The text of the bill below is as of Oct 27, 1972 (Passed Congress).
Summary of this bill
The Consumer Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted on October 27th, 1972 by the United States Congress. The act should not be confused with an earlier Senate Joint Resolution 33 of November 20, 1967, which merely established a temporary National Commission on Product Safety (NCPS), and for only 90-days (at a pittance of $100 per day). Section 4 of the 1972 act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as a permanent independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority. The act gives CPSC the power to develop safety standards and pursue recalls for products that present unreasonable or substantial risks of injury or …
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1207 Public Law 92-573 AN ACT October 2 7, 1972 To protect consumers against unreasonable risk of injury from hazardous 1^^-^^^^^ products, and for other purposes. ~ Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States o f America in Congress assembled. consumer ' ^ ' Product Safety Act. SHORT T I T L E ; TABLE O F CONTENTS SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Consumer Product Safety Act". TABLE OF CONTENTS Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents. Sec. 2. Findings and purposes. Sec. 3. Definitions. Sec. 4. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Sec. 5. Product safety information and research. Sec. 6. Public disclosure of information. Sec. 7. Consumer product safety standards. Sec. 8. Banned hazardous products. Sec. 9. Administrative procedure applicable to promulgation of consumer product safety rules. Sec. 10. Commission responsibility—petition for consumer product safety rule. Sec. 11. Judicial review of consumer product safety rules. Sec. 12. Imminent hazards. Sec. 13. New products. Sec. 14. Product certification and labeling. Sec. 15. Notification and repair, replacement, or refund. Sec. 16. Inspection and recordkeeping. Sec. 17. Imported products. Sec. 18. Exports. Sec. 19. Prohibited acts. Sec. 20. Civil penalties. Sec. 21. Criminal penalties. Sec. 22. Injunctive enforcement and seizure. Sec. 23. Suits for damages by persons injured. Sec. 24. Private enforcement of product safety rules and of section 15 orders. Sec. 25. Effect on private remedies. Sec. 26. Effect on State standards. Sec. 27. Additional functions of Commission. Sec. 28. Product Safety Advisory Council. Sec. 29. Cooperation with States and with other Federal agencies. Sec. 30. Transfers of functions. Sec. 31. Limitation on jurisdiction. Sec. 32. Authorization of appropriations. Sec. 33. Separability. . " • Sec. 34. Effective date. F I N D I N G S A N D PURPOSES Cj'. SEC. 2. (a) The Congressfindsthat— .3^ -,;, ^ a, (1) an unacceptable number of consumer products which pre- sent unreasonable risks of injury are distributed in commerce; (2) complexities of consumer products and the diverse nature and abilities of consumers using them frequently result in an ^.^ inability of users to anticipate risks and to safeguard themselves adequately; (3) the public should be protected against unreasonable risks of injury associated with consumer products; (4) control by State and local governments of unreasonable risks of injury associated with consumer products is inadequate and may be burdensome to manufacturers; (5) existing Federal authority to protect consumers from expo- sure to consumer products presenting unreasonable risks of injury is inadequate; and 82-081 O - 73 - 79
1208 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-X)CT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. (6) regulation of consumer products the distribution or use of which affects interstate or foreign commerce is necessary to carry out this Act. (b) The purposes of this Act are— (1) to protect the public against unreasonable risks of injury associated with consumer products; (2) to assist consumers in evaluating the comparative safety of consumer products; (3) to develop uniform safety standards for consumer products and to minimize conflicting State and local regulations; and (4) to promote research and investigation into the causes and prevention of product-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries. DEFINITIONS SEC. 3. (a) F o r purposes of this A c t : (1) The term "consumer product" means any article, or com- ponent part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary house- hold or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise, or (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer m or around a permanent or temporary liousehold or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; but such term does not include— (A) any article which is not customarily produced or dis- tributed for sale to, or use or consumption by, or enjoyment of, a consumer, (B) tobacco and tobacco products, (C) motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment (as defined bv sections 102 (3) and (4) of the National Traffic and Motor 80 Stat. 718; VeMcle Safety Act of 1966), *^5*usc U91. (D) economic poisons (as defined .by the Federal Insecti- Ante, p. 973. cide, Fuugicide, and Rodenticide A c t ) , ( E ) any article which, if sold by the manufacturer, pro- ducer, or importer, would be subject to the tax imposed by 68A Stat. 490. sectiou 4181 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (deter- 26 use 4181. mined without regard to any exemptions from such tax pro- 72 Stat. 1282. vided by section 4182 or 4221, or any other provision of such Code), or any component of any such article, ( F ) aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances (as 72 Stat. 737. defined in section 101 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958), (G) boats which could be subjected to safety regulation under the Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971 (46 U.S.C. 1451 85 Stat. 213. gt scq.); vessels, and appurtenances to vessels (other than such boats), which could be subjected to safety regulation 46 use 361. under title 52 of the Revised Statutes or other marine safety statutes administered by the department in which the Coast Guard is operating; and equipment (including associated equipment, as defined in section 3(8) of the Federal Boat 46 use 1452. Safety Act of 1971) to the extent that a risk of injury asso- ciated with the use of such equipment on boats or vessels could be eliminated or reduced by actions taken under any statute referred to in this subparagraph, ( H ) drugs, devices, or cosmetics (as such terms are defined in sections 201 ( g ) , ( h ) , and (i) of the Federal Food, Drug, 79"tal°234°*°' and Cosmetic Act), or 21 use 321. (I) food. The term "food", as used in this subparagraph means all "food", as defined in section 201 (f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, including poultry and poultry
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1209 products (as defined in sections 4 (e) and (f) of the Poultry Products Insj)ection A c t ) , meat, meat food products (as 82stat.75>2 defined in section l ( j ) of the Federal Meat Inspection A c t ) , gi sS?. SM. and eggs and egg products (as defined in section 4 of the E g g 21 use eoi. Products Inspection A c t ) . of f^oo nio' 21 u s e 1033. See sections 30(d) and 31 of this Act, for limitations on Commis- ^' ""'^ "'" sion's authority to regulate certain consumer products. (2) The term "consumer product safety rule" means a con- sumer products safety standard described in section 7 ( a ) , or a rule under this Act declaring a consumer product a banned hazardous product, (3) The term "risk of injury" means a risk of death, personal injury, or serious or frequent illness. (4) The term "manufacturer" means any person who manufac- tures or imports a consumer product. (5) The term "distributor" means a person to whom a consumer product is delivered or sold for purposes of distribution in com- merce, except that such term does not include a manufacturer or retailer of such product. (6) The term "retailer" means a person to whom a consumer product is delivered or sold for purposes of sale or distribution by such person to a consumer. (7) (A) The term "private labeler" means an owner of a brand or trademark on the label of a consumer product which bears a private label. (B) A consumer product bears a private label if (i) the product (or its container) is labeled with the brand or trademark of a person other than a manufacturer of the product, (ii) the person with whose brand or trademark the product (or container) is labeled has authorized or caused the product to be so labeled, and (iii) the brand or trademark of a manufacturer of such product does not appear on such label. (8) The term "manufactured" means to manufacture, produce, or assemble. (9) The term "Commission" means the Consumer Product Safety Commission, established by section 4. (10) The term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, Wake Island, Midway Island, Kingman Reef, Johnston Island, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (11) The terms "to distribute in commerce" and "distribution in commerce" mean to sell in commerce, to introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce, or to hold for sale or distribution after introduction into commerce. (12) The term "commerce" means trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation— (A) between a pla<ce in a State and any place outside thereof, or (B^ which affects trade, traffic, commerce, or transportation described in subparagraph ( A ) . (13) The terms "import" and "importation" include reimport- ing a consumer product manufactured or processed, in whole or in part, in the United States. (14) The term "United States", when used in the geographic sense, means all of the States (as defined in paragraph (10)). (b) A common carrier, contract carrier, or freight forwarder shall not, for purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a manufacturer, distrib-
1210 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. iitor, or retailer of a consumer product solely by reason of receiving or transporting a consumer product in the ordinary course of its business as such a carrier or forwarder. CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Establishment. SEC. 4. (a) A n independent regulatory commission is hereby estab- lished, to be known as the Consumer Product Safety Commission, con- sisting of five Commissioners who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, one of whom shall Chairman. be designated by the President as Chairman. The Chairman, when so designated, shall act as Chairman until the expiration of his term of office as Commissioner. Any member of the Commission may be removed by the President for neglect of duty or malfeasance in office but for no other cause. Terms. ( b ) ( 1 ) Except as provided in paragraph (2), (A) the Commis- sioners first appointed under this section shall be appointed for terms ending three, four, five, sixj and seven years, respectively, after the date of the enactment of this Act, the term of each to be designated by the President at the time of nomination; and (B) each of their successors shall be appointed for a term of seven years from the date of the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed. (2) Any Commissioner appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term. A Commis- sioner may continue to serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has taken office, except that he maj^ not so continue to serve more than one year after the date on which his term would other- wise expire under this subsection. Restrictions. (c) Not more than three of the Commissioners shall be affiliated with the same political party. No individual (1) in the employ of, or holding any official relation to, any person engaged in selling or manu- facturing consumer products, or (2) owning stock or bonds of substan- tial value in a person so engaged, or (3) who is in any other manner pecuniarily interested in such a person, or in a substantial supplier of such a person, shall hold the office of Commissioner. A Commissioner may not engage in any other business, vocation, or employment. (d) No vacancy in the Commission shall impair the right of the remaining Commissioners to exercise all the powers of the Commis- sion, but three members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The Commission shall have an official seal of which judicial notice shall be taken. The Commission shall annually elect a Vice Chairman to act in the absence or disability of the Chairman or in case of a vacancy in the office of the Chairman. (e) The Commission shall maintain a principal office and such field offices as it deems necessary and may meet and exercise any of its powers at any other place. Functions. (f)(1) The Chairman of the Commission shaU be the principal executive officer of the Commission, and he shall exercise all of the executive and administrative functions of the Commission, including functions of the Commission with respect to (A) the appointment and supervision of personnel employed under the Commission (other than personnel employed regularly and full time in the immediate offices of commissioners other than the Chairman), (B) the distribution of busi- ness among personnel appointed and supervised by the Chairman and among administrative units of the Commission, and (C) the use and expenditure of funds. (2) I n carrying out any of his functions under the provisions of this subsection the Chairman shall be governed by general policies of
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1211 the Commission and by such regulatory decisions, findings, and deter- minations as the Commission may by law be authorized to make. (g) (1) The Chairman, subject to the approval of the Commission, oi^^^^J'"''* shall appoint an Executive Director, a General Counsel, a Director of Engineering Sciences, a Director of Epidemiology, and a Director of Information. No individual so appointed may receive pay in excess of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS-18 of the General Schedule. note'"'''"'' (2) The Chairman, subject to subsection (f) (2), may employ such Additional other officers and employees (including attorneys) as are necessary in employees- the execution of the Commission's functions. No full-time officer or employee of the Commission who was at any time during the 12 months preceding the termination of his employment with the Commission compensated at a rate in excess of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS-14 of the General Schedule, shall accept employment or compensation from any manufacturer subject to this Act, for a period of 12 months after terminating employment with the Commission. (h) (1) Section 5314 of title 5, United States Code, is amended by Ante. p. 110. adding at the end thereof the following new paragraph: "(59) Chairman, Consumer Product Safety Commission." (2) Section 5315 of such title is amended by adding at the end Ante, p. 149. thereof the following new paragraph: "(97) Members, Consumer Product Safety Commission ( 4 ) . " PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION AND RESEARCH SEC. 5. (a) The Commission shall— (1) maintain an Injury Information Clearinghouse to collect, investigate, analyze, and disseminate injury data, and informa- tion, relating to the causes and prevention of death, injury, and illness associated with consumer products; and • *(2) conduct such continuing studies and investigations of deaths, injuries, diseases, other health impairments, and economic losses resulting from accidents involving consumer products as it deems necessary. (b) The Commission may— (1) conduct research, studies, and investigations on the safety of consumer products and on improving the safety of such products; (2) test consumer products and develop product safety test methods and testing devices; and (3) offer training in product safety investigation and test meth- ods, and assist public and private organizations, administratively and technically, in the development of safety standards and test methods. Grants or (c) I n carrying out its functions under this section, the Commission contracts. may make grants or enter into contracts for the conduct of such func- tions with any person (including a governmental entity). (d) Whenever the Federal contribution for any information, , f"*'",'; -I -I 1 L- •1 i i ' i i ! • * • 1 information research, or development activity authorized by this Act is more than minimal, the Commission shall include in any contract, grant, or other arrangement for such activity, provisions effective to insure that the rights to all information, uses, processes, patents, and other develop- ments resulting from t h a t activity will be made available to the public without charge on a nonexclusive basis. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to deprive any person of any right which he may have had, prior to entering into any arrangement referred to in this subsection, to any patent, patent application, or invention.
1212 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. P U B L I C DISCLOSURE O F INFORMATION SEC. 6. (a) (1) Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to require the release of any information described by subsection (b) of 81 Stat. 54. section 552, title 5, United States Code, or which is otherwise protected by law from disclosure to the public. Confidential (2) All information reported to or otherwise obtained by the C5om- information. mission or its representative under this Act which information con- tains or relates to a trade secret or other matter referred to in section 62 Stat. 7 9 1 . 1905 of title 18, United States Code, shall be considered confidential and shall not be disclosed, except that such information may be dis- closed to other officers or employees concerned with carrying out this Act or when relevant in any proceeding under this Act. Nothing in this Act shall authorize the withholding of information by the Com- mission or any officer or employee under its control from the duly authorized committees of the Congress. Summary t o (b)(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2) of this subsection, manufacturer or labeler. not less than 30 days prior to its public disclosure of any information obtained under this Act, or to be disclosed to the public in connection therewith (unless the Commission finds out that the public health and safety requires a lesser period of notice), the Commission shall, to the extent practicable, notify, and provide a summary of the infor- mation to, each manufacturer or private labeler of any consumer product to which such information pertains, if the manner in which such consumer product is to be designated or described in such infor- mation will permit the public to ascertain readily the identity of such manufacturer or private labeler, and shall provide such manufacturer or private labeler with a reasonable opportunity to submit comments to the Commission in regard to such information. The Commission shall take reasonable steps to assure, prior to its public disclosure thereof, that information from which the identity of such manu- facturer or private labeler may be readily ascertained is accurate, and that such disclosure is fair in the circumstances and reasonably related Inaccurate or to effectuating the purposes of this Act. If the Commission finds that, misleading information, in the administration of this Act, it has made public disclosure of retraction. inaccurate or misleading information which reflects adversely upon the safety of any consumer product, or the practices of any manufacturer, private labeler, distributor, or retailer of consumer products, it shall, in a manner similar to that in which such disclosure was made, publish a retraction of such inaccurate or misleading information. Nonapplica- (2) Paragraph (1) (except for the last sentence thereof) shall not bility. apply to the public disclosure of (A) information about any consumer product with respect to which product the Commission has filed an action under section 12 (relating to imminently hazardous products), or which the Commission has reasonable cause to believe is in violation of section 19 (relating to prohibited acts), or (B) information in the course of or concerning any administrative or judicial proceeding under this Act. R i s k of injury. (c) The Commission shall communicate to each manufacturer of a, consumer product, insofar as may be practicable, information as to any significant risk of injury associated with such product. C O N S U M E R PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS SEC. 7. (a) The Commission may by rule, in accordance with this section and section 9, promulgate consumer product safety standards. A consumer product safety standard shall consist of one or more of any of the following types of requirements:
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1213 (1) Requirements as to performance, composition, contents, design, construction, finish, or packaging of a consumer product. (2) Requirements that a consumer product be marked with or accompanied by clear and adequate w a r n i n g or instructions, or requirements respecting the form of warnings or instructions. Any requirement of such a standard shall be reasonably necessary to prevent or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with such product. The requirements of such a standard (other than require- ments relating to labeling, warnings, or instructions) shall, whenever feasible, be expressed in terms of performance requirements. Notice, (b) A proceeding for the development of a consumer product safety publication in standard under this Act shall be commenced by the publication in the Federal Register. Federal Register of a notice which shall— (1) identify the product and the nature of the risk of injury associated with the product ; (2) state the Commission's determination that a consumer product safety standard is necessary to eliminate or reduce the risk of injury; (3) include information with respect to any existing standard known to the Commission which may be relevant to the proceed- ing; and (4) include an invitation for any person, including any State or Federal agency (other than the Commission), within 30 days after the date of publication of the notice (A) to submit to the Commission an existing standard as the proposed consumer prod- uct safety standard or (B) to offer to develop the proposed con- sumer product safety standard. An invitation under paragraph (4) (B) shall specify a period of time, Development period. during which the standard is to be developed, which shall be a period ending 150 days after the publication of the notice, unless the Com- mission for good cause finds (and includes such finding in the notice) that a different period is appropriate. (c) If the Commission determines that (1) there exists a standard Proposed safety rules, which has been issued or adopted by any Federal agency or by any publication. other qualified agency, organization, or institution, and (2) such stand- ard if promulgated under this Act, would eliminate or reduce the unreasonable risk of iniury associated with the product, then it may, in lieu of accepting an offer pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, publish such standard as a proposed consumer product safety rule. (d) (1) Except as provided by subsection (c), the Commission shall Proposed standards, accept one, and may accept more than one, offer to develop a proposed development consumer prorduct safety standard pursuant to the invitation prescribed offers. by subsection (b) (4) ( B ) , if it determines that the offeror is technically competent, is likely to develop an appropriate standard within the period specified in the invitation under subsection ( b ) , and will com- ply with regulations of the Commission under paragraph (3) of this subsection. The Commission shall publisli in the Federal Register the Publication in Federal name and address of each person whose offer it accepts, and a summary Register. of the terms of such offer as accepted. (2) If an offer is accepted under this subsection, the Commission Cost, contribution. may agree to contribute to the offeror's cost in developing a proposed consumer product safety standard, in any case in which the Commis- sion determines that such contribution is likely to result in a more satisfactory standard than would be developed without such contribu- tion, and that the offeror is financially responsible. Regulations of the Commission shall set forth the items of cost in which it may par- ticipate, and shall exclude any contribution to the acquisition of land or buildings.
1214 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. Regulations. (3) The Commission shall prescribe regulations governing the development of proposed consumer product safety standards by per- sons whose offers are accepted under paragraph (1). Such regulations shall include requirements— (A) that standards recommended for promulgation be suitable for promulgation under this Act, be supported by test data or such other documents or materials as the Commission may reason- ably require to be developed, and (where appropriate) contain suitable test methods for measurement of compliance with such standards; (B) for notice and opportunity by interested persons (includ- ing representatives of consumers and consumer organizations) to participate in the development of such standards; (C) for the maintenance of records, which shall be available to the public, to disclose the course of the development of stand- ards recommended for promulgation, the comments and other information submitted by any person in connection with such development (including dissenting views and comments and infor- mation with respect to the need for such recommended standards), and such other matters as may be relevant to the evaluation of such recommended standards; and (D) that the Commission and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records relevant to the development of such recommended standards or to the expenditure of any contri- bution of the Commission for the development of such standards. Proposed (e^ (1) If the Commission has published a notice of proceeding as safety rule, publication. provided by subsection (b) of this section and has not, within 30 days after the date of publication of such notice, accepted an offer to develop a proposed consumer product safety standard, the Commission may develop a proposed consumer product safety rule and publish such proposed rule. Restrictions. (2) If the Commission accepts an offer to develop a proposed con- sumer product safety standard, the Commission may not, during the development period (specified in paragraph (3)) for such standard— (A) publish a proposed rule applicable to the same risk of injury associated with such product, or (B) develop proposals for such standard or contract with third parties for such development, unless the Commission determines that no offeror whose offer was accepted is making satisfactory progress in the development of such standard. I n any case in which the sole offeror whose offer is accepted under sub- section (d) (1) of this section is the manufacturer, distributor, or retailer of a consumer product proposed to be regulated by the con- sumer product safety standard, the Commission may independently proceed to develop proposals for such standard during the develop- ment period. Development (3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the development period for any period. standard is a period (A) beginning on the date on which the Com- mission first accepts an offer under subsection (d) (1) for the develop- ment of a proposed standard, and (B) ending on the earlier of— (i) the end of the period specified in the notice of proceeding (except that the period specified in the notice may be extended Publication in if good cause is shown and the reasons for such extension are pub- Federal Register. lished in the Federal Register), or
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1215 (ii) the date on which it determines (in accordance with such procedures as it may by rule prescribe) that no offeror whose offer was accepted is able and willing to continue satisfactorily the development of the proposed standard which was the subject of the off'er, or (iii) the date on which an offeror whose offer was accepted submits such a recommended standard to the Commission, (f) Not more than 210 days after its publication of a notice of pro- Withdrawal notice or pro- ceeding pursuant to subsection (b) (which time may be extended by posed rule, the Commission by a notice published in the Federal Register stating publication in Federal Register. good cause therefor), the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register a notice withdrawing such notice of proceeding or publish a proposed rule which either proposes a product safety standard appli- cable to any consumer product subject to such notice, or proposes to declare any such subject product a banned hazardous consumer product. B A N N E D HAZARDOUS PRODUCTS SEC. 8, Whenever the Commission finds that— (1) a consumer product is being, or will be, distributed in com- merce and such consumer product presents an unreasonable risk of injury; and (2) no feasible consumer product safety standard under this Act would adequately protect the public from the unreasonable risk of injury associated with such product, the Commission may propose and, in accordance with section 9, pro- mulgate a rule declaring such product a banned hazardous product. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE APPLICABLE TO PROMULGATION OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY RULES SEC. 9. ( a ) ( 1 ) Within 60 days after the publication under sec- tion 7 (c), (e) (1), or (f) or section 8 of a proposed consumer product safety rule respecting a risk of injury associated with a consumer product, the Commission shall— (A) promulgate a consumer product safety rule respecting the risk of injury associated with such product if it makes the findings required under subsection (c), or (B) withdraw by rule the applicable notice of proceeding if it determines that such rule is not (i) reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with the product, or (ii) in the public interest; except that the Cojnmission may extend such 60-day period for good cause shown (if it publishes its reasons therefor in the Federal Reg- ister). (2) Consumer product safety rules which have been proposed under section 7 (c), (e) (1), or (f) or section 8 shall be promulgated pursu- ant to section 553 of title 5, United States Code, except that the 80 Stat. 383. Commission shall give interested persons an opportunity for the oral presentation of data, views, or arguments, in addition to an oppor- tunity to make written submissions. A transcript shall be kept of any oral presentation. (b) A consumer product safety rule shall express in the rule itself the risk of injury which the standard is designed to eliminate or reduce. I n promulgating such a rule the Commission shall consider relevant available product data including the results of research, development, testing, and investigation activities conducted generally and pursuant to this Act.
1216 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. Findings. (c) (1) Prior to promulgating a consumer product safety rule, the Commission shall consider, and shall make appropriate findings for inclusion in such rule with respect to— (A) the degree and nature of the risk of injury the rule is designed to eliminate or reduce; (B) the approximate number of consumer products, or types or classes thereof, subject to such rule; (C) the need of the public for the consumer products subject to such rule, and the probable effect of such rule upon the utility, cost, or availability of such products to meet such need; and (D) any means of achieving the objective of the order while minimizing adverse effects on competition or disruption or dis- location of manufacturing and other commercial practices con- sistent with the public health and safety. Restrictions. (2) The Commission shall not promulgate a consumer product safety rule unless it finds (and includes such finding in the rule)— (A) that the rule (including its effective date) is reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with such product; (B) that the promulgation of the rule is in the public interest; and (C) in the case of a rule declaring the product a banned hazardous product, that no feasible consumer product safety standard under this Act would adequately protect the public from the unreasonable risk of injury associated with such product. Standards, effective date. (d) (1) Each <jonsumer product safety rule shall specify the date such rule is to take effect not exceeding 180 days from the date promul- gated, unless the Commission finds, for good cause shown, that a later effective date is in the public interest and publishes its reasons for such finding. The effective date of a consumer product safety stnndard under this Act shall be set at a date at least 30 days after the date of promulgation unless the Commission for good cause shown determines that an earlier effective date is in the public interest. I n no case may the effective date be set at a date which is earlier than the date of promulgation. A consumer product safety standard shall be applica- ble only to consumer products manufactured after the effective date. (2) The Commission may by rule prohibit a manufacturer of a con- sumer product from stockpiling any product to which a consumer product safety rule applies, so as to prevent such manufacturer from •Stockpiling. circumventing the purpose of such consumer product safety rule. F o r purposes of this paragraph, the term "stockpiling" means manufac- turing or importing a product between the date of promulgation of such consumer pro(mct safety rule and its effective date at a rate which is significantly greater (as determined under the rule under this para- graph) than the rate at which such product was produced or imported durmg a base period (prescribed in the rule under this paragraph) ending before the date of promulgation of the consumer product safety rule. Amendment or (e) The Commission may by rule amend or revoke any consumer revocation. product safety rule. Such amendment or revocation shall specify the date on which it is to take effect which shall not exceed 180 days from the date the amendment or revocation is published unless the Com- mission finds for good cause shown that a later effective date is in the public interest and publishes its reasons for such finding. Where an amendment involves a material change in a consumer product safety rule, sections 7 and 8, and subsections (a) through (d) of this section Publication in shall apply. I n order to revoke a consumer product safety rule, the Federal Register. Commission shall publish a proposal to revoke such rule in the Federal Register, and allow oral and written presentations in accordance with
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1217 subsection (a) (2) of this section. It may revoke sucli rule only if it determines that the rule is not reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with the product. Sec- Applicability. tion 11 shall apply to any amendment of a consumer product safety rule which involves a material change and to any revocation of a con- sumer product safety rule, in the same manner and to the same extent as such section applies to the Commission's action in promulgating such a rule. COMMISSION RESPONSIBILITY—PETITION FOR CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY RULE SEC. 10. (a) Any interested person, including a consumer or con- sumer organization, may petition the Commission to commence a pro- ceeding for the issuance, amendment, or revocation of a consumer product safety rule. (b) Such petition shall be filed in the principal office of the Com- mission and shall set forth (1) facts which it is claimed establish that 'A consumer product safety rule or an amendment or revocation thereof is necessarj'^, and (2) a brief description of the substance of the con- sumer product safety rule or amendment thereof which it is claimed should be issued by the Commission. (c) The Commission may hold a public hearing or may conduct . bearing or \ '. ,. •• "^ f 'Ft • J • 1 , investigation. such investigation or proceeding as it deems appropriate m order to determine whether or not such petition should be granted. (d) Within 120 days after filing of a petition described in subsection (b), the Commission shall either grant or deny the petition. If the Commission grants such petition, it shall promptly commence an appropriate proceeding under section 7 or 8. If the Commission denies deniii"°ubiica such petition it shall publish in the Federal Register its reasons for ti^on^ln Federal such denial. Register. (e) (1) If the Commission denies a petition made under this section u.s. district (or if it fails to grant or deny such petition within the 120-day period) actTon.*''^^' the petitioner may commence a civil action in a United States district court to compel the Commission to initiate a proceeding to take the action requested. Any such action shall be filed within 60 days after the Commission's denial of the petition, or (if the Commission fails to grant or deny the petition within 120 days after filing the petition) within 60 days after the expiration of the 120-day period. (2) If the petitioner can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the court, by a preponderance of evidence in a de novo proceeding before such court, that the consumer product presents an unreasonable risk of injury, and that the failure of the Commission to initiate a rule- making proceeding under section 7 or 8 unreasonably exposes the peti- tioner or other consumers to a risk of injury presented by the consumer product, the court shall order the Commission to initiate the action requested by the petitioner. (3) In any action under this subsection, the district court shall have no authority to compel the Commission to take any action other than the initiation of a rule-making proceeding in accordance with section 7 or 8. (f) The remedies under this section shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, other remedies provided by law. (g) Subsection (e) of this section shall apply only with respect to Applicability, petitions filed more than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act.
PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. m» JUDICIAL REVIEW OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY RULES SEC. 11. (a) Not later than 60 days after a consumer product safety rule is promulgated by the Commission, any person adversely affected by such rule, or any consumer or consumer organization, may file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which such person, consumer, or organi- zation resides or has his principal place of business for judicial review of such rule. Copies of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Commission or other officer designated by it for that purpose and to the Attorney General. The Commission shall transmit to the Attorney General, who shall file in the court, the record of the proceedings on which the Commission based its rule, as 72 Stat. 941; provided in section 2112 of title 28 of the United States Code. For 80 Stat. 1323. "Record." purposes of this section, the term "record" means such consumer prod- uct safety rule; an^ notice or proposal published pursuant to section 7, 8, or 9 ; the transcript required by section 9 ( a ) ( 2 ) of any oral presenta- tion; any written submission of interested parties; and any other information which the Commission considers relevant to such rule. (b) If the petitioner applies to the court for leave to adduce addi- tional data, views, or arguments and shows to the satisfa,ction of the court that such additional data, views, or arguments are material and that there were reasonable grounds for the petitioner's failure to adduce such data, views, or arguments in the proceeding before the Commission, the court may order the Commission to provide addi- tional opportunity for the oral presentation of data, views, or argu- ments and for written submissions. The Commission may modify its findings, or make new findings by reason of the additional data, views, or arguments so taken and shall file such modified or new findings, and its recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of its original rule, with the return of such additional data, views, or arguments. (c) Upon the filing of the petition under subsection (a) of this sec- tion the court shall have jurisdiction to review the consumer product 80 Stat. 392. 5 u s e 701. safety rule in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, and to grant appropriate relief, including interim relief, as provided in such chapter. The consumer product safety rule shall not be affirmed unless the Commission's findings under section 9(c) are supported by substantial evidence on the record taken as a whole. (d) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any consumer product safety rule shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification, as provided in section 1254 of title 28 of the United States 62 Stat. 928. Code. (e) The remedies provided for in this section shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any other remedies provided by law. I M M I N E N T HAZARDS Petition for SEC. 12. (a) The Commission may file in a United States district seizure. court an action (1) against an imminently hazardous consumer product for seizure of such product under subsection ( b ) ( 2 ) , or (2) against any person who is a manufacturer, distributor, or retailer of such product, or (3) against both. Such an action may be filed notwith- standing the existence of a consumer product safety rule applicable to such product, or the pendency of any administrative or judicial pro- ceedings under any other provision of this Act. As used in this section, •'Imminently and hereinafter in this Act, the term "imminently hazardous consumer hazardous consumer product" means a consumer product which presents imminent and product."
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1219 unreasonable risk of death, serious illness, or severe personal injury. (b) (1) The district court in which such action is filed shall have Relief. jurisdiction to declare such product an imminently hazardous con- sumer product, and (in the case of an action under subsection (a) (2)) to grant (as ancillary to such declaration or in lieu thereof) such temporary or permanent relief as may be necessary to protect the public from such risk. Such relief may include a mandatory order requiring the notification of such risk to purchasers of such product known to the defendant, public notice, the recall, the repair or the replacement of, or refund for, such product. (2) I n the case of an action under subsection (a) (1), the consumer condel^nition product may be proceeded against by process of libel for the seizure and seizure"" and condemnation of such product in any United States district court within the jurisdiction of which such consumer product is found. Proceedings and cases instituted under the authority of the preceding sentence shall conform as nearly as possible to proceedings in rem in admiralty. (c) Where appropriate, concurrently with the filing of such action J^^c^'^aLt or as soon thereafter as may be practicable, the Commission shall ini- rule. tiate a proceeding to promulgate a consumer product safety rule appli- cable to the consumer product with respect to which such action is filed. ( d ) ( 1 ) Prior to commencing an action under subsection ( a ) , the , .^1?"/... Commission may consult the Product Safety Advisory Council (estab- lished under section 28) with respect to its determination to commence such action, and request the Council's recommendations as to the type of temporary or permanent relief which may be necessary to protect the public. (2) The Council shall submit its recommendations to the Commis- sion within one week of such request. (3) Subject to paragraph (2), the Council may conduct such hear- Hearing. ing or offer such opportunity for the presentation of views as it may . , .^ consider necessary or appropriate. (e) (1) An action under subsection (a) (2) of this section may be brought in the United States district court for the District of Colum- bia or in any judicial district in which any of the defendants is found, is an inhabitant or transacts business; and process in such an action may be served on a defendant in any other district in which such defendant resides or may be found. Subpenas requiring attendance of witnesses in such an action may run into any other district. I n deter- mining the judicial district in which an action may be brought under this section in instances in which such action may be brought in more than one judicial district, the Commission shall take into account the convenience of the parties. (2) Whenever proceedings under this section involving substan- consolfd'^tu.n^' tially similar consumer products are pending in courts in two or more for trial. judicial districts, they shall be consolidated for trial by order of any such court upon application reasonably made by any party in interest, upon notice to all other parties in interest. (f) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action under this section, the Commission may direct attorneys employed by it to appear and represent it. NEW PRODUCTS SEC. 13. (a) The Commission may, by rule, prescribe procedures for de^cripuon.'^ the purpose of insuring that the manufacturer of any new consumer product furnish notice and a description of such product to the Com- mission before its distribution in commerce.
1220 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. '•New consumer (b) F o r purposes of this section, the term "new consumer product" product." means a consumer product which incorporates a design, material, or form of energy exchange which (1) has not previously been used sub- stantially in consumer products and (2) as to which there exists a lack of information adequate to determine the safety of such product in use by consumers. PRODUCT C E R T I F I C A T I O N AND LABELING SEC. 14. (a) (1) Every manufacturer of a product which is subject to a consumer product safety standard under this Act and which is distributed in commerce (and the private labeler of such product if it bears a private label) shall issue a certificate which shall certify that such product conforms to all applicable consumer product safety standards, and shall specify any standard which is applicable. Such certificate shall accompany the product or shall otherwise be fur- nished to any distributor or retailer to whom the product is delivered. Any certificate under this subsection shall be based on a test of each product or upon a reasonable testing program; shall state the name of the manufacturer or private labeler issuing the certificate; and shall include the date and place of manufacture. Multiple (2) In the case of a consumer product for which there is more manufacturers or l a b e l e r s . than one manufacturer or more than one private labeler, the Com- mission may by rule designate one or more of such manufacturers or one or more of such private labelers (as the case may be) as the pei'sons who shall issue the certificate required by paragraph (1) of this subsection, and may exempt all other manufacturers of such product or all other private labelers of the product (as the case may be) from the requirement under paragraph (1) to issue a certificate with respect to such product. Testing (b) The Commission may by rule prescribe reasonable testing pro- programs. grams for consumer products which are are subject to consumer prod- uct safety standards under this Act and for which a certificate is required under subsection ( a ) . Any test or testing program on the basis of which a certificate is issued under subsection (a) may, at the option of the person required to certify the product, be conducted by an independent third party qualified to perform such tests or testing programs. L a b e l s , form (c) The Commission may by rule require the use and prescribe the and c o n t e n t . form and content of labels which contain the following information (or that portion of it specified in the rule)— (1) The date and place of manufacture of any consumer product. (2) A suitable identification of the manufacturer of the con- sumer product, unless the product bears a private label in which case it shall identify the private labeler and shall also contain a code mark which will permit the seller of such product to iden- tify the manufacturer thereof to the purchaser upon his request. (3) I n the case of a consumer product subject to a consumer product safety rule, a certification that the product meets all applicable consumer product safety standards and a specification of the standards which are applicable. Marking and coding. Such labels, where practicable, may be required by the Commission to be permanently marked on or affixed to any such consumer product. The Commission may, in appropriate cases, permit information required under paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection to be coded.
86 STAT.] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1221 N O T I F I C A T I O N A N D REPAIR, R E P L A C E M E N T , OR R E F U N D SEC. 15. (a) For purposes of this section, the term "substantial "Substantial product h a z a r d . " product hazard" means— (1) a failure to comply with an applicable consumer product safety rule which creates a substantial risk of injury to the public, or (2) a product defect which (because of the pattern of defect, the number of defective products distributed in commerce, the severity of the risk, or otherwise) creates a substantial risk of injury to the public. (b) Every manufacturer of a consumer product distributed in com- None omplianc e. merce, and every distributor and retailer of such product, who obtains information which reasonably supports the conclusion that such product— (1) fails to comply with an applicable consumer product safety rule; or (2) contains a defect which could create a substantial product hazard described in subsection (a) (2), shall immediately inform the Commission of such failure to comply or of such defect, unless such manufacturer, distributor, or retailer has actual knowledge that the Commission has been adequately informed of such defect or failure to comply. (c) If the Commission determines (after affording interested per- sons, including consumers and consumer organizations, an opportu- nity for a hearing in accordance with subsection (f) of this section) that a product distributed in commerce presents a substantial product hazard and that notification is required in order to adequately protect the public from such substantial product hazard, the Commission may order the manufacturer or any distributor or retailer of the product to take any one or more of the following actions: (1) To give public notice of the defect or failure to comply. (2) To mail notice to each person who is a manufacturer, dis- tributor, or retailer of such product. (3) To mail notice to every person to whom the person required to give notice knows such product was delivered or sold. Any such order shall specify the form and content of any notice required to be given under such order. (d) If the Commission determines (after affording interested par- ties, including consumers and consumer organizations, an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with subsection (f)) that a product dis- tributed in commerce presents a substantial product hazard and that action under this subsection is in the public interest, it may order the manufacturer or any distributor or retailer of such product to take whichever of the following actions the person to whom the order is directed elects : (1) To bring such product into conformity with the require- ments of the applicable consumer product safety rule or to repair the defect in such product. (2) To replace such product with a like or equivalent product which complies with the applicable consumer product safety rule or which does not contain the defect. (3) To refund the purchase price of such product (less a rea- sonable allowance for use, if such product has been in the pos- session of a consumer for one year or more (A) at the time of public notice under subsection (c), or (B) at the time the con- sumer receives actual notice of the defect or noncompliance, which- ever first occurs).
1222 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. Action plan. An order under this subsection may also require the person to whom it applies to submit a plan, satisfactory to the Commission, for taking action under whichever of the preceding paragraphs of this subsection under which such person has elected to act. The Commission shall specify in the order the persons to whom refunds must be made if the person to whom the order is directed elects to take the action described m paragraph (3). If an order under this subsection is directed to more than one person, the Coi^mission shall specify which person has the election under this subsection. Reimbursement. (e) (1) No charge shall be made to any person (other than a manu- facturer, distributor, or retailer) who avails himself of any remedy provided under an order issued under subsection ( d ) , and the person subject to the order shall reimburse each person (other than a manu- facturer, distributor, or retailer) who is entitled to such a remedy for any reasonable and foreseeable expenses incurred by such person in availing himself of such remedy. (2) An order issued under subsection (c) or (d) with respect to a product may require any person who is a manufacturer, distributor, or retailer of the product to reimburse any other person who is a manu- facturer, distributor, or retailer of such product for such other person's expenses in connection with carrying out the order, if the Commission determines such reimbursement to be in the public interest. Hearing. (f) An order under subsection (c) or (d) may be issued only after an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, 80 Stat. 384. United States Code, except that, if the Commission determines that any person who wishes to participate in such hearing is a part of a class of participants who share an identity of interest, the Commission may limit such person's participation in such hearing to participation through a single representative designated by such class (or by the Commission if such class fails to designate such a representative). I N S P E C T I O N A N D RECORDKEEPING SEC. 16. (a) For purposes of implementing this Act, or rules or orders prescribed under this Act, officers or employees duly designated by the Commission, upon presenting appropriate credentials and a written notice from the Commission to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, are authorized— (1) to enter, at reasonable times, (A) any factory, warehouse, or establishment in which consumer products are manufactured or held, in connection with distribution in commerce, or (B) any convej^ance being used to transport consumer products in connec- tion with distribution in commerce; and (2) to inspect, at reasonable times and in a reasonable manner such conveyance or those areas of such factory, warehouse, or establishment where such products are manufactured, held, or transported and which may relate to the safety of such products. Each such inspection shall be commenced and completed with reasonable promptness. (b) Every person who is a manufacturer, private labeler, or distrib- utor of a consumer product shall establish and maintain such records, make such reports, and provide such information as the Commission may, by rule, reasonablv reauire for the purposes of implementing this Act, or to determine compliance with rules or orders prescribed under this Act. Upon request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Commission, every such manufacturer, private labeler, or distributor shall permit the inspection of appropriate books, records, and papers
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1223 relevant to determining whether such manufacturer, private labeler, or distributor has acted or is acting in compliance with this Act and rules under this Act. IMPORTED PRODUCTS 'SEC. 17. (a) Any consumer product offered for importation into the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general headnote 2 to the Tariff Schedules of the United States) shall be refused admis- 77A Stat. 11. 19 u s e 1202. sion into such customs territory if such product— (1) fails to comply with an applicable consumer product safety rule; (2) is not accompanied by a certificate required by section 14, or is not labeled in accordance with regulations under section 14 I(3) is or has been determined to be an imminently hazardous consumer product in a proceeding brought under section 1*2; (4) has a product defect which constitutes a substantial prod- uct hazard (within the meaning of section 15(a) ( 2 ) ) ; or (5) is a product which was manufactured by a person who the Commission has informed the Secretary of the Treasury is in violation of subsection ( g ) . (b) The Secretary of the Treasury shall obtain without charge and Samples. deliver to the Commission, upon the latter's request, a reasonable number of samples of consumer products being offered for import. Except for those owners or consignees who are or have been afforded an opportunity for a hearing in a proceeding under section 12 with respect to an imminently hazardous product, the owner or consignee of the product shall be afforded an opportunity by the Commission for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5 of the United States Code with respect to the importation of such products into 80 Stat. 384. the customs territory of the United States. If it appears from exami- Admission re- fusal. nation of such samples or otherwise that a product m u ^ be refused admission under the terms of subsection ( a ) , such product shall be refused admission, unless subsection (c) of this section applies and is complied with. (c) If it appears to the Commission that any consumer product Modification. which may be refused admission pursuant to sui)section (a) of this section can be so modified that it need not (under the terms of para- graphs (1) through (4) of subsection ( a ) ) be refused admission, the Commission may defer final determination as to the admission of such product and, in accordance with such regulations as the Commission and the Secretary of the Treasury shall jointly agree to, permit such product to be delivered from customs custody under bond for the purpose of permitting the owner or consignee an opportunity to so modify such product. (d) All actions taken by an owner or consignee to m^odify such Supervision. product under subsection (c) shall be subject to the supervision of an officer or employee of the Commission and of the Department of the Treasury. If it appears to the Conmiission that the product cannot be so modified or that the owner or consignee is not proceeding satis- factorily to modify such product, it shall be refused admission into the customs territory of the United States, and the Commission may direct the Secretary to demand redelivery of the product into customs custody, and to seize the product in accordance with section 22(b) if it is not so redelivered. Destruction. (e) Products refused admission into the customs territory of the United States under this section must be exported, except that upon application, the Secretary of the Treasury may permit the destruction of the product in lieu of expoitation. If the owner or consignee does 2-081 O - 73 - 80
1224 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. not export the product within a reasonable time, the Department of the Treasury may destroy the product. Expenses (f) All expenses (including travel, per diem or subsistence, and ment. salaries of officers or employees of the United States) in connection with the destruction provided for in this section (the amount of such expenses to be determined in accordance with regulations of the Secre- tary of the Treasury) and all expenses in connection with the storage, cartage, or labor with respect to any consumer product refused admis- sion under this section, shall be paid by the owner or consignee and, in default of such payment, shall constitute a lien against any future importations made by such owner or consignee. (g) The Commission may, by rule, condition the importation of a consumer product on the manufacturer's compliance with the inspec- tion and recordkeeping requirements of this Act and the Commission's rules with respect to such requirements. EXPORTS Nonapp 11 c a bi 1- ity. SEC. 18. This Act shall not apply to any consumer product if (1) it can be shown that such product is manufactured, sold, or held for sale for export from the United States (or that such product was imported for export), unless such consumer product is in fact distributed in commerce for use in the United States, and (2) such consumer product when distributed in commerce, or any container in which it is enclosed when so distributed, bears a stamp or label stating that such consumer product is intended for export; except that this Act shall apply to any consumer product manufactured for sale, offered for sale, or sold for shipment to any installation of the United States located outside of the United States. P R O H I B I T E D ACTS SEC. 19. (a) I t shall be unlawful for any person to— (1) manufacture for sale, offer for sale, distribute in commerce, or import into the United States any consumer product which is not in conformity with an applicable consumer product safety standard under this Act; (2) manufacture for sale, offer for sale, distribute in commerce, or import into the United States any consumer product which has been declared a banned hazardous product by a rule under this Act; (3) fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records, or fail or refuse to make reports or provide information, or fail or refuse to permit entry or inspection, as required under this Act or rule thereunder; (4) fail to furnish information required by section 1 5 ( b ) ; (5) fail to comply with an order issued under section 15 (c) or (d) (relating to notification, and to repair, replacement, and refund) ; (6) fail to furnish a certificate required by section 14 or issue a false certificate if such person in the exercise of due care has rea- son to know that such certificate is false or misleading in any material respect; or to fail to comply with any rule under sec- tion 14 (c) (relating to labeling); or (7) fail to comply with any rule under section 9(d) (2) (relat- ing to stockpiling). Nonappllcabil- (b) Paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of this section shall Ity. not applv to any person (1) who holds a certificate issued in accord- ance with section 14(a) to the effect that such consumer product conforms to all applicable consumer product safety rules, unless such person knows that such consumer product does not conform, or (2)
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1225 who relies in good faith on the representation of the manufacturer or a distributor of such product that the product is not subject to an applicable product safety rule. CIVIL PENALTIES SEC. 20. (a) (1) Any person who knowingly violates section 19 of this Act shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $2,000 for each such violation. Subject to paragraph (2), a violation of section 19(a) (1), (2), (4), (5), (6), or (7) shall constitute a separate offense with respect to each consumer product involved, except that the maximum civil penalty shall not exceed $500,000 for any related series of viola- tions. A violation of section 19(a) (3) shall constitute a separate viola- tion with respect to each failure or refusal to allow or perform an act required thereby; and, if such violation is a continuing one, each day of such violation shall constitute a separate offense, except that the maximum civil penalty shall not exceed $500,000 for any related series of violations. (2) The second sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall Nonapplicabil- ity. not apply to violations of paragraph (1) or (2) of section 19(a)— (A) if the person who violated such paragraphs is not the manufacturer or private labeler or a distributor of the products involved, and (B) if such person did not have either (i) actual knowledge that his distribution or sale of the product violated such para- graphs or (ii) notice from the Commission that such distribu- tion or sale would be a violation of such paragraphs. (b) Any civil penalty under this section may be compromised by compromise. the Commission. In determining the amount of such penalty or whether it should be remitted or mitigated and in what amount, the appro- priateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the person charged and the gravity of the violation shall be considered. The amount of such penalty when finally determined, or the amount agreed on compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged. (c) As used in the first sentence of subsection (a) (1) of this section, "Knowingly. the term "knowingly" means (1) the having of actual knowledge, or (2) the presumed having of knowledge deemed to be possessed by a reasonable man who acts in the circumstances, including knowledge obtainable upon the exercise of due care to ascertain the truth of representations. CRIMINAL PENALTIES SEC. 21. (a) Any person who knowingly and willfully violates sec- tion 19 of this Act after having received notice of noncompliance from the Commission shall be fined not more than $50,000 or be imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (b) Any individual director, officer, or agent of a corporation who knowingly and willfully authorizes, orders, or performs any of the acts or practices constituting in whole or in part a violation oi section 19, and who has knowledge of notice of noncompliance received by the corporation from the Commission, shall be subject to penalties under this section without regard to any penalties to which that corporation may be sub j ect under subsection ( a ) . I N J U N C T I V E E N F O R C E M E N T A N D SEIZURE SEC. 22. (a) The United States district courts shall have jurisdiction to restrain any violation of section 19, or to restrain any person from distributing in commerce a product which does not comply with a con-
1226 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. sumer product safety rule, or both. Such actions may be brought by the Commission (with the concurrence of the Attorney General) or by the Attorney General in any United States district court for a district wherein any act, omission, or transaction constituting the violation occurred, or in such court for the district wherein the defendant is found or transacts business. In any action under this section process may be served on a defendant in any other district in which the defend- ant resides or may be found. (b) Any consumer product which fails to conform to an applicable consumer product safety rule when introduced into or while in com- merce or while held for sale after shipment in commerce shall be liable to be proceeded against on libel of information and condemned in any United States district court within the jurisdiction of which such con- sumer product is found. Proceedings in cases instituted under the authority of this subsection shall conform as nearly as possible to proceedings in rem in admiralty. Whenever such proceedings involv- ing substantially similar consumer products are pending in courts of two or more judicial districts they shall be consolidated for trial by ' ' , order of any such court upon application reasonably made by any party in interest upon notice to all other parties in interest. S U I T S FOR DAMAGES BY PERSONS INJURED SEC. 23. (a) Any person who shall sustain injury by reason of any knowing (including willful) violation of a consumer product safety rule, or any other rule or order issued by the Commission may sue any person who knowingly (including willfully) violated any such rule or order in any district court of the United States in the district in which the defendant resides or is found or has an agent, subject to the 72 Stat. 415. provisions of section 1331 of title 28, United States Code as to the amount in controversy, and shall recover damages sustained, and the cost of suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee, if considered appro- priate in the discretion of the court. (b) The remedies provided for in this section shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any other remedies provided by common law or under Federal or State law. PRIVATE E N F O R C E M E N T OF PRODUCT SAFETY RULES A N D OF SECTION 15 ORDERS SEC. 24. Any interested person may bring an action in any United States district court for the district in which the defendant is found or transacts business to enforce a consumer product safety rule or an order under section 15, and t o obtain appropriate injunctive relief. Notice. J^ot less than thirty days prior to the commencement of such action, such interested person shall give notice by registered mail to the Com- mission, to the Attorney General, and to the person against whom such action is directed. Such notice shall state the nature of the alleged violation of any such standard or order, the relief to be requested, and the court in which the action will be brought No separate suit shall be brought under this section if a t the time the suit is brought the same alleged violation is the subject of a pending civil or criminal action by the United States under this Act. I n any action under this section, such interested person may elect, by a demand for such relief in his complaint, to recover reasonable attorney's fees, in which case the court shall award the costs of suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee, to the prevailing party.
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1227 EFFECT ON PRIVATE REMEDIES SEC. 25. (a) Compliance with consumer product safety rules or Liability. other rules or orders under this Act shall not relieve any person from liability at common law or under State statutory law to any other person. (b) The failure of the Commission to take any action or commence a proceeding with respect to the safety of a consumer product shall not be admissible in evidence in litigation at common law or under State statutory law relating to such consumer product. Public Infor- (c) Subject to sections 6(a) (2) and 6(b) but notwithstanding sec- mation. tion 6(a)(1), (1) any accident or investigation report made under this Act by an officer or employee of the Commission shall be made available to the public in a manner which will not identify any injured person or any person treating him, without the consent of the person so identified, and (2) all reports on research projects, demonstration projects, and other related activities shall be public information. EFFECT ON STATE STANDARDS State compli- SEC. 26. (a) Whenever a consumer product safety standard under ance to Federal this Act is in eifect and applies to a risk of injury associated with a standards. consumer product, no State or political subdivision of a State shall have any authority either to establish or to continue in effect any provision of a safety standard or regulation which prescribes any requirements as to the performance, composition, contents, design, finish, construction, packaging, or labeling of such product which are designed to deal with the same risk of injury associated with such consumer product, unless such requirements are identical to the require- ments of the Federal standard. (b) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the Federal Government or the government of any State or political subdivision thereof from establishing a safety requirement applicable to a con- sumer product for its own use if such requirement imposes a higher standard of performance than that required to comply with the other- wise apnlicable Federal standard. Exemptions. (c) Upon application of a State or political subdivision thereof, the Commission may by rule, after notice and opportunity for oral presentation of views, exempt from the provisions of subsection (a) (under such conditions as it may impose) a proposed safety standard or regulation described in such application, where the proposed stand- ard or regulation (1) imposes a higher level of performance than the Federal standard, (2) is required by compelling local conditions, and (3) does not unduly burden interstate commerce. ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF COMMISSION SEC. 27. (a) The Commission may, by one or more of its members publication in''*' or by such agents or agency as it may designate, conduct any hearing Federal Register. or other inquiry necessary or appropriate to its functions anywhere in the United States. A Commissioner who participates in such a hear- ing or other inquiry shall not be disqualified solely by reason of such participation from subsequently participating in a decision of the Commission in the same matter. The Commission shall publish notice of any proposed hearing in the Federal Register and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for interested persons to present relevant testimony and data.
1228 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. (b) The Commission shall also have the power— (1) to require, by special or general orders, any person to sub- mit in writing such reports and answers to questions as the Com- mission may prescribe; and such submission shall be made within such reasonable period and under oath or otherwise as the Com- mission may determine; (2) to administer oaths; (3) to require by subpena the attendance and testimony of wit- nesses and the production of all documentary evidence relating to the execution of its duties; (4) in any proceeding or investigation to order testimony to be taken by deposition before any person who is designated by the Commission and has the power to administer oaths and, in such instances, to compel testimony and the production of evidence in the same manner as authorized under paragraph (3) of this sub- section ; (5) to pay witnesses the same fees and mileage as are paid in like circumstances in the courts of the United States; (6) to accept gifts and voluntary and uncompensated services, notwithstanding the provisions of section 3679 of the Eevised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 665 (b)) ; (7) to initiate, prosecute, defend, or appeal any court action in the name of the Commission for the purpose of enforcing the laws subject to its jurisdiction, through its own legal representative with the concurrence of the Attorney General or through the Attorney General; and (8) to delegate any of its functions or powers, other than the power to issue subpenas under paragraph (3), to any officer or employee of the Commission. Noncompliance (c) Any United States district court within the jurisdiction of commi"^^on^o°der, which auy iuquiry is carried on, may, upon petition by the Commission penalty. ' with the coucurreuce of the Attorney General or by the Attorney General, in case of refusal to obey a subpena or order of the Commis- sion issued under subsection (b) of this section, issue an order requir- ing compliance therewith; and any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. Information (^) J^Q pcrsou shall bc subjcct to civil liability to any person (other ISC osure. tliau thc Commissiou or the United States) for disclosing information at the request of the Commission. Performance (c) Thc Commisslou may by rule require any manufacturer of con- notificllion'^^*^' sumer products to provide to the Commission such performance and technical data related to performance and safety as may be required to carry out the purposes of this Act, and to give such notification of such performance and technical data at the time of original purchase to prospective purchasers and to the first purchaser of such product for purposes other than resale, as it determines necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. (f) For purposes of carrying out this Act, the Commission may purchase any consumer product and it may require any manufacturer, distributor, or retailer of a consumer product to sell the product to the Commission at manufacturer's, distributor's, or retailer's cost. Contract au- (g) Thc Commissiou is authorized to enter into contracts with gov- thority. ernmental entities, private organizations, or individuals for the con- duct of activities authorized by this Act. devei^^m'ent^fa ^^^ '^^® Commissiou may plan, construct, and operate a facility cuiti^."'^" ^ or facilities suitable for research, development, and testing of con- sumer products in order to carry out this Act. Recordkeeping. (i) (1) Each recipient of assistance under this Act pursuant to grants or contracts entered into under other than competitive bidding
86 STAT.] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1229 procedures shall keep such records as the Commission by rule shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and dis- position by such recipient of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project undertaken in connection with which such assist- ance is given or used, and the amount of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other rec- ords as will facilitate an effective audit. (2) The Commission and the Comptroller General of the United GAO audit. States, or their duly authorized representatives, shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients that are pertinent to the grants or con- tracts entered into under this Act under other than competitive bidding procedures. (j) The Commission shall prepare and submit to the President and Report to Presi- dent and Congress. the Congress on or before October 1 of each year a comprehensive report on the administration of this Act for the preceding fiscal year. Such report shall include— (1) a thorough appraisal, including statistical analyses, esti- mates, and long-term projections, of the incidence of injury and effects to the population resulting from consumer products, with a breakdown, insofar as practicable, among the various sources of such injury; (2) a list of consumer product safety rules prescribed or in effect during such year; (3) an evaluation of the degree of observance of consumer product safety rules, including a list of enforcement actions, court decisions, and compromises of alleged violations, by location and company name; (4) a summary of outstanding problems confronting the administration of this Act in order of priority; (5) an analysis and evaluation of public and private consumer product safety research activities; (6) a list, with a brief statement of the issues, of completed or pending judicial actions under this Act; (7) the extent to which technical information was disseminated to the scientific and commercial communities and consumer infor- mation was made available to the public; (8) the extent of cooperation between Commission officials and representatives of industry and other interested parties in the implementation of this Act, including a log or summary of meet- ings held between Commission officials and representatives of industry and other interested parties; (9) an appraisal of significant actions of State and local gov- ernments relating to the responsibilities of the Commission; and (10) such recommendations for additional legislation as the Commission deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. (k) (1) Whenever the Commission submits any budget estimate or Budget esti- mate, transmittal request to the President or the Office of Management and Budget, it to C o n g r e s s * - shall concurrently transmit a copy of that estimate or request to the Congress. (2) Whenever the Commission submits any legislative recommenda- Legislative recommendations, tions, or testimony, or comments on legislation to the President or the transmittal to Office of JNIanagement and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit a Congress. copy thereof to the Congress. No officer or agency of the United States shall have any authority to require the Commission to submit its legislative recommendations, or testimony, or comments on legislation, to Sinj officer or agency of the United States for approval, comments, or review, prior to the submission of such recommendations, testimony, or comments to the Congress.
1230 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. , PRODUCT SAFETY ADVISORY COUNCIL Establishment; SEC. 28. (a) The Commission shall establish a Product Safety membership. Advisory Council which it may consult before prescribing a consumer product safety rule or taking other action under this Act. The Council shall be appointed by the Commission and shall be composed of fifteen members, each of whom shall be qualified by training and experience in one or more of the fields applicable to the safety of products within the jurisdiction of the Commission. The Council shall be constituted as follows: (1) five members shall be selected from governmental agencies including Federal, State, and local governments; (2) five members shall be selected from consumer product industries including at least one representative of small business; and (3) five members shall be selected from among consumer orga- nizations, community organizations, and recognized consumer leaders. (b) The Council shall meet at the call of the Commission, but not less often than four times during each calendar year. (c) The Council may propose consumer product safety rules to the Commission for its consideration and mav function through subcom- mittees of its members. All proceedings of the Council shall be public, and a record of each proceeding shall be available for public inspection. Compensation; (d) Members of the Council who are not officers or employees of travel pay. the United States shall, while attending meetings or conferences of the Council or while otherwise engaged in the business of the Council, be entitled to receive compensation at a rate fixed by the Commission, not exceeding the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in 5 u s e 5332 note. effect for grade GS-18 of the General Schedule, including traveltlme, and while away from their homes or regular places of business they may be allowed travel expense, including per diem in lieu of sub- 80 Stat. 499; sistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code. 83 Stat. 190. Payments under this subsection shall not render members of the Council officers or employees of the United States for any purpose. COOPERATION W I T H STATES A N D W I T H OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES SEC. 29. (a) The Commission shall establish a program to pro- mote Federal-State cooperation for the purposes of carrying out this Act. In implementing such program the Commission may— (1) accept from any State or local authorities engaged in activities relating to health, safety, or consumer protection assist- ance in such functions as injury data collection, investigation, and educational programs, as well as other assistance in the adminis|;ration and enforcement of this Act which such States or localities may be able and willing to provide and, if so agreed, may pay in advance or otherwise for the reasonable cost of such assistance, and (2) commission any qualified officer or employee of any State or local agency as an officer of the Commission for the purpose of conducting examinations, investigations, and inspections. Separate State (b) In determining whether such proposed State and local programs and local consoli- dation a g e n c i e s . are appropriate in implementing the purposes of this Act, the Com- mission shall give favorable consideration to programs which establish separate State and local agencies to consolidate functions relating to product safety and other consumer protection activities.
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1231 Data, availa* (c) The Commission may obtain from any Federal department or biUty. agency such statistics, data, program reports, and other materials as it may deem necessary to carty out its functions under this Act. Each such department or agency may cooperate with the Commission and, to the extent permitted by law, furnish such materials to it. The Com- mission and the heads of other departments and agencies engaged in administering programs related to product safety shall, to the maxi- mum extent practicable, cooperate and consult in order to insure fully coordinated efforts. (d) The Commission shall, to the maximum extent practicable, National Bureau utilize the resources and facilities of the National Bureau of Stand- of Standards, u s e of facilities. ards, on a reimbursable basis, to perform research and analyses related to risks of injury associated with consumer products (including fire and flammability risks), to develop test methods, to conduct studies and investigations, and to provide technical advice and assistance in connection with the f unctipns of the Commission. TRANSFERS OF F U N C T I O N S SEC. 30. (a) The functions of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261 et seq.) and the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 are 74 Stat. 372. 84 Stat. 1670. transferred to the Commission. The functions of the Administrator of 15 u s e 14 71 the Environmental Protection Agency and of the Secretary of Health, note. Education, and Welfare under the Acts amended by subsections (b) through (f) of section 7 of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, to the extent such functions relate to the administration and 7 u s e 135; 21 u s e 343, 352, enforcement of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, are 362. transferred to the Commission. (b) The functions of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Wel- fare, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission under the Flammable Fabrics Act (15 U.S.C. 1191 et seq.) are trans- 67 Stat. I l l ; 81 Stat. 568. ferred to the Commission. The functions of the Federal Trade Com- mission under the Federal Trade Commission Act, to the extent such 15 u s e 58. functions relate to the administration and enforcement of the Flam- mable Fabrics Act, are transferred to the Commission. (c) The functions of the Secretary of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission under the Act of August 2, 1956 (15 U.S.C. 1211) 70 Stat. 953. are transferred to the Commission. (d) A risk of injury which is associated with consumer products Risk of Injury. and which could be eliminated or reduced to a sufficient extent by action taken under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, or the Flammable Fabrics Act may be regulated by the Commission only in accordance with the provisions of those Acts. (e) (1) (A) All personnel, property, records, obligations, and com- Personnel, mitments, which are used primarily with respect to any function property, e t c . , transfer. transferred under the provisions of subsections ( a ) , (b) and (c) of this section shall be transferred to the Commission, except those asso- ciated with fire and flammability research in the National Bureau of Standards, The transfer of personnel pursuant to this paragraph shall be without reduction in classification or compensation for one year after such transfer, except that the Chairman of the Commission shall have full authority to assign personnel during such one-year period in order to efficiently carry out functions transferred to the Commis- sion under this section.
1232 PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 [86 STAT. Public Health (B) Any commissioned officer of the Public Health Service who Service officer, competitive upon the day before the effective date of this section, is serving as status. such officer primarily in the performance of functions transferred by this Act to the Commission, may, if such officer so elects, acquire competitive status and be transferred to a competitive position in the Commission subject to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, under the terms prescribed in paragraphs (3) through (8) (A) of section 15(b) of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (84 Stat. 1676; 42 U.S.C. 215 n t ) . (2) All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, con- tracts, certificates, licenses, and privileges (A) which have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective in the exercise of func- tions which are transferred under this section by any department or agency, any functions of which are transferred by this section, and (B) which are in effect at the time this section takes effect, shall con- tinue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or repealed by the Commission, by any court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law. (3) The provisions of this section shall not affect any proceedings pending at the time this section takes effect before any department or agency, functions of which are transferred by this section; except that such proceedings, to the extent that they relate to functions so trans- ferred, shall be continued before the Commission. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and pay- ments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this section had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or repealed by the Commission, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law. (4) The provisions of this section shall not affect suits commenced prior to the date this section takes effect and in all such suits proceed- ings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered, in the same manner and effect as if this section had not been enacted; except that if before the date on which this section takes effect, any department or agency (or officer thereof in his official capacity) is a party to a suit involving functions transferred to the Commission, then such suit shall be continued by the Commission. No cause of action, and no suit, action, or other proceeding, by or against any department or agency (or officer thereof in his official capacity) functions of which are trans- ferred by this section, shall abate by reason of the enactment of this section. Causes of actions, suits, actions, or other proceedings may be asserted by or against the United States or the Commission as may be appropriate and, in any litigation pending when this section takes effect, the court may at any time, on its own motion or that of any party, enter an order which will give effect to the provisions of this paragraph. "Function." (f) For purposes of this section, (1) the term "function" includes power and duty, and (2) the transfer of a function, under any pro- vision of law, of an agency or the head of a department shall also be a transfer of all functions under such law which are exercised by any office or officer of such agency or department. LIMITATION ON JUEISDICTION SEC. 31. The Commission shall have no authority under this Act to regulate any risk of injury associated with a consumer product if such risk could be eliminated or reduced to a sufficient extent by actions 29 u s e 651 taken under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970; the note^ 42 u s e 2011 Atomic Energy Act of 1954; or the Clean Air Act, The Commission note, 1857 note. shall have no authority under this Act to regulate any risk of injury
86 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 92-573-OCT. 27, 1972 1233 associated with electronic product radiation emitted from an electronic product (as such terms are defined by sections 355 (1) and (2) of the Public Health Service Act) if such risk of injury may be subjected to 82 stat. 1174. regulation under subpart 3 of part F of title I I I of the Public Health ^^^ use 263c. Service Act. 42 use 263b. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIOKS SEC. 32. (a) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act (other than the provisions of section 27 (h) which authorize the planning and construc- tion of research, development, and testing facilities), and for the pur- pose of carrying out the functions, powers, and duties transferred to the Commission under section 30, not to exceed— (1) $55,000,000 for the fiscal year ending J u n e 30, 1973; (2) $59,000,000 for the fiscal year ending J u n e 30, 1974; and (3) $64,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975. (b) (1) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the planning and construction of research, develop- ment and testing facilities described in section 2 7 ( h ) ; except that no Limitation, appropriation shall be made for any such planning or construction involving an expenditure in excess of $100,000 if such planning or construction has not been approved by resolutions adopted in sub- stantially the same form by the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Eepresentatives, and by the Committee on Commerce of the Senate. F o r the purpose of securing considera- tr^Ti^tuiTo tion of such approval the Commission shall transmit to Congress a Congress. prospectus of the proposed facility including (but not limited to)— (A) a brief description of the facility to be planned or con- structed ; (B) the location of the facility, and an estimate of the maxi- mum cost of the facility; (C) a statement of those agencies, private and public, which will use such facility, together with the contribution to be made by each such agency toward the cost of such facility; and (D) a statement of justification of the need for such facility. (2) The estima-ted maximum cost of any facility approved under '^m^^st^^Hmi-''* this subsection as set forth in the prospectus may be increased by the tation. amount equal to the percentage increase, if any, as determined by the Commission, in construction costs, from the date of the transmittal of such prosj)ectus to Congress, but in no event shall the increase author- ized by this paragraph exceed 10 per centum of such estimated maxi- mum cost. SEPARABILITY SEC. 33. If any provision of this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, shall be held invalid, the remainder of this Act, or the application of such provisions to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby. EFFECTIVE DATE SEC. 34. This Act shall take effect on the sixtieth day following the date of its enactment, except— (1) sections 4 and 32 shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act, and (2) section 30 shall take effect on the later of (A) 150 days after the date of enactment of this Act, or (B) the date on which at least three members of the Commission fii-st take office. Approved October 27, 1972.