 and monitoring of space weather and its impacts, in- 4 cluding the science goals outlined in decadal surveys 5 in solar and space physics conducted by the National 6 Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 7 ‘‘(b) MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH.— 8 ‘‘(1) FINDINGS.—Congress finds that the multi- 9 disciplinary nature of solar and space physics creates 10 funding challenges that require coordination across 11 scientific disciplines and Federal agencies. 12 ‘‘(2) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of 13 Congress that science centers could coordinate mul- 14 tidisciplinary solar and space physics research. The 15 Administrator of the National Aeronautics and 16 Space Administration and Director of the National 17 Science Foundation should support competitively 18 awarded grants for multidisciplinary science centers 19 that advance solar and space physics research, in- 20 cluding research-to-operations and operations-to-re- 21 search processes. 22 ‘‘(3) MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH.—The Di- 23 rector of the National Science Foundation, the Ad- 24 ministrator of the National Oceanic and Atmos- 25 pheric Administration, and the Administrator of the † S 881 ES
23 1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2 shall each pursue multidisciplinary research in sub- 3 jects that further the understanding of solar physics, 4 space physics, and space weather. 5 ‘‘(c) SCIENCE MISSIONS.—The Administrator of the 6 National Aeronautics and Space Administration should 7 implement missions that meet the science objectives identi- 8 fied in solar and space physics decadal surveys conducted 9 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 10 Medicine. 11 ‘‘(d) RESEARCH TO OPERATIONS; OPERATIONS TO 12 RESEARCH.—The interagency working group shall, upon 13 consideration of the advice of the advisory group, develop 14 formal mechanisms to— 15 ‘‘(1) transition the space weather research find- 16 ings, models, and capabilities of the National Aero- 17 nautics and Space Administration, the National 18 Science Foundation, the United States Geological 19 Survey, and other relevant Federal agencies, as ap- 20 propriate, to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 21 Administration and the Department of Defense; 22 ‘‘(2) enhance coordination between research 23 modeling centers and forecasting centers; and 24 ‘‘(3) communicate the operational needs of 25 space weather forecasters of the National Oceanic † S 881 ES
24 1 and Atmospheric Administration and Department of 2 Defense, as appropriate, to the National Aeronautics 3 and Space Administration, the National Science 4 Foundation, and the United States Geological Sur- 5 vey. 6 ‘‘§ 60605. Space weather data 7 ‘‘(a) IN GENERAL.—The Administrator of the Na- 8 tional Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Di- 9 rector of the National Science Foundation shall continue 10 to— 11 ‘‘(1) make space weather-related data obtained 12 for scientific research purposes available to space 13 weather forecasters and operations centers; and 14 ‘‘(2) support model development and model ap- 15 plications to space weather forecasting. 16 ‘‘(b) RESEARCH.—The Administrator of the National 17 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall make space 18 weather-related data obtained from operational fore- 19 casting available for research. 20 ‘‘§ 60606. Space weather knowledge transfer and in- 21 formation exchange 22 ‘‘Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment 23 of the PROSWIFT Act, the Administrator of the National 24 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in collaboration 25 with the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and † S 881 ES
25 1 Space Administration and the Director of the National 2 Science Foundation, shall enter into an arrangement with 3 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 4 Medicine to establish a Space Weather Government-Aca- 5 demic-Commercial Roundtable to facilitate communication 6 and knowledge transfer among Government participants 7 in the space weather interagency working group estab- 8 lished under section 60601(c), the academic community, 9 and the commercial space weather sector to— 10 ‘‘(1) facilitate advances in space weather pre- 11 diction and forecasting; 12 ‘‘(2) increase coordination of space weather re- 13 search to operations and operations to research; and 14 ‘‘(3) improve preparedness for potential space 15 weather phenomena. 16 ‘‘§ 60607. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sec- 17 tor space weather data 18 ‘‘(a) ESTABLISHMENT.—Not later than 12 months 19 after the date of enactment of the PROSWIFT Act, the 20 Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 21 Administration may establish a pilot program under which 22 the Administrator will offer to enter into contracts with 23 one or more entities in the commercial space weather sec- 24 tor for the provision to the Administrator of space weather † S 881 ES
26 1 data generated by such an entity that meets the standards 2 and specifications published under subsection (b). 3 ‘‘(b) DATA STANDARD AND SPECIFICATIONS.—Not 4 later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the 5 PROSWIFT Act, the Administrator of the National Oce- 6 anic and Atmospheric Administration, in consultation with 7 the Secretary of Defense, may publish standards and spec- 8 ifications for ground-based, ocean-based, air-based, and 9 space-based commercial space weather data and metadata. 10 ‘‘(c) CONTRACTS.— 11 ‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.—Within 12 months after the 12 date of transmission of the review of the integrated 13 strategy to Congress under section 60602(c)(3) and 14 taking into account the results of the review, the Ad- 15 ministrator of the National Oceanic and Atmos- 16 pheric Administration may offer to enter, through 17 an open competition, into at least one contract with 18 one or more commercial space weather sector enti- 19 ties capable of providing space weather data that— 20 ‘‘(A) meets the standards and specifica- 21 tions established for providing such data under 22 subsection (b); and 23 ‘‘(B) is provided in a manner that allows 24 the Administrator of the National Oceanic and 25 Atmospheric Administration to calibrate and † S 881 ES
27 1 evaluate the data for use in space weather re- 2 search and forecasting models of the National 3 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the 4 Department of Defense, or both. 5 ‘‘(2) ASSESSMENT.—If one or more contract is 6 entered into under paragraph (1), not later than 4 7 years after the date of enactment of the 8 PROSWIFT Act, the Administrator of the National 9 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall as- 10 sess, and submit to the Committees on Science, 11 Space, and Technology and Armed Services of the 12 House of Representatives and the Committees on 13 Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Armed 14 Services of the Senate, a report on the extent to 15 which the pilot program has demonstrated data pro- 16 vided under contracts described in paragraph (1) 17 meet the standards and specifications established 18 under subsection (b) and the extent to which the 19 pilot program has demonstrated— 20 ‘‘(A) the viability of assimilating the com- 21 mercially provided data into National Oceanic 22 and Atmospheric Administration space weather 23 research and forecasting models; 24 ‘‘(B) whether, and by how much, the data 25 so provided add value to space weather fore- † S 881 ES
28 1 casts of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 2 Administration and the Department of Defense; 3 and 4 ‘‘(C) the accuracy, quality, timeliness, va- 5 lidity, reliability, usability, information tech- 6 nology security, and cost-effectiveness of obtain- 7 ing commercial space weather data from com- 8 mercial sector providers. 9 ‘‘§ 60608. Space weather benchmarks 10 ‘‘The interagency working group established under 11 section 60601(c) shall periodically review and update the 12 benchmarks described in the report of the National 13 Science and Technology Council entitled ‘Space Weather 14 Phase 1 Benchmarks’ and dated June 2018, as necessary, 15 based on— 16 ‘‘(1) any significant new data or advances in 17 scientific understanding that become available; or 18 ‘‘(2) the evolving needs of entities impacted by 19 space weather phenomena.’’. 20 (c) TECHNICAL AND CONFORMING AMENDMENTS.— 21 (1) The table of chapters of title 51, United 22 States Code, is amended by adding after the item re- 23 lating to chapter 605 the following: ‘‘606. Space Weather ............................................................................... 60601’’. 24 (2) Section 809 of the National Aeronautics 25 and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 † S 881 ES
29 1 (42 U.S.C. 18388) and the item relating to that sec- 2 tion in the table of contents under section 1(b) of 3 that Act (Public Law 111–267; 124 Stat. 2806) are 4 repealed. Passed the Senate July 27, 2020. Attest: Secretary. † S 881 ES
116TH CONGRESS 2D SESSION S. 881 AN ACT To improve understanding and forecasting of space weather events, and for other purposes.