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S. 30 (91st): An Act relating to the control of organized crime in the United States

The text of the bill below is as of Oct 15, 1970 (Passed Congress).


922                                     PUBLIC LAW 91-450-OCT. 14, 1970                       [84 STAT.

                     Public Law 91-450
October 14, 1970
                                                          AN ACT
    [S.4235]         T(i continue the jurisdietion of the United States District Court for the District
                       of Puerto Rico over certain cases pending in that court on June 2, 1970.
                        Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the
 U.S. District       United States of America in Congress assembled^ That section 13 of
Court for the
District of Puerto   the Act entitled "An Act to provide for the appointment of additional
Rico.                district judges, and for other purposes", approved June % 1970 (Pub-
 Jurisdiction.       lic Law 91-272; 84 Stat. 294), is amended by striking out the period
                     at the end thereof and inserting in lieu thereof the following: " ; how-
                     ever, nothing in this section shall impair the jurisdiction of the United
                     States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico to hear and deter-
                     mine any action or matter begun in the court on or before June 2,
                     1970.".
                        Approved October 14, 1970.


                     Public Law 91-451
 October 14, 1970                                       AN ACT
  [H. R. 12943]      To amend section 3 of the Act of November 2, 1966, to extend for three years the
                               authority to make appropriations to carry out such Act.

                        Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the
  Jellyfish          United States of America in Congress assembled. That section 3 of
control.
  Appropriation.     the Act entitled "An Act to provide for the control or elimination of
                     jellyfish and other such pests in the coastal waters of the United
                     States, and for other purposes", approved November 2,1966 (16 U.S.C.
  80 Stat. 1149.     1203), is amended by striking out "for the fiscal year ending June 30,
                     1970" and inserting in lieu thereof "for the period beginning July 1,
                     1969, and ending June 30,1973".
                        Approved October 14, 1970.


                     Public Law 91-452
October 15, 1970
                                                          AN ACT
     [S. 30]                  Relating to the control of oi-ganized crime in the T'nited States.

  Organized Crime  ]^Q if enoctcd hy thc Senate and House of Representatives of the
1^970^°^ '^"^ °^  United States of America in Congress assembled^ That this Act
                  may be cited as the "Organized Crime Control Act of 1970."
                                       STAITIMENT OF F I N D I N G S   AND   PURPOSE

                        The (Congress finds that (1) organized crime in the United States
                     is a highly sophisticated, diversified, and widespread activity that
                     annually drains billions of dollars from America's economy by unlaw-
                     ful conduct and the illegal use of force, fraud, and corruption; (2)
                     organized crime derives a major portion of its power through money

84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 923 obtained from sucli illegal endeavors as syndicated gambling, loan sharking, the theft and fencing of property, the importation and distribution of narcotics and other dangerous drugs, and other forms of social exploitation; (3) this money and power are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt legitimate business and labor unions and to subvert and corrupt our democratic processes; (4) organized crime activities in the United States weaken the stability of the Nation's economic system, harm innocent investors and competing organizations, interfere with free competition, seriously burden inter- state and foreign commerce, threaten the domestic security, and under- mine the general w^elfare of the Nation and its citizens; and (5) organized crime continues to grow because of defects in the evidence- gathering process of the law inhibiting the development of the legally admissible evidence necessary to bring criminal and other sanctions or remedies to bear on the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime and because the sanctions and remedies available to the Government are unnecessarily limited in scope and impact. I t is the purpose of this Act to seek the eradication of organized crime in the United States by strengthening the legal toials in the evi- dence-gathering process, by establishing new penal prohibitions, and by providing enhanced sanctions and new remedies to deal with the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime. T I T L E I — S P E C I A L GRAND J U R Y SEC. 101. (a) Title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding immediately after chapter 215 the following new chapter: ^^ ^^^' ^^^"^ "Chapter 216.—SPECIAL GRAND JURY "Sec. "3331. Summoning and term. "3332. Powers and duties. "3333. Reports. "3334. General provisions. "§ 3331. Summoning and term " ( a ) I n addition to such other grand juries as shall be called from time to time, each district court which is located in a judicial district containing more than four million inhabitants or in which the Attor- ney General, the Deputy Attorney General, or any designated Assist- ant Attornej^ General, certifies in writing to the chief judge of the district that in his judgment a special grand jury is necessary because of criminal activity in the district shall order a special grand jury to be summoned at least once in each period of eighteen months unless another special grand jury is then serving. The grand jury shall serve for a term of eighteen months unless an order for its discharge is
924 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. entered earlier by the court upon a determination of the grand jury by majority vote that its business has been completed. If, at the end of such term or any extension thereof, the district court determines the business of the grand jury has not been completed, the court may enter an order extending such term for an additional period of six months. No special grand jury term so extended shall exceed thirty-six months, except as provided in subsection (e) of section 3333 of this chapter. "(b) If a district court within any judicial circuit fails to extend the term of a special grand jury or enters an order for the discharge of such grand jury before such grand jury determines that it has com- pleted its business, the grand jury, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of its members, may apply to the chief judge of the circuit for an order for the continuance of the term of the grand jury. Upon the making of such an application by the grand jury, the term thereof shall continue until the entry upon such application by the chief judge of the circuit of an appropriate order. No special grand jury term so extended shall exceed thirty-six months, except as provided in sub- section (e) of section 3333 of this chapter. "§ 3332. Powers and duties " ( a ) I t shall be the duty of each such grand jury impaneled within any judicial district to inquire into offenses against the criminal laws of the United States alleged to have been committed within that dis- trict. Such alleged offenses may be brought to the attention of the grand jury by the court or by any attorney appearing on behalf of the United States for the presentation of evidence. Any such attorney receiving information concerning such an alleged offense from any other person shall, if requested by such other person, inform the grand jury of such alleged offense, the identity of such other person, and such attorney's action or recommendation. " ( b ) Whenever the district court detei-mines that the volume of business of the special grand jury exceeds the capacity of the grand jury to discharge its obligations, the district court may order an addi- tional special grand jury for that district to be impaneled. "§ 3333. Reports " ( a ) A special grand jury impaneled by any district court, with the concurrence of a majority of its members, may, upon completion of its original term, or each extension thereof, submit to the court a report— "(1) concerning noncriminal misconduct, malfeasance, or mis- feasance in office involving organized criminal activity by an appointed public officer or employee as the basis for a recom- mendation of removal or disciplinary action; or "(2) regarding organized crime conditions in the district. fiUn^'^i^^Lbiic "('-*^ ^^ court to which such report is submitted shall examine it recofd?^ ^" '^ aiid the minutes of the special grand jury and, except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, shall make an order accepting and filing such report as a public record only if the court is satisfied that it complies w^ith the provisions of subsection (a) of this section and that— "(1) the report is based upon facts revealed in the course of an investigation authorized by subsection (a) of section 3332 and is supported by the preponderance of the evidence; and "(2) when the report is submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section, each person named therein and any reasonable number of witnesses in his behalf as designated by him to the foreman of the grand jury were afforded an opportu-
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 925 nity to testify before the grand jury prior to the filing of such report, and when the report is submitted pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, it is not critical of an identi- fied person. "(c) (1) A n order accepting a report pursuant to paragraph (1) of to^ UMIC o'ffi'J.-rs subsection (a) of this section and the report shall be sealed by the court and shall not be filed as a public record or be subject to subpena or otherwise made public (i) until at least thirty-one days after a copy of the order and report are served upon each public officer or employee named therein and an answer has been filed or the time for filing an answer has expired, or (ii) if an appeal is taken, until all rights of review of the public officer or employee named therein have expired or terminated in an order accepting the report. No order accepting a report pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall be entered until thirty days after the delivery of such report to the public officer or body pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this section. The court may issue such orders as it shall deem appro- priate to prevent unauthorized publication of a report. Unauthorized publication may be punished as contempt of the court. " (2) Such public officer or employee may file with the clerk a verified Answer, filing, answer to such a report not later than twenty days after service of the order and report upon him. Upon a showing of good cause, the court may grant such public officer or employee an extension of time within which to file such answer and may authorize such limited publication of the report as may be necessary to prepare such answer. Such an answer shall plainly and concisely state the facts and law con- stituting the defense of the public officer or employee to the charges in said report, and, except for those parts thereof w^hich the court determines to have been inserted scandalously, pre judiciously, or unnecessarily, such answer shall become an appendix to the report. "(3) Upon the expiration of the time set forth in paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of this section, the United States attorney shall deliver a true copy of such report, and the appendix, if any, for appropriate action to each public officer or body having jurisdiction, responsibility, or authority over each public officer or employee named in the report. " ( d ) Upon the submission of a report pursuant to subsection (a) ox this section, if the court finds that the filing of such report as a public record may prejudice fair consideration of a pending criminal matter, it shall order such report sealed and such report shall not be subject to subpena or public inspection during the pendency of such criminal matter, except upon order of the court. "(e) Whenever the court to which a report is submitted pursuant Additional to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section is not satisfied that ^^ ^"'°'^y- the report complies with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, it may direct that additional testimony be taken before the same grand jury, or it shall make an order sealing such report, and it shall not be filed as a public record or be subject to subpena or other- wise made public until the provisions of subsection (b) of this section are met. A special grand jury term may be extended by the district juf^^erm, e^xt"l- court beyond thirty-six months in order that such additional testimony si on, may be taken or the provisions of subsection (b) of this section may bo met. " ( f ) As used in this section, 'public officer or employee' means any „/l^"'jJ,^^„°"i'""" or employee. officer or employee of the United States, any State, the District of "' "•-"'""'"" " Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or posses- sion of the United States, or any political subdivision, or any depart- ment, agency, or instrumentality thereof.
926 PUBUC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. "§ 3334. General provisions II use 332^" '"^^^ provisions of chapter 215, title 18, United States Code, and 18 use app.' the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure applicable to regular grand juries shall apply to special grand juries to the extent not inconsistent with sections 3331, 3332, or 3333 of this chapter." (b) The part analysis of part I I , title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding immediately after "215. Grand Jury 3321" the following new item: "216. Special Grand Jury _ 3331." SEC. 102. (a) Subsection ( a ) , section 3500, chapter 223, title 18, 71 Stat. 595. United States Code, is amended by striking "to an agent of the Gov- ernment" following "the defendant". (b) Subsection ( d ) , section 3500, chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking "paragraph" following "the court under" and inserting in lieu thereof "subsection". (c) Paragraph ( 1 ) , subsection ( e ) , section 3500, chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking the "or" following the semicolon. (d) Paragraph (2), subsection (e), section 3500, chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking "to an agent of the Government" after "said witness" and by striking the period at the end thereof and inserting in lieu thereof: " ; or (3) a statement, how- ever taken or recorded, or a transcription thereof, if any, made by said witness to a grand jury.". TITLE II—GENERAL IMMUNITY SEC. 201. (a) Title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding 18 use ^^^i immediately after part I V the following new p a r t : "PART V.—IMMUNITY or WITNESSES ''Sec. ^'6001. Definitions. "6002. Immunity generally, •'6003. Court and grand jury proceedings. "6004. Certain administrative proceedings. "600.5. Congressional proceedings. "§ 6001. Definitions "As used in this part— " (1) 'agency of the United States' means any executive depart- 8^0 Stat. 378, meut as defined in section 101 of title 5, United States Code, a 948 military department as defined in section 102 of title 5, United States Code, the Atomic Energy Commission, the China Trade Act registrar appointed under 53 Stat. 1432 (15 U.S.C. sec. 143), the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Federal Communications Com- mission, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Maritime Commission, the Federal Power Commission, the Fed- eral Trade Commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the National Labor Relations Board, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Railroad Retirement Board, an arbitration Post, p. 930. board established under 48 Stat. 1193 (45 U.S.C. sec. 157), the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Subversive Activities Control Board, or a board established under 49 Stat. 31 (15 U.S.C. sec. 7 l 5 d ) ; "(2) 'other information' includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material; "(3) 'proceeding before an agency of the United States' means any proceeding before such an agency with respect to which it is
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 927 authorized to issue subpenas and to take testimony or receive other information from witnesses under oath; and "(4) 'court of the United States' means any of the following courts: the Supreme Court of the United States, a United States court of appeals, a United States district court established under chapter 5, title 28, United States Code, the District of Columbia 6 2 stat. 872; Court of Appeals, the Superior Court of the District of Colum- ^"^tifsc^Vu bia, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the United States Court of Claims, the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, the Tax Court of the United States, the Customs Court, and the Court of Military Appeals. "§ 6002. Immunity generally "Whenever a witness refuses, on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or provide other information in a pro- ceeding before or ancillary to— " (1) a court or grand jury of the United States, " (2) an agency of the United States, or "(3) either House of Congress, a joint committee of the two Houses, or a committee or a subcommittee of either House, and the person presiding over the proceeding communicates to the witness an order issued under this part, the witness may not refuse to comply with the order on the basis of his privilege against self- incrimination ; but no testimony or other information compelled under the order (or any information directly or indirectly derived from such testimony or other information) may be used against the witness in any criminal case, except a prosecution for perjury, giving a false statement, or otherwise failing to comply with the order. "§ 6003. Court and grand jury proceedings " (a) In the case of any individual who has been or may be called to testify or provide other information at any proceeding before or ancillary to a court of the United States or a grand jury or the United States, the United States district court for the judicial district in which the proceeding is or may be held shall issue, in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, upon the request of the United States attorney for such district, an order requiring such individual to give testimony or provide other information which he refuses to give or provide on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, such order to become effective as provided in section 6002 of this part. "(b) A United States attorney may, with the approval of the Attor- ney General, the Deputy Attorney General, or any designated Assist- ant Attorney General, request an order under subsection (a) of this section when in his judgment— "(1) the testimony or other information from such individual may be necessary to the public interest; and " (2) such individual has refused or is likely to refuse to testify or provide other information on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination. *'§ 6004. Certain administrative proceedings " ( a ) I n the case of any individual who has been or who may be called to testify or provide other information at any proceeding before an agency of the United States, the agency may, with the approval of the Attorney General, issue, in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, an order requiring the individual to give testimony or provide other information which ne refuses to give or provide on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, such order to become effective as provided in section 6002 of this part.
928 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. "(b) An agency of the United States may issue an order under subsection (a) of this section only if in its judgment— "(1) the testimony or other information from such individual may be necessary to the public interest; and " (2) such individual has refused or is likely to refuse to testify or provide other information on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination. "§6005. Congressional proceedings "(a) I n the case of any individual who has been or may be called tx) testify or provide other information at any proceeding before either House of Congress, or any committee, or any subcommittee of either House, or any joint committee of the two Houses, a United States district court shall issue, in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, upon the request of a duly authorized representative of the House of Congress or the committee concerned, an order requiring such individual to give testimony or provide other information which he refuses to give or provide on the basis of his privilege against self- incrimination, such order to become effective as provided in section 6002 of this part. "(b) Before issuing an order under subsection (a) of this section, a United States district court shall find that— " (1) in the case of a proceeding before either House of Congress, the request for such an order has been approved by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Members present of that House; "(2) in the case of a proceeding before a committee or a sub- committee of either House of Congress or a joint committee of both Houses, the request for such an order has been approved by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of the full com- mittee; and " (3) ten days or more prior to the day on which the request for such an order was made, the Attorney General was served with notice of an intention to request the order "(c) Upon application of the Attorney General, the United States district court shall defer the issuance of any order under subsection (a) of this section for such period, not longer than twenty days from the date of the request for such order, as the Attorney General may specify." (b) The table of parts for title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following: "V. Immunity of Witnesses 6001". SEC. 202. The third sentence of paragraph (b) of section 6 of the Commodity Exchange Act (69 Stat. 160; 7 U.S.C. 15) is amended by striking "49 U.S.C. 12, 46, 47, 48, relating to the attendance and testi- mony of witnesses, the production of documentary evidence, and the immunity of witnesses" and by inserting in lieu thereof the following: "(49 U.S.C. § 12), relating to the attendance and testimony of wit- nesses and the production of documentary evidence,". Repeal. g^^ 203. Subsectlon (f) of section 17 of the United States Grain Standards Act (82 Stat. 768; 7 U.S.C. § 87f ( f ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 204. The second sentence of section 5 of the Act entitled "An Act to regulate the marketing of economic poisons and devices, and for other purposes", approved June 25,1947 (61 Stat. 168; 7 U.S.C. § 135c), is amended by inserting after "section", the following language: ", or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such evidence,". Repeal. gj,^, £05. Subsectlou (f) of section 13 of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930 (46 Stat. 536; 7 U.S.C. § 499m(f)), is repealed.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 929 SEC. 206. (a) Section 16 of the Cotton Research and Promotion Act (80 Stat. 285; 7 U.S.C. § 2115) is amended by striking "(a)"' and by striking subsection ( b ) . (b) The section heading for such section 16 is amended by striking " : Self-incrimination". SEC. 207. Clause (10) of subsection (a) of section 7 of the Act entitled "An Act to establish a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the United States^', approved July 1, 1898 (52 Stat. 847; 11 U.S.C. § 25(a) (10)), is amended by inserting after the first use of the term "testimony" the following language: ", or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such testimony,". SEC. 208. The fourth sentence of subsection (d) of section 10 of the Repeal, Federal Deposit Insurance Act (64 Stat. 882; 12 U.S.C. § 1820 ( d ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 209. The seventh paragraph under the center heading "DEPART- MENT or JUSTICE" in the first section of the Act of February 25, 1903 (32 Stat. 904; 15 LT.S.C. § 32), is amended by striking " : Provided^ That" and all that follows in that paragraph and inserting in lieu thereof a Denod SEC. 210. T h e A c t of June 30,1906 (34 Stat. 798; 15 U.S.C. § 33), is Repeals. repealed. SEC. 211. The seventh paragraph of section 9 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (38 Stat. 722; 15 U.S.C. § 49), is repealed. SEC. 212. Subsection (d) of section 21 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 899; 15 U.S.C. § 7 8 u ( d ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 213. Subsection (c) of section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933 (48 Stat. 86; 15 U.S.C. § 77v(c)), is repealed. SEC. 214. Subsection (e) of section 18 of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 831; 15 U.S.C. § 79r(e)), is repealed. SEC. 215. Subsection (d) of section 42 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 842; 15 U.S.C. § 80a-41(d)), is repealed. SEC. 216. Subsection (d) of section 209 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 853; 15 U.S.C. § 80b-9(d)), is repealed. SEC. 217. Subsection (c) of section 15 of the (^hina Trade Act, 1922 (42 Stat. 953; 15 U.S.C. § 155 ( c ) ) , is repealed. 42 stat. 853. SEC. 218. Subsection (h) of section 14 of the Natural Gas Act (52 ^ t a t . 828; 15 U.S.C. § 7 l 7 m ( h ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 219. The first proviso of section 12 of the Act entitled "An Act to regulate the interstate distribution and sale of packages of haz- ardous substances intended or suitable for household use," approved July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 379; 15 U.S.C. § 1271), is amended by insert- ing after "section" the following language: ", or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such evidence,". SEC. 220. Subsection (e) of section 1415 of the Interstate Land Repeals. Sales Full Disclosure Act (82 Stat. 596; 15 U.S.C. § 1714(e)), is repealed. SEC. 221. Subsection (g) of section 307 of the Federal Power Act (49 Stat. 856; 16 U.S.C. § 825f ( g ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 222. Subsection (b) of section 835 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking the third sentence thereof. 7'* s*^*- »^ 1 • SEC. 223. (a) Section 895 of title 18, United States Code, is R^P/«I- -, -, ^ ' ' ' 8 2 Stat. 162. repealed. (b) The table of sections of chapter 42 of such title is amended by striking the item relating to section 895. SEC. 224. (a) Section 1406 of title 18, United States Code, is R^P^^I- ^ ;i ^ ' ' 7 0 Stat. 574. repealed. (b) The table of sections of chapter 68 of such title is amended by striking the item relating to section 1406.
930 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. 76 Stat. 42. ^^^ 225. Section 1954 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking " ( a ) Whoever" and inserting in lieu thereof "Whoever" and by striking subsection (b) thereof. SEC. 226. The second sentence of subsection (b), section 2424, title 62 Stat. 813. ^g, United States Code, is amended by striking "but no person" and all that follows in that subsection and inserting in lieu thereof: "but no information contained in the statement or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such information may be used against any person making such statement in any criminal case, except a prosecution for perjury, giving a false statement or otherwise fail- ing to comply with this section." ti^edlte ^"^'" ^^^: ^2^' (^) Section 2514 of title 18, United States Code, is repealed 82 stal*. 216. effective four years after the effective date of this Act, (b) The table of sections of chapter 119 of such title is amended by striking the item relating to section 2514. 68 ^slal: 745 ^^^- ^^S- (a) Sectiou 3486 of title 18, United States Code, is repealed, (b) The table of sections of chapter 223 of such title is amended by striking the item relating to section 3486. SEC. 229. Subsection (e) of section 333 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (46 Stat. 699; 19 U.S.C. § 1333(e)), is amended by striking " : Pro- ridedj That" and all that follows in that subsection and inserting in lieu thereof a period. SEC. 230. The first proviso of section 703 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, approved June 25, 1938 (52 Stat. 1057; 21 U.S.C. §373), is amended by inserting after "section" the following language: ", or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such evidence,". R^p^^^i- S E C . 231. ( a ) Section 4874 of t h e I n t e r n a l R e v e n u e Code of 1954 is 68A Stat. 586. •, j ^ ' 26 u s e 4874. repealed. (b) The table of sections of part I I I of subchapter (D) of chapter 39 of such Code is amended by striking the item relating to section 4874. Repeal. g j ^ 232. Sectlou 7493 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 is 68A Stat. 8 9 3 . •, -, repealed. SEC. 233. The table of sections of part I I I of subchapter ( E ) of chapter 76 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 is amended by strik- ing the item relating to section 7493. Repeal. gj,^^ 234. Paragraph (3) of section 11 of the Labor Management Stat. 150. Relations Act, 1947 (49 Stat. 455; 29 U.S.C. § 161(3)), is repealed. K^p^^i- SEC. 235. The third sentence of section 4 of the Act entitled "An Act to provide that tolls on certain bridges over navigable waters of the United States shall be just and reasonable, and for other pur- poses", approved August 21, 1935 (49 Stat. 671; 33 U.S.C. § 506), is repealed. R^p^^i- SEC. 236. Subsection (f) of section 205 of the Social Security Act .3 Stat. 1368. ^^^ U.S.C. § 405 (f)) Is repealed. SEC. 237. Paragraph c of section 161 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 948; 42 U.S.C. § 2201(c)), is amended by striking the third sentence thereof. Repeals. gj.^, 238. The last sentence of the first paragraph of subparagraph (h) of the paragraph designated "Third" of section 7 of the Railway Labor Act (44 Stat. 582; 45 U.S.C. § 157), is repealed. SEC. 239. Subsection (c) of section 12 of the Railroad Unemploy- ment Insurance Act (52 Stat. 1107; 45 U.S.C. § 362(c)), is repealed. SEC. 240. Section 28 of the Shipping Act of 1916 (39 Stat. 737; 46 U.S.C. § 827), is repealed. SEC. 241. Subsection (c) of section 214 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (49 Stat. 1991; 46 U.S.C. § 1124(c)), is repealed. SEC. 242. Subsection (i) of section 409 of the Communications Act 66 Stat. 722. ^f ^934 (43 gtat. 1096; 47 U.S.C. § 409 (1)), is repealed.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 931 SE€. 248. (a) The second sentence of section 9 of the Interetate Commerce Act (24 Stat. 382; 49 U.S.C. § 9), is amended by striking " ; the chiim'' and all that follows in that sentence and inserting in lieu thereof a period. (b) Subsection (a) of section 816 of the Interstate Commerce Act (54 Stat. 946; 49 U.S.C. § 916(a)), is amended by striking the comma following "part I " and by striking ", and the Immunity of Witnesses Act (34 Stat. 798; 32 Stat. 904, ch. 755, sec. 1),". (c) Subsection (a) of section 417 of the Interstate Commerce Act (49 U.S.C. § 1017(a)), is amended by striking the comma after "such ^^ ^'^*- ^97. provisions" and by striking ", and of the Immunity of Witnesses Act (34 Stat. 798; 32 Stat. 904, ch. 755, sec. 1),". SEC. 244. The third sentence of section 3 of the Act entitled "An Act to further regulate Commerce with foreign nations and among the States", approved February 19, 1903 (32 Stat. 848; 49 U.S.C. § 43), is amended by striking " ; the claim" and all that follows in that sentence down through and including ''''Provided^ That the provisions" and inserting in lieu thereof ". The provisions". SEC. 245. The first paragraph of the Act of February 11, 1893 (27 R«P««IS- Stat. 443; 49 U.S.C. § 46), repealed. SEC. 246. Subsection (i) of section 1004 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 792; 49 U.S.C. § 1484 ( i ) ) , is repealed. SEC. 247. The ninth sentence of subsection (c) of section 13 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (81 Stat. 768; 50 U.S.C. § 792(c)), is repealed. SEC. 248. Section 1302 of the Second W a r Powers Act of 1942 (56 Stat. 185; 50 U.S.C. App. § 643a), is amended by striking the fourth sentence thereof. SEC. 249. Paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of section 2 of the Act entitled "An Act to expedite national defense, and for other purposes", approved June28,1940 (54 Stat. 676; 50U.S.C. App. § 1152(a) ( 4 ) ) , is ^^ s*^*- 1^9. amended by striking the fourth sentence thereof. SEC. 250. Subsection (d) of section 6 of the Export Control Act of 1949 (63 Stat. 8; 50 U.S.C. App. § 2026(b)), is repealed. SEC. 251. Subsection (b) of section 705 of the Act of September 8, 1950, to amend the Tariff Act of 1930 (64 Stat. 816; 50 U.S.C. § 2155(b)), is repealed. SEC. 252. Section 23-545 of the District of Columbia Code is ^"'^' P- 619. repealed. SEC. 253. Section 42 of the Act of October 9, 1940, 54 Stat. 1082 (D.C. Code, sec. 35-1346), is repealed. SEC. 254. Section 2 of the Act of June 19, 1934, 48 Stat. 1176 (sec- tion 35-802, District of Columbia Code), is repealed. SEC. 255. Section 29 of the Act of March 4, 1922, 42 Stat. 414 (sec- tion 35-1129, District of Columbia Code), is repealed. SEC. 256. Section 9 of the Act of February 7, 1914, 38 Stat. 282, as amended (section 22-2721, District of Columbia Code), is repealed. SEC. 257. Section 5 of the Act of February 7,1914,38 Stat. 281 (sec- tion 22-2717, District of Columbia Code), is amended by striking out "2721" and inserting in lieu thereof "2720". SEC. 258. Section 8 of the Act of February 7, 1914, 38 Stat. 282 (section 22-2720, District of Columbia Code), is amended by striking out "2721" and inserting in lieu thereof "2720". SEC. 259. In addition to the provisions of law specifically amended or specifically repealed by this title, any other provision of law incon- sistent with the provisions of part V of title 18, United States Code ^"'^' ^' '^'^^• (adding by title I I of this Act), is to that extent amended or repealed. SEC. 260. The provisions of part V of title 18, United States Code, Effective date. added by title I I of this Act, and the amendments and repeals made by
932 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. title I I of this Act, shall take effect on the sixtieth day following the date of the enactment of this Act. No amendment to or repeal of any provision of law under title I I of this Act shall affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under such provision by reason of any testimony or other information given before such day. TITLE III—RECALCITRANT WITNESSES g/2^stau^9so; SEC. 301. (a) Chapter 119, title 28, United States Code, is amended 28 use 1*821- by adding at the end thereof the following new section: 1825 "§ 1826. Recalcitrant witnesses " ( a ) Whenever a witness in any proceeding before or ancillary to any court or grand jury of the United States refuses without just cause shown to comply with an order of the court to testify or provide other information, including any book, paper, document, record, recording or other material, the court, upon such refusal, or when such refusal is duly brought to its attention, may summarily order his confinement at a suitable place until such time as the witness is willing to give such testimony or provide such information. No period of such confinement shall exceed the life of— " (1) the court proceeding, or "(2J the term of the grand jury, including extensions, before which such refusal to comply with the court order occurred, but in no event shall such confinement exceed eighteen months. "(b) No person confined pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be admitted to bail pending the determination of an appeal taken by him from the order for his confinement if it appears that the appeal is frivolous or taken for delay. Any appeal from an order of confine- ment under this section shall be disposed of as soon as practicable, but not later than thirty days from the filing of such appeal." (b) The analysis of chapter 119, title 28, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new item: "1826. Recalcitrant witnesses.". SEC. 302. (a) The first paragraph of section 1073, chapter 49, title 75 Stat. 795. i^^ United States Code, is amended by inserting "or (3) to avoid service of, or contempt proceedings for alleged disobedience of, lawful process requiring attendance and the giving of testimony or the production of documentary evidence before an agency of a State empowered by the law of such Stat© to conduct investigations of alleged criminal activi- ties," immediately after "is charged,". (b) The second paragraph of section 1073, chapter 49, title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting immediately after "held in custody or confinement" a comma and adding "or in which an avoid- ance of service of process or a contempt referred to in clause (3) of the first paragraph of this section is alleged to have been committed,". TITLE IV—FALSE DECLARATIONS ^^%1\%Z^' SEC. 401. (a) Chapter 79, title 18, United States Code, is amended by 18 use 16*21- adding at the end thereof the following new section: 1622. "§ 1623. False declarations before grand jury or court " ( a ) Whoever under oath in any proceeding before or ancillary to any court or grand jury of the United States knowingljjr makes any false material declaration or makes or uses any other information, including any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material, knowing the same to contain any false material declaration, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 933 " ( b ) This section is applicable whether the conduct occurred within or without the United States. "(c) An indictment or information for violation of this section alleging that, in any proceedings before or ancillary to any court or grand jury of the United States, the defendant under oath has know- ingly made two or more declarations, which are inconsistent to the degree that one of them is necessarily false, need not specify w^hich declaration is false if— "(1) each declaration was material to the point in question, and "(2) each declaration was made within the period of the statute of limitations for the offense charged under this section. I n any prosecution under this section, the falsity of a declaration set forth in the indictment or information shall be established sufficient for conviction by proof that the defendant while under oath made irrecon- cilably contradictory declarations material to the point in question in any proceeding before or ancillary to any court or grand jury. It shall be a defense to an indictment or information made pursuant to the first sentence of this subsection that the defendant at the time he made each declaration believed the declaration was true. " ( d ) Where, in the same continuous court or grand jury proceeding in which a declaration is made, the person making the declaration admits such declaration to be false, such admission shall bar prosecu- tion under this section if, at the time the admission is made, the declara- tion has not substantially affected the proceeding, or it has not become manifest that such falsity has been or will be exposed. "(e) Proof beyond a reasonable doubt under this section is sufficient for conviction. I t shall not be necessary that such proof be made by any particular number of witnesses or by documentary or other type of evidence." (b) The analysis of chapter 79, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new item: "1623. False declarations before grand jury or court." TITLE V—PROTECTED FACILITIES FOR HOUSING GOVERNMENT WITNESSES SEC. 501. The Attorney General of the United States is authorized to provide for the security of Government witnesses, potential Govern- ment witnesses, and the families of Government witnesses and poten- tial witnesses in legal proceedings against any person alleged to have participated in an organized criminal activity. SEC. 502. The Attorney General of the United States is authorized to rent, purchase, modify, or remodel protected housing facilities and to otherwise offer to provide for the health, safety, and welfare of witnesses and persons intended to be called as Government w^itnesses, and the families of witnesses and persons intended to be called as Government witnesses in le^al proceedings instituted against any per- son alleged to have participated in an organized criminal activity whenever, in his judgment, testimony from, or a willingness to testify by, such a witness would place his life or person, or the life or person of a member of his family or household, in jeopardy. Any person availing himself of an offer by the Attorney General to use such facili- ties may continue to use such facilities for as long as the Attorney General determines the jeopardy to his life or person continues. SEC. 503. As used in this title, "Government" means the United "Government." States, any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof. The offer of facilities to witnesses may be conditioned by
934 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. the Attorney General upon reimbursement in whole or in part to the L^nited States by any State or any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof of the cost of main- taining and protecting such witnesses. Appropriation. SEC, 504, There is hereby authorized to be appropriated from time to time such funds as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this title, TITLE VI—DEPOSITIONS 62 Stat, 832; SEC. 601. (a) Chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended 82 Stat. 210. 18 u s e 3 4 8 1 - by adding at the end thereof the following new section: 3502. "§ 3503. Depositions to preserve testimony " ( a ) Whenever due to exceptional circumstances it is in the inter- est of justice that the testimony of a prospective witness of a party be taken and preserved, the court at any time after the filing of an indictment or information may upon motion of such party and notice to the parties order that the testimony of such witness be taken by deposition and that any designated book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material not privileged be produced at the same time and place. If a witness is committed for failure to give bail to appear to testify at a trial or hearingj the court on written motion of the witness and upon notice to the parties may direct that his deposition be taken. After the deposition has been subscribed the court may dis- charge the witness, A motion by the Government to obtain an order under this section shall contain certification by the Attorney General or his designee that the legal proceeding is against a person who is believed to have participated in an organized criminal activity, Notice, "(b) The party at whose instance a deposition is to be taken shall give to every party reasonable written notice of the time and place for taking the deposition. The notice shall state the name and address of each person to be examined. On motion of a party upon whom the notice is served, the court for cause shown may extend or shorten the time or change the place for taking the deposition. The officer having custody of a defendant shall be notified of the time and place set for the examination, and shall produce him at the examination and keep him in the presence of the witness during the examination. A defendant not in custody shall have the right to be present at the examination, but his failure, absent good cause shown, to appear after notice and tender of expenses shall constitute a waiver of that right and of any objection to the taking and use of the deposi- tion based upon that ri^ht. C o u n s e l , ap- "(c) If a defendant is without counsel, the court shall advise him pointment. of his rights and assign counsel to represent him unless the defendant elects to proceed without counsel or is able to obtain counsel of his E x p e n s e s , pay- own choice. Whenever a deposition is taken at the instance of the ment by U.S. Government, or whenever a deposition is taken at the instance of a defendant who appears to be unable to bear the expense of the taking of the deposition, the court may direct that the expenses of travel and subsistence of the defendant and his attorney for attendance at the examination shall be paid by the Government. I n such event the marshal shall make payment accordingly. " ( d ) A deposition shall be taken and filed in the manner pro- vided in civil actions, provided that (1) in no event shall a deposition be taken of a party defendant without his consent, and (2) the scope of examination and cross-examination shall be such as would be allowed in the trial itself. On request or waiver by the defendant the court may direct that a deposition be taken on written interrogatories in the manner provided in civil actions. Such request shall constitute
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 935 a waiver of any objection to the taking and use of the dej^osition based upon its being so taken. "(e) The Government shall make available to the defendant for witne*s\Ts"'av°.n. his examination and use at the taking of the deposition any statement abinty. of the witness being deposed which is in the possession of the Govern- ment and which the Government would be required to make available to the defendant if the witness were testifying at the trial. "(f) A t the trial or upon any hearing, a part or all of a dej)osition, Depositions, so far as otherwise admissible under the rules of evidence, may be used ''°"'^"^°"^ ^°' '^^*- if it appears: That the witness is dead; or that the witness is out of the United States, unless it appears that the absence of the witness was procured by the partj^ offering the deposition; or that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of sickness or infirmity; or that the witness refuses in the trial or hearing to testify concerning the subject of the deposition or part offered; or that the party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the attendance of the wit- ness by subpena. Any deposition may also be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of the deponent as a witness. If only a part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, an adverse party may require him to offer all of it which is relevant to the part offered and any party may offer other parts. " ( g ) Objections to receiving in evidence a deposition or part thereof may be made as provided in civil actions." (b) The analysis of chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new item: ".3-503. Depositions to preserve testimony." T I T L E V I I — L I T I G A T I O N CONCERNINCJ S O U R C E S O F EVIDENCE PART A—SPECIAL FINDINGS SEC. 701. The Congress finds that claims that evidence offered in proceedings was obtained by the exploitation of unlawful acts, and IS therefore inadmissible in evidence, (1) often cannot reliably be determined when such claims concern evidence of events occurring years after the allegedly unlawful act, and (2) when the allegedly unlawful act has occurred more than five years prior to the event in question, there is virtually no likelihood that the evidence offered to prove the event has been obtained by the exploitation of that allegedly unlawful act. PART B—^LITIGATION CONCERNING SOURCES OF EVIDENCE SEC. 702. (a) Chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended ^"'«' P- 934. by adding at the end thereof the following new section: "§ 3504. Litigation concerning sources of evidence " (a) I n any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States— "(1) upon a claim by a party aggrieved that evidence is inad- missible because it is the primary product of an unlawful act or because it was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act, the opponent of the claim shall affirm or deny the occurrence of the alleged unlawful act; "(2) disclosure of information for a determination if evidence is inadmissible because it is the primary product of an unlawful 47-348 O - 72 - 63 (Pt. 1)
936 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. act occurring prior to June 19,1968, or because it was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act occurring prior to June 19, 1968, shall not be re(][uired unless such information may be rele- vant to a pending claim of such inadmissibility; and "(3) no claim shall be considered that evidence of an event is inadmissible on the ground that such evidence was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act occurring prior to June 19, 1968, if such event occurred more than five years after such allegedly unlawful act. "Unlawful act." «^j^^ ^ g ^ g ^ jj^ ^j^jg geotiou 'uulawful act' means any act the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device (as defined in section 82 Stat. 212. 2510(5) of thls title) in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or any regulation or standard promulgated pursuant thereto." (b) The analysis of chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new item : "3504. Litigation concerning sources of evidence." Applicability. gj,Q^ 703. This title shall apply to all proceedings, regardless of when commenced, occurring after the date of its enactment. Paragraph (3) of subsection (a) of section 3504, chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, shall not apply to any proceeding in which all informa- tion to be relied upon to establish inadmissibility was possessed by the party making such claim and adduced in such proceeding prior to such enactment. T I T L E VIII—SYNDICATED GAMBLING PART A—SPECIAL FINDINGS SEC. 801. The Congress finds that illegal gambling involves wide- spread use of, and has an effect upon, interstate commerce and the facilities thereof. PART B—OBSTRUCTION OF STATE OR LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT 8i^st!r*36?^' SEC. 802. (a) Chapter 73, title 18, United States Code, is amended 18 use ISO 1- hy adding at the end tnereof the following new section: ^^^°" **§ 1511. Obstruction of State or local law enforcement " ( a ) I t shall be unlawful for two or more persons to conspire to obstruct the enforcement of the criminal laws of a State or political subdivision thereof, with the intent to facilitate an illegal gambling business if— "(1) one or more of such persons does any act to effect the object of such a conspiracy; "(2) one or more of such persons is an official or employee, elected, appointed, or otherwise, of such State or political sub- division; and "(3) one or more of such persons conducts, finances, manages, supervises, directs, or owns all or part of an illegal gambfmg business. Definitions. " ( b ) As used lu this section— "(1) 'illegal gambling business' means a gambling business which— "(i) is a violation of the law of a State or political sub- division in which it is conducted; "(ii) involves five or more persons who conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of such busi- ness: and
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 937 "(iii) has been or remains in substantially continuous operation for a period in excess of thirty days or has a gross revenue of $2,000 in any single day. "(2) '^amblin^' includes but is not limited to pool-selling, bookmaking, maintaining slot machines, roulette wlieels, or dice tables, and conducting lotteries, policy, bolita or numbers games, or selling chances therein. "(3) 'State' means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any terri- tory or possession of the United States. "(c) This section shall not apply to any bingo game, lottery, or similar game of chance conducted by an organization exempt from tax under paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, if no part of the gross ^SA stat. i63. receipts derived from such activity inures to the benefit of any pri- °^* vate shareholder, member, or employee of such organization, except as compensation for actual expenses incurred by him in the conduct of such activity. " ( d ) Whoever violates this section shall be punished by a fine of P^^^ity. not more than $20,000 or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both." (b) The analysis of chapter 73, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new item: "1511. Obstruction of State or local law enforcement." PART C—ILLEGAL GAMBLING BUSINESS SEC. 803. (a) Chapter 95, title 18, United States Code, is amended by ^/^^^tat. 793; adding at the end thereof the following new section: 76 stat! 42?' ^^^' "§ 1955. Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses 1954. " ( a ) Whoever conducts, finances, manages, supervises, directs, or Penalty. owns all or part of an illegal gambling business shall be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. " (b) As used in this section— Definitions. "(1) 'illegal gambling business' means a gambling business which— " (i) is a violation of the law of a State or political subdivi- sion in which it is conducted; "(ii) involves five or more persons who conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of such business; and "(iii) has been or remains in substantially continuous oper- ation for a period in excess of thirty days or has a gross rev- enue of $2,000 in any single day. "(2) 'gambling' includes but is not limited to pool-selling, book- making, maintaining slot machines, roulette wheels or dice tables, and conducting lotteries, policy, bolita or numbers games, or sell- ing chances therein. "(3) 'State' means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. "(c) If five or more persons conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of a gambling business and such business operates for two or more successive days, then, for the purpose of obtaining warrants for arrests, interceptions, and other searches and seizures, probable cause that the business receives gross revenue in excess of $2,000 in any single day shall be deemed to have been established.
938 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. Seizure and " ( d ) Any property, including money, used in violation of the pro- forfeiture. visions of this section may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to the seizure, summary, and judicial forfeiture procedures, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, mer- chandise, and baggage for violation of the customs laws; the disposi- tion of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from such sale; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims and the award of comjjensation to informer^ in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred or alleged to have been incurred under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with such provisions. Such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person in respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property used or intended for use in violation of this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the Attorney General. Exception. "(e) This section shall not apply to any bingo game, lottery, or simi- lar game of chance conducted by an organization exempt from tax under paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal 68A Stat. 163. Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, if no part of the gross receipts 26 u s e 5 0 1 . derived from such activity inures to the benefit of any private share- holder, member, or employee of such organization except as compensa- tion for actual expenses incurred by him in the conduct of such activity." (b) The analysis of chapter 95, title 18, United States Code, is amended by addmg at the end thereof the following new item: '•1955. Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses." PART D—COMMISSION To EEVIEW NATIONAL POLICY TOWARD GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT SEC. 804. (a) There is hereby established two years after the effective date of this Act a Commission on the Review of the National Policy Toward Gambling. Members, (b) The Commission shall be composed of fifteen members appointed appointments. as follows: (1) four appointed by the President of the Senate from Mem- bers of the Senate, of whom tw^o shall be members of the majority party, and two shall be members of the minority party; (2) four appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- tives from Members of the House of Representatives, of whom two shall be members of the majority party, and two shall be mem- bers of the minority party; and (3) seven appointed by the President of the United States from persons specially qualified by training and experience to perform the duties of the Commission, none of whom shall be officers of the executive branch of the Government. (c) The President of the United States shall designate a Chairman from among the members of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made. Quorum. (d) Eight members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 939 DUTIES SEC. 805. (a) I t shall be the duty of the Commission to conduct a Gambling, study and review. comprehensive legal and factual study of gambling in the United States and existing Federal, State, and local policy and practices with respect to legal prohibition and taxation of gambling activities and to formulate and propose such changes in those policies and practices as the Commission may deem appropriate. In such study and review the Commission shall— Law enforce- (1) review the effectiveness of existing practices in law enforce- ment. ment, judicial administration, and corrections in the United States and in foreign legal jurisdictions for the enforcement of the prohibition and taxation of gambling activities and consider possible alternatives to such practices; and (2) prepare a study of existing statutes of the United States Legislation. that prohibit and tax gambling activities, and such a codification, revision, or repeal thereof as the Commission shall determine to be required to carry into effect such policy and practice changes as it may deem to be necessary or desirable. (b) The Commission shall make such interim reports as it deems Reports to P r e s i d e n t and advisable. I t shall make a final report of its findings and recommenda- Congress. tions to the President of the United States and to the Congress within the four-year period following the establishment of the Commission. (c) Sixty days after the submission of its final report, the Commis- Termination, sion shall cease to exist. POWERS Hearings, SEC. 806. (a) The Commission or any duly authorized subcommit- subpena p o w e r s . tee or member thereof may, for the purpose of carrying out the pro- visions of this title, hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, administer such oaths, and require by subpena or otherwise the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memorandums, papers, and doc- uments as the Commission or such subcommittee or meml)er may deem advisable. Any member of the Commission may administer oaths or affirmations to witnesses appearing before the Commission or before such subcommittee or member. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the C^hairman or any duly designated member of the Commission, and may be served by any person designated by the Chairman or such member. Court order (b) In the case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued requiring attend- under subsection (a) by any person who resides, is found, or trans- ance. acts business within the jurisdiction of any district court of the United States, the district court, at the request of the Chairman of the Commission, shall have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear before the Commission or a subcommittee or member thereof, there to produce evidence if so ordered, or there to give testimony touching the matter under inquiry. Any failure of any such person to obey any such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. (c) The Commission shall be "an agency of the United States" under subsection (1), section 6001, title 18, United States Code, for the Ante, p . 926. purpose of granting immunity to witnesses. F e d e r a l and (d) Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the executive State information branch of the Government including independent agencies, is author- services. ized and directed to furnish to the Commission, upon request made by the Chairman, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, such statistical
940 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. data, reports, and other information as the Commission deems neces- sary to carry out its functions under this title. The Chairman is further authorized to call upon the departments, agencies, and other offices of the several States to furnish, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, such statistical data, reports, and other information as the Commission deems necessary to carry out its functions under this title. C O M P E N S A T I O N A N D E X E M P T I O N OF M E M B E R S SEC. 807. (a) A member of the Commission who is a Member of Congress or a member of the Federal judiciary shall serve without additional compensation, but shall be reimbursed for travel, sub- sistence, and other necessary expenses incurred in the performance of duties vested in the Commission. (b) A member of the Commission who is not a member of Con- gress or a member of the Federal judiciary shall receive $100 per diem when engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Commission plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred in the performance of such duties. STAFF SEC. 808. (a) Subject to such rules and regulations as may be adopted by the Commission, the Chairman shall have the power to— (1) appoint and fix the compensation of an Executive Direc- tor, and such additional staff personnel as he deems necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter I I I of 80 Stat. 443, chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General 467. 5 u s e 5101, Schedule pay rates, but at rates not in excess of the maximum 5331. rate for GS-18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of Ante, p,, 198-•1 such title; and (2) procure temporary and intermittent services to the same extent as is authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States 80 Stat. 416. Code, but at rates not to exceed $100 a day for individuals. (b) I n making appointments pursuant to this subsection, the Chair- man shall include among his appointments individuals determined by the Chairman to be competent social scientists, lawyers, and law enforcement officers. EXPENSES Appropriation. SEC. 809. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Commission such sums as may be necessary to carry this title into effect. PART E — G E N E R A L PROVISIONS SEC. 810. Paragraph ( c ) , subsection (1), Section 2516, title 18, 82 Stat. 216. United States Code, is amended by adding "section 1511 (obstruction of State or local law enforcement)," after "section 1510 (obstruction of criminal investigations)," and by adding "section 1955 (prohibition of business enterprises of gambling)," after "section 1954 (offer, acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan),". State l a w s , SEC. 811. No provision of this title indicates an intent on the part priority. of the Congress to occupy the field in which such provision operates to the exclusion of the law of a State or possession, or a political sub- division of a State or possession, on the same subject matter, or to relieve any person of any obligation imposed by any law of any State or possession, or political subdivision of a State or possession.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 941 ^TLE IX—RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS SEC. 901. (a) Title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding immediately after chapter 95 thereof the following new chapter: ^^ stat. 683. "Chapter 96.—RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS "Sec. "1961. Definitions. "1962. Prohibited racketeering activities. "1963. Criminal penalties. "1964. Civil remedies. "1965. Venue and process. "1966. Expedition of actions. "1967. Evidence. "1968. Civil investigative demand. "§ 1961. Definitions "As used in this chapter— " (1) 'racketeering activity' means (A) any act or threat involv- ing murder, kidnaping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extor- tion, or dealing in narcotic or other dangerous drugs, which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; (B) any act which is indictable unxier any of the following provisions of title 18, United States Code: Section 201 (relating to bribery), section 224 (relating to sports bribery), ^e stat. 1119. sections 471, 472, and 473, relating to counterfeiting), section 659 H |tat! 705." (relating to theft from interstate shipment) if the act indictable so stat. 904. under section 659 is felonious, section 664 (relating to embezzle- '^^ s*^'- ^^^ ment from pension and welfare funds), sections 891-894 (relating ^^ ^*^*- ^^°- to extortionate credit transactions) j section 1084 (relating to the ^^ ^*^*- '^^^^ transmission of gambling information), section 1341 (relating to ^2 stat. 753. mail fraud), section 1343 (relating to wire fraud), section 1503 VI |*^*- 523. (relating to obstruction of justice), section 1510 (relating to si stat! 352! obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (relating to ^f^te, p. 936, the obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1951 62 stat. 793. (relating to interference with commerce, robbery, or extortion), section 1952 (relating to racketeering), section 1953 (relating to ^ ^ ^*^'- '^^^• interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia), section 1954 (relating to unlawful welfare fund payments), section 1955 ^nfj®*" I37 (relating to the prohibition of illegal gambling businesses), sec- " ^' P- tions 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen ^2 stat. soe. property), sections 2421-24 (relating to white slave traffic), (C) any act which is indictable under title 29, United States Code, section 186 (dealing with restrictions on pavments and loans to ^^ s*^*- ^57; labor organizations) or section 501(c) (relating to embezzlement 73 Stat. 5 3 7 , 5 3 5 . from union funds), or (D) any offense involving bankruptcy fraud, fraud in the sale of securities, or the felonious manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States; " (2) 'State' means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof; "(3) 'person' includes any individual or entity capable of hold- ing a legal or beneficial interest in property; "(4) 'enterprise' includes any individual, partnership, corpora- tion, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity;
942 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15,1970 [84 STAT. "(5) 'pattern of racketeering activity' requires at least two acta of racketeering activity, one of which occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of which occurred within ten years (excluding any period of imprisonment) after the commission of a prior act of racketeering activity; " (6) 'unlawful debt' means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gam- bling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or politi- cal subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate; "(7) 'racketeering investigator' means any attorney or investi- gator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter; "(8) 'racketeering investigation' means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter; "(9) 'documentary material' includes any book, paper, docu- ment, record, recording, or other material; and "(10) 'Attorney General' includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. Any department or agency so designated may use in investigations authorized by this chapter either the investigative provisions of this chapter or the investiga- tive power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law. "§ 1962. Prohibited activities " ( a ) I t shall be unlawful for any person who has received any income derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt in which such person has participated as a principal within the meaning of section 2, title 18, 65 Stat. 717. United States Code, to use or invest, directly or indirectly, any part of such income, or the proceeds of such income, in acquisition of any interest in, or the establishment or operation of, any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce. A purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so, shall not be unlawful under this subsection if the securities of the issuer held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any pattern or racketeering activity or the collec- tion of an unlawful debt after such purchase do not amount in the aggregate to one percent of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer. "(b) It shall be unlawful for any person through a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 943 of any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce. "(c) I t shall be unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise engaged in, or the activities of which affect, inter- state or foreign commerce, to conduct or participate, directly or indi- rectly, in the conduct of such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering activity or collection of unlawful debt. " ( d ) I t shall be unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of tne provisions of subsections ( a ) , ( b ) , or (c) of this section. "§ 1963. Criminal penalties " ( a ) Whoever violates any provision of section 1962 of this chapter shall be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned not more than, twenty years, or both, and shall forfeit to the United States (1) any interest he has acquired or maintained in violation of section 1962, and (2) any interest in, security of, claim against, or property or con- tractual right of any kind affording a source of influence over, any enterprise which he has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of section 1962. " ( b ) I n any action brought by the United Sta,tes under this section, . court restrain- T• • * ^^ itiGT o r Q c r s the district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to enter such restraining orders or prohibitions, or to take such other actions, including, but not limited to, the acceptance of satisfactory perform- ance bonds, in connection with any property or other interest subject to forfeiture under this section, as it shall deem proper. " (c) Upon conviction of a person under this section, the court shall „ P''°perty, j-1 • ! * /^ 1 • I t 1 • s e i z u r e and dis- authorize the Attorney Ueneral to seize all property or other interest position. declared forfeited under this section upon such terms and conditions as the court shall deem proper. If a property right or other interest is not exercisable or transferable for value by the United States, it shall expire, and shall not revert to the convicted person. All provi- sions of law relating to the disposition of property, or the proceeds from the sale thereof, or the remission or mitigation of forfeitures for violation of the customs laws, and the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions hereof. Such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person with respect to the disposition of property under the customs laws shall be performed under this chapter by the Attorney General. The United States shall dispose of all such property as soon as commercially feasible, making due provision for the rights of innocent persons. "§ 1964. Civil remedies " ( a ) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdic- Jurisdiction. tion to prevent and restrain violations of section 1962 of this chapter by issuing appropriate orders, including, but not limited to: ordering any person to divest himself of any interest, direct or indirect, in any enterprise; imposing reasonable restrictions on the future activities or investments of any person, including, but not limited to, prohibit- ing any person from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise engaged in, the activities of which affect interstate or for- eign commerce; or ordering dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise, making due provision for the rights of innocent persons. "(b) The Attorney General may institute proceedings under this section. I n any action brought by the United States under this section, the court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination thereof. Pending final determination thereof, the court may at any time enter such restraining orders or prohibitions, or take
944 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. such other actions, mcluding the acceptance of satisfactory perform- ance bonds, as it shall deem proper. "(c) Any person injured in his business or property by reason of a violation of section 1962 of this chapter may sue therefor in any appropriate United States district court and shall recover threefold the damages he sustains and the cost of the suit, including a reason- able attorney's fee. " ( d ) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the United States in any criminal proceeding brought by the United States under this chapter shall estop the defendant from denying the essen- tial allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil pro- ceeding brought by the United States. "§ 1965. Venue and process " ( a ) Any civil action or proceeding under this chapter against any person may be instituted in the district court of the United States for any district in which such person resides, is found, has an agent, or transacts his affairs. " ( b ) In any action under section 1964 of this chapter in any dis- trict court of the United States in which it is shown that the ends of justice require that other parties residing in any other district be brought before the court, the court may cause such parties to be summoned, and process for that purpose may be served in any judicial district of the United States by the marshal thereof. "(c) In any civil or criminal action or proceeding instituted by the United States under this chapter in the district court of the United States for any judicial district, subpenas issued by such court to compel the attendance of witnesses may bs served in any other judi- cial district, except that in any civil action or proceeding no such sub- pena shall be issued for service upon any individual who resides in another district at a place more than one hundred miles from the place at which such court is held without approval given by a judge of such court upon a showing of good cause. " ( d ) All other process in any action or proceeding under this chapter may be served on any person in any judicial district in which such person resides, is found, has an agent, or transacts his affairs. ''§ 1966. Expedition of actions "In any civil action instituted under this chapter by the United States in any district court of the United States, the Attorney General may file with the clerk of such court a certificate stating that in his opinion the case is of general public importance. A copy of that cer- tificate shall be furnished immediately by such clerk to the chief judge or in his absence to the presiding district judge of the district in which such action is pending. Upon receipt of such copy, such judge shall designate immediately a judge of that district to hear and determine action. The judge so designated shall assign such action for hearing as soon as practicable, participate in the hearings and determination thereof, and cause such action to be expedited in every way. "§1967. Evidence " I n any proceeding ancillary to or in any civil action instituted by the United States under this chapter the proceedings may be open or closed to the public at the discretion of the court after consideration of the rights of affected persons. "§ 1968. Civil investigative demand " (a) Whenever the Attorney General has reason to believe that any person or enterprise may be in possession, custody, or control of any documentary materials relevant to a racketeering investigation, he may, prior to the institution of a civil or criminal proceeding thereon,
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 945 issue in writing, and cause to be served upon such person, a civil investigative demand requiring such person to produce such material for examination. " ( b ) Each such demand shall— "(1) state the nature of the conduct constituting the alleged racketeering violation which is under investigation and the provi- sion of law applicable thereto; "(2) describe the class or classes of documentary material pro- duced thereunder with such definiteness and certainty as to permit such material to be fairly identified; " (3) state that the demand is returnable forthwith or prescribe a return date which will provide a reasonable period of time within which the material so demanded may be assembled and made available for inspection and copying or reproduction; and "(4) identify the custodian to whom such material shall be made available. " (c) No such demand shall— " (1) contain any requirement which would be held to be unrea- sonable if contained in a subpena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States in aid of a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation; or "(2) require the production of any documentary evidence which would be privileged from disclosure if demanded by a sub- pena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States in aid of a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation. " ( d ) Service of any such demand or any petition filed under this section may be made upon a person by— "(1) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to any partner, executive officer, managing agent, or general agent thereof, or to any agent thereof authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process on behalf of such person, or upon any individual person; "(2) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to the principal office or place of business of the person to be served; or "(3) depositing such copy in the United States mail, by reg- istered or certified mail duly addressed to such person at its prin- cipal office or place of business. "(e) A verified return by the individual serving any such demand or petition setting forth the manner of such service shall be prima facie proof of such service. In the case of service by registered or certified mail, such return shall be accompanied by the return post office receipt of delivery of such demand. " ( f ) ( 1 ) The Attorney General shall designate a racketeering investigator to serve as racketeer document custodian, and such addi- tional racketeering investigators as he shall determine from time to time to be necessary to serve as deputies to such officer. "(2) Any person upon whom any demand issued under this section has been duly served shall make such material available for inspec- tion and copying or reproduction to the custodian designated therein at the principal place of business of such person, or at such other place as such custodian and such person thereafter may agree and prescribe in writing or as the court may direct, pursuant to this sec- tion on the return date specified in such demand, or on such later date as such custodian may prescribe in writing. Such person may upon written agreement between such person and the custodian substitute for copies of all or any part of such material originals thereof. "(3) The custodian to whom any documentary material is so deliv- ered shall take physical possession thereof, and shall be responsi- ble for the use made thereof and for the return thereof pursuant to
946 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. this chapter. The custodian may cause the preparation of such copies of such documentary material as may be required for official use under regulations which shall be promulgated by the Attorney General. While in the possession of the custodian, no material so produced shall be available for examination, without the consent of the person who produced such material, by any individual other than the Attorney General. Under such reasonable terms and conditions as the Attorney General shall prescribe, documentary material while in the possession of the custodian shall be available for examination by the person who produced such material or any duly authorized representatives of such person. " (4) Whenever any attorney has been designated to appear on behalf of the United States before any court or grand jury in any case or proceeding involving any alleged violation of this chapt^er, the custodian may deliver to such attorney such documentary material in the possession of the custodian as such attorney determines to be required for use in the presentation of such case or proceeding on behalf of the United States. Upon the conclusion of any such case or proceed- ing, such attorney shall return to the custodian any documentary mate- rial so withdrawn which has not passed into the control of such court or grand jury through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding. "(5) Upon the completion of— " (i) the racketeering investigation for which any documentary material was produced under this chapter, and "(ii) any case or proceeding arising from such investigation, the custodian shall return to the person who produced such material all such material other than copies thereof made by the Attorney General pursuant to this subsection which has not passed into the control of any court or grand jury through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding. "(6) When any documentary material has been produced by any person under this section for use in any racketeering investigation, and no such case or proceeding arising therefrom has been instituted within a reasonable time after completion of the examination and analysis of all evidence assembled in the course of such investiga- tion, such person shall be entitled, upon written demand made upon the Attorney General, to the return of all documentary material other than copies thereof made pursuant to this subsection so produced by such person. " (7) I n the event of the death, disability, or separation from serv- ice of the custodian of any documentary material produced under any demand issued under this section or the official relief of such custodian from responsibility for the custody and control of such material, the Attorney General shall promptly— " ( i ) designate another racketeering investigator to serve as custodian thereof, and "(ii) transmit notice in writing to the person who produced such material as to the identity and address of the successor so designated. Any successor so designated shall have with regard to such materials all duties and responsibilities imposed by this section upon his pred- ecessor in office with regard thereto, except that he shall not be held responsible for any default or dereliction which occurred before his designation as custodian. " ( g ) Whenever any person fails to comply with any civil investi- gative demand duly served upon him under this section or whenever satisfactory copying or reproduction of any such material cannot be done and such person refuses to surrender such material, the Attorney General may file, in the district court of the United States for any
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 947 judicial district in which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve upon such person a petition for an order of such * court for the enforcement of this section, except that if such person transacts business in more than one such district such petition shall be filed in the district in which such person maintains his principal place of business, or in such other district in which such person transacts business as may be agreed upon by the parties to such petition. " ( h ) Within tw^enty days after the service of any such demand upon any person, or at any time before the return date specified in the demand, whichever period is shorter, such person may file, in the dis- trict court of the United States for the judicial district within which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve upon such custodian a petition for an order of such cour't modifying or setting aside such demand. The time allowed for compliance with the demand in Avhole or in part as deemed proper and ordered by the court shall not run during the pendency of such petition in the court. Such petition shall specify each ground upon which the petitioner relies in seeking such relief, and may be based upon any failure of such demand to com- ply with the provisions of this section or upon any constitutional or other legal right or privilege of such person. " ( i ) At any time during which any custodian is in custody or con- trol of any documentary material delivered by any person in com- pliance with any such demand, such person may file, in the district court of the L^nited States for the judicial district within which the office of such custodian is situated, and serve upon such custodian a petition for an order of such court requiring the performance by such custodian of any duty imposed upon him by this section. "(j) Whenever any petition is filed in any district court of the United States under this section, such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter so presented, and to enter such order or orders as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this section." (b) The table of contents of part I , title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding immediately after "95. Racketeering 1951" the following new item: "96. Racketeer Inflvienced and Corrupt Organizations 1961" SEC. 902. (a) Paragraph (c), subsection (1), section 2516, title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting at the end thereof between 82 stat. 216. the parenthesis and the semicolon ", section 1963 (violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations)". (b) Subsection (3), section 2517, title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking "criminal proceedings in any court of the United States or of any State or in any Federal or State grand jury pro- ceeding" and inserting in lieu thereof "proceeding held under the authority of the United States or of any State or political subdivision thereof". SEC. 903. The third paragraph, section 1505, title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting "or section 1968 of this title" after 76 stat. 551. "Act" and before "willfully". SEC. 904. (a) The provisions of this title shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes. (b) Nothing in this title shall supersede any provision of Federal, Federal and State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil rem- prrority."^^' edies in addition to those provided for in this title. (c) Nothing contained in this title shall impair the authority of any attorney representing the United States to— (1) lay before any grand jury impaneled by any district court of
948 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. the United States any evidence concerning any alleged racketeer- ing violation of law; (2) invoke the power of any such court to compel the production of any evidence before any such grand jury; or (3) institute any proceeding to enforce any order or process issued in execution of such power or to punish disobedience of any such order or process by any person. TITLE X—DANGEROUS SPECIAL OFFENDER SENTENCING 62 Stat. 837. SEC. 1001. (a) Chapter 227, title 18, United States Code, is amended 3574.^^^ ^^^^' ^y adding at the end thereof the following new sections: *'§ 3575. Increased sentence for dangerous special offenders " ( a ) Whenever an attorney charged with the prosecution of a defendant in a court of the United States for an alleged felony com- mitted when the defendant was over the age of twenty-one years has reason to believe that the defendant is a dangerous special offender such attorney, a reasonable time before trial or acceptance by the court of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, may sign and file with the court, and may amend, a notice (1) specifying that the defendant is a dan- gerous special offender who upon conviction for such felony is subject to the imposition of a sentence under subsection (b) of this section, and (2) setting out with particularity the reasons why such attorney believes the defendant to be a dangerous special offender. In no case shall the fact that the defendant is alleged to be a dangerous special offender be an issue upon the trial of such felony, be disclosed to the jury, or be disclosed before any plea of guiltj^ or nolo contendere or verdict or finding of guilty to the presiding judge without the con- sent of the parties. If the court finds that the filing of the notice as a public record may prejudice fair consideration of a pending criminal matter, it may order the notice sealed and the notice shall not be subject to subpena or public inspection during the pendency of such criminal matter, except on order of the court, but shall be subject to inspection by the defendant alleged to be a dangerous special offender and his counsel. " (b) Upon any plea of guilty or nolo contendere or verdict or find- ing of guilty of the defendant of such felony, a hearing shall be held, before sentence is imposed, by the court sitting without a jury. The court shall fix a time for the hearing, and notice thereof shall be given to the defendant and the United States at least ten days prior thereto. The court shall permit the United States and counsel for the defend- ant, or the defendant if he is not represented by counsel, to inspect the presentence report sufficiently prior to the hearing as to afford a reasonable opportunity for verification. I n extraordinary cases, the court may withhold material not relevant to a proper sentence, diagnostic opinion which might seriously disrupt a program of reha- bilitation, any source of information obtained on a promise of con- fidentiality, and material previously disclosed in open court. A court withholding all or part of a presentence report shall inform the parties of its action and place in the record the reasons therefor. The court may require parties inspecting all or part of a presentence report to give notice of any part thereof intended to be controverted. I n connection with the hearing, the defendant and the United States shall be entitled to assistance of counsel, compulsory process, and cross-examination of such witnesses as appear at the hearing. A duly authenticated copy of a former judgment or commitment shall hie prima facie evidence of such former judgment or commitment. If it
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 949 appears by a preponderance of the information, including informa- tion submitted during the trial of such felony and the sentencing hearing and so much of the presentence report as the court relies upon, that the defendant is a dangerous special offender, the court shall sentence the defendant to imprisonment for an appropriate term not to exceed twenty-five years and not disproportionate in severity to the maximum term otherwise authorized by law for such felony. Otherwise it shall sentence the defendant in accordance with the law prescribing penalties for such felony. The court shall place in the record its findings, including an identification of the informa- tion relied upon in making such findings, and its reasons for the sentence imposed. " (c) This section shall not prevent the imposition and execution of a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or for a term exceeding twenty-five years upon any person convicted of an offense so punishable. " ( d ) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the court shall not sentence a dangerous special offender to less than any manda- tory minimum penalty prescribed by law for such felony. This section shall not be construed as creating any mandatory minimum penalty. " (e) A defendant is a special offender for purposes of this section if— "(1) the defendant has previously been convicted in courts of the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, the Common- wealth of Puerto Kico, a territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof for two or more offenses committed on occasions different from one another and from such felony and punishable in such courts by death or imprisonment in excess of one year, for one or more of such convictions the defendant has been imprisoned prior to the commission of such felony, and less than five years have elapsed between the commission of such fel- ony and either the defendant's release, on parole or otherwise, from imprisonment for one such conviction or his commission of the last such previous offense or another offense punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year under applicable laws of the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, the Com- monwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency or instrumentality thereof; or "(2) the defendant committed such felony as part of a pattern of conduct which was criminal under applicable laws of any juris- diction, which constituted a substantial source of his income, and in which he manifested special skill or expertise; or "(3) such felony w^as, or the defendant committed such felony in furtherance of, a conspiracy with three or more other persons to engage in a pattern of conduct criminal under applicable laws of any jurisdiction, and the defendant did, or agreed that he would, initiate, organize, plan, finance, direct, manage, or super- vise all or part of such conspiracy or conduct, or give or receive a bribe or use force as all or part of such conduct. A conviction show n on direct or collateral review or at the hearing to be invalid or for which the defendant has been pardoned on the ground of innocence shall be disregarded for purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection. I n support of findings under paragraph (2) of this subsection, it may be shown that the defendant has had in his own name or under his control income or property not explained as derived from a source other than such conduct. For purposes of paragraph (2) of
950 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. this subsection, a substantial source of income means a source of income which for any period of one year or more exceeds the minimum wage, determined on the basis of a forty-hour week and a fifty-week year, without reference to exceptions, under section 6 ( a ) ( 1 ) of the Fair 29 use 206. Labor Standards Act of 1938 (52 Stat. 1602, as amended 80 Stat. 838), and as hereafter amended, for an employee engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, and whicn for the same period exceeds fifty percent of the defendant's declared adjusted gross income under section 62 of the Internal Revenue Act of 1954 (68A Stat. 17, as 26 use 62. amended 83 Stat. 655), and as hereafter amended. For purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection, special skill or expertise in criminal conduct includes unusual knowledge, judgment or ability, including manual dexterity, facilitating the initiation, organizing, planning, financing, direction, management, supervision, execution or conceal- ment of criminal conduct, the enlistment of accomplices in such con- duct, the escape from detection or apprehension for such conduct, or the disposition of the fruits or proceeds of such conduct. For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, criminal conduct forms a pattern if it embraces criminal acts that have the same or similar purposes, results, participants, victims, or methods of commission, or otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics and are not isolated events. "(f) A defendant is dangerous for purposes of this section if a period of confinement longer than that provided for such felony is required for the protection of the public from further criminal conduct by the defendant. " ( g ) The time for taking an appeal from a conviction for which sentence is imj)osed after proceedings under this section shall be measured from imposition of the original sentence. "§ 3576. Review of sentence "With respect to the imposition, correction, or reduction of a sen- tence after proceedings under section 3575 of this chapter, a review of the sentence on the record of the sentencing court may be taken by the defendant or the United States to a court of appeals. Any review of the sentence taken by the United States shall be taken at least five days before expiration of the time for taking a review of the sentence or appeal of the conviction by the defendant and shall be diligently prosecuted. The sentencing court may, with or without motion and notice, extend the time for taking a review of the sentence for a period not to exceed thirty days from the expiration of the time otherwise prescribed by law. The court shall not extend the time for taking a review of the sentence by the United States after the time lias expired. A court extending the time for taking a review of the sentence by the United States shall extend the time for taking a review of the sentence or appeal of the conviction by the defendant for the same period. The taking of a review of the sentence by the United States shall be deemed the taking of a review of the sentence and an appeal of the conviction by the defendant. Review of the sentence shall include review of whether the procedure employed was lawful, the findings made were clearly erroneous, or the sentencing court's discretion was abused. The court of appeals on review of the sentence may, after considering the record, including the entire pre- sentence report, information submitted during the trial of such felony and the sentencing hearing, and the findings and reasons of the sen- tencing court, affirm the sentence, impose or direct the imposition of any sentence which the sentencing court could originally have imposed, or remand for further sentencing proceedings and imposi- tion of sentence, except that a sentence may be made more severe only
184 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 951 on review of the sentence taken by the United States anid after hear- ing. Failure of the United States to take a review of the imposition of the sentence shall, upon review taken by the United States of the cor- rection or reduction of the sentence, foreclose imposition of a sentence more severe than that previously imposed. Any withdrawal or dis- missal of review of the sentence taken by the United States shall foreclose imposition of a sentence more severe than that reviewed but sliall not otherwise foreclose the review of the sentence or the appeal of the conviction. The court of appeals shall state in writing the reasons for its disposition of the review of the sentence. Any review of the sentence taken hj the United States may be dismissed on a showing of abuse of the right of the United States to take such review. "§ 3577. Use of information for sentencing "No limitation shall be placed on the information concerning the background, character, and conduct of a person convicted of an offense which a court of the United States may receive and consider for the purpose of imposing an appropriate sentence. "§ 3578. Conviction records " ( a ) The Attorney General of the United States is authorized to establish in the Department of Justice a repository for records of con- victions and determinations of the validity of such convictions. " ( b ) Upon the conviction thereafter of a defendant in a court of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof for an offense punisnable in such court by death or imprison- ment in excess of one year, or a judicial determination of the validity of such conviction on collateral review, the court shall cause a certi- fied record of the conviction or determination to be made to the reposi- tory in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General of the United States shall by regulation prescribe. "(c) Records maintained in the repository shall not be public records. Certified copies thereof— " (1) may be furnished for law enforcement purposes on request of a court or law enforcement or corrections officer of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof; "(2) may be furnished for law enforcement purposes on request of a court or law enforcement or corrections officer of a State, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, if a statute of such State requires that, upon the conviction of a defendant in a court of the State or any political subdivision thereof for an offense punishable in such court by death or imprisonment in excess of one year, or a judicial determination of the validity of such conviction on collateral review, the court cause a certified record of the conviction or determination to be made to the repository in such form and con- taining such information as the Attorney General of the United States shall by regulation prescribe; and "(3) shall be j>rima facie evidence in any court of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, any politi- cal subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, that the convictions occurred and whether they have been judicially determined to be invalid on collateral review. 47-348 O - 72 - 64 (Pt. 1)
952 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [34 STAT. Hearing notice. " ((J) The Attomey General of the United States shall ^ive reason- able public notice, and afford to interested parties opportunity for hear- ing, prior to prescribing regulations under this section." (b) The analysis of chapter 227, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new items: "3575. Increased sentence for dangerous si)ecial ofiEenders, "3576. Review of sentence. "3577. Use of information for sentencing. "3578. Conviction records." 80 Stat. 215. SEC. 1002. Section 3148, chapter 207, title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding "or sentence review under section 3576 of this title" immediately after "sentence". TITLE XI—REGULATION OF EXPLOSIVES PURPOSE SEC. 1101. The Congress hereby declares that the purpose of this title is to protect interstate and foreign commerce against interfer- ence and interruption by reducing the hazard to persons and property arising from misuse and unsafe or insecure storage of explosive materials. I t is not the purpose of this title to place an^ undue or unnecessary Federal restrictions or burdens on law-abidmg citizens with respect to the accjuisition, possession, storage, or use of explosive materials for industrial, mining, agricultural, or other lawful pur- poses, or to provide for the imposition by Federal regulations of any procedures or requirements other than those reasonably necessary to implement and effectuate the provisions of this title. SEC. 1102. Title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding after r/^tat^s/'sos chapter 39 the following chapter: 18 u s e 831. "Chapter 40.—IMPORTATION, MANUFACTURE, DISTRIBU- TION A N D STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS "Sec. "841. Definitions. "842. Unlawful acts. "843. Licensing and user permits. "844. Penalties. "845. Exceptions; relief from disabilities. "846. Additional powers of the Secretary. "847. Rules and regulations. "848. Effect on State law. "§ 841. Definitions "As used in this chapter— " (a) 'Person' means any individual, corporation, company, asso- ciation, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company. " (b) 'Interstate or foreign commerce' means commerce between any place in a State and any place outside of that State, or within any possession of the United States (not including the Canal Zone) or the District of Columbia, and commerce between places within the same State but through any place outside of that State. 'State' includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not includ- ing the Canal Zone). "(c) 'Explosive materials' means explosives, blasting agents, and detonators. " ( d ) Except for the purposes of subsections ( d ) , (e), ( f ) , ( g ) , ( h ) , (i), and (j) of section 844 of this title, 'explosives' means any chemical compound mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion; the term includes,
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 953 but is not limited to, dynamite and other liigh explosives, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, and igniters. The Sec- Publication in retary shall publish and revise at least annually in the Federal F^'*^'"^^ Register. Register a list of these and any additional explosives which he determines to be within the coverage of this chapter. For the purposes of subsections ( d ) , (e)^ (f), ( g ) , ( h ) , a n d (i) of section 844 of this title, the term 'explosive' is defined in subsection (j) of such section 844. "(e) 'Blasting agent' means any material or mixture, consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting, not otherwise defined as an explosive: Provided^ That the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a numbered 8 test blasting cap when unconfined. "(f) 'Detonator' means any device containing a detonating charge that is used for initiating detonation in an explosive; the term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses and detonating-cord delay connectors. " ( g ) 'Importer' means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing explosive materials into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution. " ( h ) 'Manufacturer' means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing explosive materials for purposes of sale or dis- tribution or for his own use. " ( i ) 'Dealer' means any person engaged in the business of dis- tributing explosive materials at wholesale or retail. " ( j ) 'Permittee' means any user of explosives for a lawful purpose, who has obtained a user permit under the provisions of this chapter. " ( k ) 'Secretary' means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. "(1) 'Crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year' shall not mean (1) any Federal or State offenses per- taining to antitrust violations, unfair trade practices, restraints of trade, or other similar offenses relating to the regulation of business practices as the Secretary may by regulation designate, or (2) any State offense (other than one involving a firearm or explosive) classified by the laws of the State as a misdemeanor and punishable by a term of imprisonment of two years or less. " ( m ) 'Licensee' means any importer, manufacturer, or dealer licensed under the provisions of this chapter. " ( n ) 'Distribute' means sell, issue, give, transfer, or otherwise dispose of. "§ 842. Unlawful acts " (a) I t shall be unlawful for any person— "(1) to engage in the business of importing, manufacturing, or dealing in explosive materials without a license issued under this chapter; "(2) knowingly to withhold information or to make any false or fictitious oral or written statement or to furnish or exhibit any false, fictitious, or misrepresented identification, intended or likely to deceive for the purpose of obtaining explosive mate- rials, or a license, permit, exemption, or relief from disability under the provisions of this chapter; and "(3) other than a licensee or permittee knowingly— " ( A ) to transport, ship, cause to be transported, or re- ceive in interstate or foreign commerce any explosive mate- rials, except that a person who lawfully purchases explosive
954 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. materials from a licensee in a State contiguous to the State in which the purchaser resides may ship, transport, or cause to be transported such explosive materials to the State in which he resides and may receive such explosive materials in the State in which he resides, if such transportation, ship- ment, or receipt is permitted by the law of the State in which he resides; or " ( B ) to distribute explosive materials to any person (other than a licensee or permittee) who the distributor knows or has reasonable cause to believe does not reside in the State in which the distributor resides. " ( b ) I t shall be unlawful for any licensee knowingly to distribute any explosive materials to any person except— "(1) a licensee; "(2) a permittee; or "(3) a resident of the State where distribution is made and in which the licensee is licensed to do business or a State con- tiguous thereto if permitted by the law of the State of the purchaser's residence. "(c) I t shall be unlawful for any licensee to distribute explosive materials to any person who the licensee has reason to believe intends to transport such explosive materials into a State where the purchase, possession, or use of explosive materials is prohibited or which does not permit its residents to transport or ship explosive materials into it or to receive explosive materials in it. " ( d ) I t shall be unlawful for any licensee knowingly to distribute explosive materials to any individual who: "(1) is under twenty-one years of age; "(2) has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year; "(3) is under indictment for a crime punishable by imprison- ment for a term exceeding one year; " (4) is a fugitive from justice; "(5) is an unlawful user of marihuana (as defined in section 68A Stat. 565. 4761 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) or any depressant or 26 u s e 4 7 6 1 . stimulant drug (as defined in section 201 (v) of the Federal Food, 79 Stat. 227; Drug, and Cosmetic Act) or narcotic drug (as defined in section ^\Tuscf2u 4721 (a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) ; or 74 Stat. 57. "(6) has been adjudicated a mental defective. 26 use 4731. «^g^ j ^ shall be unlawful for any licensee knowingly to distribute any explosive materials to any person in any State where the purchase, possession, or use by such person of such explosive materials would be in violation of any State law or any published ordinance applicable at the place of distribution. Record require- u^f^ j ^ sliall be uulawful for auy licensee or permittee willfully to ""*" ^* manufacture, import, purchase, distribute, or receive explosive materials without making such records as the Secretary may by regu- lation require, including, but not limited to, a statement of intended use, the name, date, place of birth, social security number or taxpayer identification number, and place of residence of any natural person to whom explosive materials are distributed. If explosive materials are distributed to a corporation or other business entity, such records shall include the identity and principal and local places of business a7 1 the name, date, place of birth, and place of residence of the natural person acting as agent of the corporation or other business entity in arranging the distribution. " ( g ) I t shall be unlawful for any licensee or permittee knowingly to make any false entry in any record which he is required to keep pursuant to this section or regulations promulgated under section 847 Post. p. 959. of ^i^jg title.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 955 "(li) It shall be unlawful for any person to receive, conceal, trans- port, ship, store, barter, sell, or dispose of any explosive materials knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that such explosive materials were stolen. " ( i ) I t shall be unlawful for any person— "(1) who is under indictment for, or who has been convicted in any court of, a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year; "(2) who is a fugitive from justice; "(3) who is an unlawful user of or addicted to marihuana (as defined in section 4761 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) ^SA stat. ses. or any depressant or stimulant drug (as defined in section 201 (v) ^^ ^^^ '*^^^* of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) or narcotic drug ga^^tat^^'ae^/' (as defined in section 4731(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 21 use 321*. 1954) ; or . I t f,l^^' " ; , "(4) who has been adjudicated as a mental defective or who 26 "' u"""" s e 4731. '""' has been committed to a mental institution; to ship or transport any explosive in interstate or foreign commerce or to receive any explosive which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce. "(j) I t shall be unlawful for any person to store any explosive material in a manner not in conformity with regulations promulgated by the Secretary. In promulgating such regulations, the Secretary shall take into consideration the class, type, and quantity of explosive materials to be stored, as well as the standards of safety and security recognized in the explosives industry. " ( k ) I t shall be unlawful for any person who has knowledge of the theft or loss of any explosive materials from his stock, to fail to report such theft or loss within twenty-four hours of discovery thereof, to the Secretary and to appropriate local authorities. "§ 843. Licenses and user permits " ( a ) An application for a user permit or a license to import, manu- facture, or deal in explosive materials shall be in such form and con- tain such information as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe. Each applicant for a license or permit shall pay a fee to be charged as set by the Secretary, said fee not to exceed $200 for each license or permit. Each license or permit shall be valid for no longer than three years from date of issuance and shall be renewable upon the same con- ditions and subject to the same restrictions as the original license or permit and upon payment of a renewal fee not to exceed one-half of the original fee. " ( b ) Upon the filing of a proper application and payment of the prescribed fee, and subject to the provisions of this chapter and other applicable laws, the Secretary shall issue to such applicant the appro- priate license or permit if— "(1) the applicant (including in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association, any individual possessing, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the corporation, partnership, or association) is not a person to whom the distribution of explosive materials would be unlawful under section 842 (d) of this chapter; "(2) the applicant has not willfully violated any of the pro- visions of this chapter or regulations issued hereunder; "(3) the applicant has in a State premises from which he con- ducts or intends to conduct business; " (4) the applicant has a place of storage for explosive materials which meets such standards of public safety and security against theft as the Secretary by regulations shall prescribe; and
956 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. "(5) the applicant has demonstrated and certified in writing that he is familiar with all published State laws and local ordi- nances relating to explosive materials for the location in which he intends to do business. License "(c) The Secretary shall approve or deny an application within a authority. period of forty-five days beginning on the date such application is received by the Secretary. " ( d ) The Secretary may revoke any license or permit issued under this section if in the opinion of the Secretary the holder thereof has violated any provision of this chapter or any rule or regulation pre- scribed by the Secretary under this chapter, or has become ineligible to acquire explosive materials under section 842(d). The Secretary's action under this subsection may be reviewed only as provided in sub- section (e) (2) of this section. Denial or revo- "(e) (1) Any person whose application is denied or whose license cation, written notice. or permit is revoked shall receive a written notice from the Secretary stating the specific grounds upon which such denial or revocation is based. Any notice of a revocation of a license or permit shall be given to the holder of such license or permit prior to or concurrently with the effective date of the revocation. Judicial review. "(2) If the Secretary denies an application for, or revokes a license, or permit, he shall, upon request by the aggrieved party, promptly hold a hearing to review his denial or revocation. I n the case of a revocation, the Secretary may upon a request of the holder stay the effective date of the revocation. A hearing under this section shall be at a location (Convenient to the aggrieved party. The Secretary shall give written notice of his decision to the aggrieved party within a reasonable time after the hearing. The aggrieved part}^ may, within sixty days after receipt of the Secretary's written decision, file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the district in which he resides or has his principal place of business for a judicial review of such denial or revocation, pursuant to sections 701-706 of title 5, United States 80 Stat. 392. Code. Records, "(f) Licensees and permittees shall make available for inspection availability. at all reasonable times their records kept pursuant to this chapter or the regulations issued hereunder, and shall submit to the Secretary such reports and information with respect to such records and the contents thereof as he shall by regulations prescribe. The Secretary may enter during business hours the premises (including places of storage) of any licensee or permittee, for the purpose of inspecting or examining (1) any records or documents required to be kept by such licensee or permittee, under the provisions of this chapter or regulations issued hereunder, and (2) any explosive materials kept or stored by such licensee or permittee at such premises. Upon the request of any State or any political subdivision thereof, the Secretary may make available to such State or any political subdivision thereof, any information which he may obtain by reason of the provisions of this chapter with respect to the identification of persons within such State or political subdivision thereof, who have purchased or received explosive materials, together with a description of such explosive materials. " ( g ) Licenses and permits issued under the provisions of subsec- tion (b) of this section shall be kept posted and kept available for inspection on the premises covered by the license and permit. "§ 844. Penalties " ( a ) Any person who violates subsections (a) through (i) of sec- tion 842 of this chapter shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 957 "(b) Any person who violates any otlier provision of section 842 Ante, p. 953. of this chapter shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. "(c) Any explosive materials involved or used or intended to be used in any violation of the provisions of this chapter or any other rule or regulation promulgated thereunder or any violation of any criminal law of the United States shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and disposition of firearms, as defined in section 5845 (a) of that Code, shall, so far as applicable, extend to seizures and 82 stat. 1230. forfeitures under the provisions of this chapter. 26^ ' u s"^e 5845. °'" " ( d ) Whoever transports or receives, or attempts to transport or receive, in interstate or foreign commerce any explosive with the knowledge or intent that it will be used to kill, injure, or intimidate any individual or unlawfully to damage or destroy any building, vehicle, or other real or personal property, shall be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or fined not more than $10,000, or both; and if personal injury results shall be imprisoned for not more than twenty years or fined not more than $20,000, or both; and if death results, shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years, or to the death penalty or to life imprisonment as provided in section 34 of this title, '^o stat. 540. "(e) Whoever, through the use of the mail, telephone, telegraph, 18 u s e 34. or other instrument of commerce, willfully makes any threat, or maliciously conveys false information knowing the same to be false, concerning an attempt or alleged attempt being made, or to be made, to kill, injure, or intimidate any individual or unlawfully to damage or destroy any building, vehicle, or other real or personal property by means of an explosive shall be imprisoned for not more than five years or fined not more than $5,000, or both. "(f) Whoever maliciously damages or destroys, or attempts to damage or destroy, by means of an explosive, any building, vehicle, or other personal or real property in whole or in part owned, pos- sessed, or used by, or leased to, the United States, any department or agency thereof, or any institution or organization receiving Federal financial assistance shall be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or fined not more than $10,000, or both; and if personal injury results shall be imprisoned for not more than twenty years, or fined not more than $20,000, or both; and if death results shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years, or to the death penalty or to life imprisonment as provided in section 34 of this title. " ( g ) Whoever possesses an explosive in any building in whole or in part owned, possessed, or used by, or leased to, the United States or any department or agency thereof, except with the written consent of the agency, department, or other person responsible for the man- agement of such building, shall be imprisoned for not more than one year, or fined not more than $1,000, or both. " ( h ) Whoever— "(1) uses an explosive to commit any felony which may be prosecuted in a court of the United States, or "(2) carries an explosive unlawfully during the commission of any felony which may be prosecuted in a court of the L^nited States, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than ten years. I n the case of his second or subsequent con- viction under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not less than five years nor more than twenty-five years, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not suspend the sentence of such person or give him a probationary sentence.
958 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. " ( i ) Whoever maliciously damages or destroys, or attempts to dam- age or destroy, by means of an exj)losive, any building, vehicle, or other real or personal property used in interstate or foreign commerce or in any activity affecting interstate or foreign commerce shall be imprisoned for not more than ten years or fined not more than $10,000, or both; and if personal injury results shall be imprisoned for not more than twenty years or fined not more than $20,000, or both; and if death results shall also be subject to imprisonment for any term of years, or to the death penalty or to life imprisonment as provided in section 34 of this title. "(j) For the purposes of subsections ( d ) , (e), ( f ) , ( g ) , ( h ) , a n d (i) "Explosive." of this section, the term 'explosive' means gunpowders, powders used for blasting, all forms of high explosives, blasting materials, fuzes (other than electric circuit breakers), detonators, and other detonating agents, smokeless powders, other explosive or incendiary devices ^82 Stat. 91. within the meaning of paragraph (5) of section 232 of this title, and 18 uT ,o Tsoeo 232. oco ^^^ chemical compounds,^ mechanical mixture, or device that contains any oxidizing and combustible units, or other ingredients, in such pro- portions, quantities, or packing that ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonation of the compound, mixture, or device or any part thereof may cause an explosion. "§ 845. Exceptions; relief from disabilities "(a) Except in the case of subsections ( d ) , (e), (f), ( g ) , ( h ) , and (i) of section 844 of this title, this chapter shall not apply t o : "(1) any aspect of the transportation of explosive materials via railroad, water, highway, or air which are regulated by the United States Department of Transportation and agencies there- of; "(2) the use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Phar- macopeia, or the National Formulary; "(3) the transportation, shipment, receipt, or importation of explosive materials for delivery to any agency of the United States or to any State or political subdivision thereof; "(4) small arms ammunition and components thereof; "(5) black powder in quantities not to exceed five pounds; and "(6) the manufacture under the regulation of the military department of the United States of explosive materials for, or their distribution to or storage or possession by the military or naval services or other agencies of the United States; or to arsenals, navy yards, depots, or other establishments owned by, or operated by or on behalf of, the United States. " (b) A person who had been indicted for or convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year may make application to the Secretary for relief from the disabilities imposed by this chapter with respect to engaging in the business of importing, manufacturing, or dealing in explosive materials, or the purchase of explosive materials, and incurred by reason of such indictment or con- viction, and the Secretary may grant such relief if it is established to his satisfaction that the circumstances regarding the indictment or conviction, and the applicant's record and reputation, are such that the applicant will not be likely to act in a manner dangerous to public safety and that the granting of the relief will not be contrary to the public interest. A licensee or permittee who makes application for relief from the disabilities incurred under this chapter by reason of indictment or conviction, shall not be barred by such indictment or conviction from further operations under his license or permit pending final action on an application for relief filed pursuant to this section.
84 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 959 "§ 846. Additional powers of the Secretary "The Secretary is authorized to inspect the site of any accident, or fire, in which there is reason to believe that explosive materials were involved, in order that if any such incident has been brought about by accidental means, precautions may be taken to prevent similar acci- dents from occurring. I n order to carry out the purpose of this subsec- tion, the Secretary is authorized to enter into or upon any property where explosive materials have been used, are suspected of having been used, or have been found in an otherwise unauthorized location. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as modifying or otherwise affecting in any way the investigative authority of any other Federal agency. I n addition to any other investigatory authority they have with respect to violations of provisions of this chapter, the Attorney General and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, together with the Secretary, shall have authority to conduct investigations with resptect to violations of subsection ( d ) , (e), ( f ) , ( g ) , ( h ) , or (i) of section 844 of this title. "§ 847. Rules and regulations "The administration of this chapter shall be vested in the Secretary. The Secretary may prescribe such rules and regulations as he deems reasonably necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter. The Notice; hearing Secretary shall give reasonable public notice, and afford to interested opportunity. parties opportunity for hearing, prior to prescribing such rules and regulations. "§ 848. Effect on State law "No provision of this chapter shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which such provision operates to the exclusion of the law of any State on the same subject matter, unless there is a direct and positive conflict between such provision and the law of the State so that the two cannot be reconciled or consistently stand together." (b) The title analysis of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting immediately below the item relating to chapter 39 the following: "40. Importation, manufacture, distribution and storage of explosive materials 841". SEC. 1103. Section 2516(1) (c) of title 18, United States Code, is 82 stat. 216. amended by inserting after "section 224 (bribery in sporting con- tests)," the following: "subsection ( d ) , (e), ( f ) , ( g ) , ( h ) , or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives),". SEC. 1104. Nothing in this title shall be construed as modifying or affecting any provision of— (a) The National Firearms Act (chapter 53 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) ; 82 stat. 1227. (b) Section 414 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 (22 U.S.C. ^^ "^^ 5^°'- 1934), as amended, relating to munitions control; ^^ stat. 848, (c) Section 1716 of title 18, United States Code, relating to " ^tat. rsi. nonmailable materials; (d) Sections 831 through 836 of title 18, United States Code; or 68 stat. i70; (e) Chapter 44 of title 18, United States Code. 74 stat. sos. SEC. 1105. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the provisions 82 stat. 1214. of chapter 40 of title 18, United States Code, as enacted by section E«^c^twe^dates. 1102 of this title shall take effect one hundred and twenty days after Ante, p. 952. the date of enactment of this Act. (b) The following sections of chapter 40 of title 18, United States Code, as enacted by section 1102 of this title shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act: sections 841, 844(d), (e), ( f ) , ( g ) , ( h ) , ( i ) , and ( j ) , 845, 846, 847, 848, and 849.
960 PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. (c) Any person (as defined in section 841(a) of title 18, United Ante, p . 952. States Code) engaging in a business or operation requiring a license or permit under the provisions of cliapter 40 of such title 18 who was engaged in such business or operation on the date of enactment of this Act and who has filed an application for a license or permit under the provisions of section 843 of such chapter 40 prior to the effective date of such section 843 may continue such business or operation pending final action on his application. All provisions of such chapter 40 shall apply to such applicant in the same manner and to the same extent as if he were a holder of a license or permit under such chapter 40. SEC. 1106. (a) The Federal Explosives Act of October 6, 1917 (40 55 Stat. 8 6 3 . Stat. 385, as amended; 50 U.S.C. 121-143), and as extended by Act of July 1, 1948 (40 Stat. 671; 50 U.S.C. 144), and all regulations adopted thereunder are hereby repealed. Repeal. (b) (1) Section 837 of title 18 of the United States Code is repealed. 74 Stat. 8 7 . (2) The item relating to such section 837 in the chapter analysis of chapter 39 of such title 18 is repealed. Appropriation. SEC. 1107. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this title. T I T L E X I I — N A T I O N A L COMMISSION ON INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS SEC. 1201. There is hereby established the National Commission on Individual Eights (hereinafter in this title referred to as the "Commission"). Members, SEC. 1202. The Commission shall be composed of fifteen members appointment. appointed as follows: (1) four appointed by the President of the Senate from Mem- bers of the Senate; (2) four appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- tives from Members of the House of Representatives; and (3) seven appointed by the President of the United States from all segments of life in the United States, including but not limited to lawyers, jurists, and policemen, none of whom shall be officers of the executive branch of the Government. SEC. 1203. The President of the United States shall designate a Chairman from among the members of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made. SEC. 1204. I t shall be the duty of the Commission to conduct a comprehensive study and review of Federal laws and practices relating to special grand juries authorized under chapter 216 of title 18, United Ante, p . 9 2 3 . States Code, dangerous special offender sentencing under section 3575 Ante, p . 9 4 8 . of title 18, United States Code, wiretapping and electronic surveil- lance, bail reform and preventive dentention, no-knock search war- rants, and the accumulation of data on individuals by Federal agencies as authorized by law or acquired by executive action. The Commission may also consider other Federal laws and practices which in its opinion may infringe upon the individual rights of the people of the United States. The Commission shall determine which laws and practices are needed, which are effective, and whether they infringe upon the individual rights of the people of the United States. SEC. 1205. (a) Subject to such rules and regulations as may be adopted by the Commission, the Chairman shall have the power to— (1) appoint and fix the compensation of an Executive Direc- tor, and such additional staff personnel as he deems necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code,
84 STAT.] PUBLIC LAW 91-452-OCT. 15, 1970 %1 governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter I I I of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General 80 Stat. 443, Schedule pay rates, but at rates not m excess of the maximum rate 467. 5 u s e 5101, for GS-18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of such 5331. title; and Ante, p. 198-1. (2) procure temporary and intermittent services to the same extent as is authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed $100 a day for individuals, 80 Stat. 416. (b) I n making appointments pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Chairman shall include among his appointment indi- viduals determined by the Chairman to be competent social scientists, lawyers, and law enforcement officers. SEC. 1206. (a) A member of the Commission who is a Member of Travel expenses. Congress shall serve without additional compensation, but shall be reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses in- curred in the performance of duties vested in the Commission. (b) A member of the Commission from private life shall receive $100 per diem when engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Commission, plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred in the performance of such duties. SEC. 1207. Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the Agency cooperation. executive branch of the Government, including independent agencies, is authorized and directed to furnish to the Commission, upon request made by the Chairman, such statistical data, reports, and other infor- mation as the Commission deems necessary to carry out its functions under this title. The Chairman is further authorized to call upon the departments, agencies, and other offices of the several States to furnish such statistical data, reports, and other information as the Commission deems necessary to carry out its functions under this title. SEC. 1208. The Commission shall make interim reports and recom- Reports and mendations as it deems advisable, but at least every two years, and it recommendations to President and shall make a final report of its findings and recommendations to the Congress. President of the United States and to the Congress at the end of six years following the effective date of this section. Sixty days after the submission of the final report, the Commission shall cease to exist. SEC. 1209. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any member of the Commission is exempted, with respect to his appointment, from the operation of sections 203, 205, 207, and 209 of title 18, United States Code. 76 Stat. 1121. (b) The exemption granted by subsection (a) of this section shall not extend— (1) to the receipt of payment of salary in connection with the appointee's Government service from any source other than the private employer of the appointee at the time of his appointment, or (2) during the period of such appointment, to the prosecu- tion, by any person so appointed, of any claim against the Gov- ernment involving any matter with which such person, during such period, is or was directly connected by reason of such appointment. SEC. 1210. The foregoing provisions of this title shall take effect Effective date. on January 1, 1972. SEC. 1211. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as Appropriation. may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title. Repeal. SEC. 1212. Section 804 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (Public Law 90^351; 18 U.S.C. 2510 note) is 82 Stat. 223. repealed.
962 PUBLIC LAW 91-453-OCT. 15, 1970 [84 STAT. TITLE XIII—GENERAL PROVISIONS separability. gEc. 1301. If the provisioHS of Mij part of this Act or the applica- tion thereof to any person or circumstances be held invalid, the pro- visions of the other parts and their application to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby. Approved October 15, 1970. Public Law 91-453 October 15, 1970 AN ACT [S.3154] To provide long-term financing for expanded urban mass transportation programs, and for other purposes. Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the Urban Mass United States of America in Congress assembled^ That the Congress Transportation A s s i s t a n c e Act of finds that the rapid urbanization and the continued dispersal of 1970. population and activities within urban areas has made the ability of all citizens to move quickly and at a reasonable cost an urgent national problem; that it is imperative, if efficient, safe, and con- venient transportation compatible with soundly planned urban areas is to be achieved, to continue and expand the Urban Mass Transporta- 78 Stat. 3 0 2 . 49 u s e 1601 tion Act of 1964; and that success will require a Federal commitment note. for the expenditure of at least $10,000,000,000 over a twelve-year period to permit confident and continuing local planning, and greater flexibility in program administration. I t is the purpose of this Act to create a partnership which permits the local community, through Federal financial assistance, to exercise the initiative necessary to satisfy its urban mass transportation requirements. Federal SEC. 2. Section 3 of the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, financial a s s i s t - as amended (49 U.S.C. 1602), is amended— 78 Stat. 3 0 3 . (1) by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection (e) ; and (2) by striking out subsections (a) and (b) and inserting in lieu thereof subsections ( a ) , ( b ) , (c), and ( d ) , as follows: Grants and " (a) The Secretary is authorized, in accordance with the provisions loans. of this Act and on such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, to make grants or loans (directly, through the purchase of securities or equipment trust certificates, or otherwise) to assist States and local public bodies and agencies thereof in financing the acquisition, con- struction, reconstruction, and improvement of facilities and equip- ment for use, by operation or lease or otherwise, in mass transporta- tion service in urban areas and in coordinating such service with Eligible f a c i l - highway and other transportation in such areas. Eligible facilities and i t i e s and e q u i p - ment. equipment may include land (but not public highways), buses and other rolling stock, and other real and personal property needed for an efficient and coordinated mass transportation system. No grant or loaoi shall be provided under this section unless the Secretary deter-, mines that the applicant has or will have—