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S. 3231: Closing the Warrantless Digital Car Search Loophole Act of 2021

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About the bill

These days, your car might even know how much you weigh — plus whether you’ve gained weight.


The Constitution’s Fourth Amendment requires a search warrant, based on “probable cause” that illegal activity is being committed, before the government or law enforcement can obtain or seize a person’s private information.

Originally ratified in 1791 to primarily mean a person’s physical papers and the like, over the centuries it’s come to include all sorts of other private information which developed with new technologies. For example, 2018’s Supreme Court decision Carpenter v. United States ruled 5–4 that law enforcement required a search warrant to access a person’s cell phone location information.

But for a century now, there has been a major exception. In 1921, George Carroll’s Oldsmobile was stopped and searched …

Sponsor and status

Ron Wyden

Sponsor. Senior Senator for Oregon. Democrat.

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Last Updated: Nov 18, 2021
Length: 10 pages
Nov 18, 2021
117th Congress (2021–2023)

Introduced on Nov 18, 2021

This bill is in the first stage of the legislative process. It was introduced into Congress on November 18, 2021. It will typically be considered by committee next before it is possibly sent on to the House or Senate as a whole.

Other activity may have occurred on another bill with identical or similar provisions.


1 Cosponsor (1 Republican)

3% chance of being enacted according to Skopos Labs (details)


Nov 18, 2021

Bills and resolutions are referred to committees which debate the bill before possibly sending it on to the whole chamber.

If this bill has further action, the following steps may occur next:
Passed Committee

Passed Senate

Passed House

Signed by the President

S. 3231 is a bill in the United States Congress.

A bill must be passed by both the House and Senate in identical form and then be signed by the President to become law.

Bills numbers restart every two years. That means there are other bills with the number S. 3231. This is the one from the 117th Congress.

How to cite this information.

We recommend the following MLA-formatted citation when using the information you see here in academic work:

“S. 3231 — 117th Congress: Closing the Warrantless Digital Car Search Loophole Act of 2021.” 2021. December 4, 2022 <>

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GovTrack automatically collects legislative information from a variety of governmental and non-governmental sources. This page is sourced primarily from, the official portal of the United States Congress. is generally updated one day after events occur, and so legislative activity shown here may be one day behind. Data via the congress project.