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H.J.Res. 23: Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States providing that the Senate is made more representative by adding twelve Senators to be elected nationwide through ranked choice voting, and providing for twelve Electors at-large for President and Vice-President, who shall cast their ballots for the respective winners of the national popular vote.

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About the resolution

The only two federal offices elected nationwide are president and vice president. What if some senators were elected nationwide as well?


In a possibly apocryphal quote, George Washington supposedly compared the Senate to a saucer used to cool hot tea, suggesting the Senate should cool the House’s popular passions during the legislative process.

To that end, the Senate was intentionally designed so it wouldn’t always be reflective of nationwide policies or sentiments. For example, its six-year terms were considerably longer than the House’s two-year terms, rendering it slower to reflect changing political tides.

Equal representation of massive and small states alike means the Senate is less likely to mirror nationwide sentiment as well.

In recent years, Democrats have grown increasingly frustrated about the Senate.

Democrats often cite the …

Sponsor and status

Jan 31, 2023
118th Congress (2023–2025)

Introduced on Jan 31, 2023

This resolution is in the first stage of the legislative process. It was introduced into Congress on January 31, 2023. It will typically be considered by committee next before it is possibly sent on to the House or Senate as a whole.


Sean Casten

Representative for Illinois's 6th congressional district



Not available yet.


1 Cosponsor (1 Democrat)



Jan 31, 2023

Bills and resolutions are referred to committees which debate the bill before possibly sending it on to the whole chamber.

If this resolution has further action, the following steps may occur next:
Passed Committee

Passed House (Senate next)

Passed Senate

Ratified by State Legislatures

H.J.Res. 23 is a joint resolution in the United States Congress.

A joint resolution is often used in the same manner as a bill. If passed by both the House and Senate in identical form and signed by the President, it becomes a law. Joint resolutions are also used to propose amendments to the Constitution.

Resolutions numbers restart every two years. That means there are other resolutions with the number H.J.Res. 23. This is the one from the 118th Congress.

How to cite this information.

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“H.J.Res. 23 — 118th Congress: Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States providing that the Senate is ….” 2023. March 22, 2023 <>

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