The text of the bill below is as of Jan 2, 1975 (Passed Congress).
1926 PUBLIC LAW 93-594-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. (b) The release of the conditions described in subsection (a) of the first section of this Act shall not take effect with respect to any of the certain portions until such time as an exchange of real property for that certain portion is executed in accordance with the terms of agree- ment described in subsection (a) of this section. Approved January 2, 1975. Public Law 93-594 January 2, 1975 AN A C T [H. R. 526.4] To amend section 3 ( f ) of t h e Federal Property and Administrative Services Xct of 1949, w i t h respect to American Samoa, Guam, and the T r u s t Territory of the Pacific Islands. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section 3(f) 40 u s e 472. of the Federal Property Administrative Services Act of 1949 is amended by inserting after the words "Puerto Rico," the words "American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands,". Approved January 2, 1975. Public Law 93-595 January 2, 1975 AN ACT [H. R. 5463] To establish rules of evidence for certain courts and proceedings. Federal R u l e s Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the of E v i d e n c e . 28 u s e a p p . United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following Effective d a t e . rules shall take effect on the one hundred and eightieth day beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act. These rules apply to actions, cases, and proceedings brought after the rules take effect. These rules also apply to further procedure in actions, cases, and pro- ceedings then pending, except to the extent that application of the rules would not be feasible, or would work injustice, in which event former evidentiary principles apply. TABLE O F CONTENTS ARTICLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Rule 101. Scope. Rule 102. Purpose a n d construction. Rule 103. Rulings on evidence : ( a ) Effect of erroneous r u l i n g : (1) Objection. (2) OfEer of proof. (b) Record of offer a n d ruling. (c) H e a r i n g of jury. ( d ) Plain error. Rule 104. Preliminary questions: ( a ) Questions of admissibility generally. (b) Relevancy conditioned on fact. (c) H e a r i n g of j u r y . (d) Testimony by accused. (e) Weight a n d credibility. Rule 105. Limited admissibility. Rule 106. Remainder of or related writings on recorded statements.
88 STAT. J PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1927 ARTICLE I I . JUDICIAL NOTICE Rule 201. Judicial notice of adjudicative f a c t s : (a) Scope of rule. (b) Kinds of facts. (c) When discretionary. (d) When mandatory. (e) Opportunity to be heard. (f) Time of taking notice. (g) Instructing jury. ARTICLE I I I . PRESUMPTIONS I N CIVIL ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS Rule 301. Presumptions in general civil actions and proceedings. Rule 302. Applicability of State law in civil actions and proceedings. ARTICLE IV. RELEVANCY AND I T S L I M I T S Rule 401. Definition of "relevant evidence". Rule 402. Relevant evidence generally admissible; irrelevant evidence inadmis- sible. Rule 403. Exclusion of relevant evidence on grounds of prejudice, confusion, or waste of time. Rule 404, Character evidence not admissible to prove conduct; exceptions; other crimes: ( a ) Character evidence generally : (1) Character of accused. (2) Character of victim. (3) Character of witness. (b) Other crimes, wrongs, or acts. Rule 405. Methods of proving c h a r a c t e r : ( a ) Reputation. (b) Specific instances of conduct. Rule 406. H a b i t ; routine practice. Rule 407. Subsequent remedial measures. Rule 408. Compromise and offers to compromise. Rule 409. P a y m e n t of medical and similar expenses. Rule 410. Offer to plead g u i l t y ; nolo contendere; w i t h d r a w n plea of guilty. Rule 411. Liability insurance. ARTICLE V. PRIVILEGES Rule 501. General Rule. ARTICLE YI. WITNESSES Rule 601. General rule of competency. Rule 602. Jjack of personal knowledge. Rule 603. Oath or affirmation. Rule 604. Interpreters. Rule 605. Competency of judge a s witness. Rule 606. Competency of j u r o r a s witness : (a) At the trial. (b) Inquiry into validity of verdict or indictment. Rule 607. Who may impeach. Rule 608. Evidence of character and conduct of w i t n e s s : ( a ) Reputation evidence of character. (b) Specific instances of conduct. Rule 609. Impeachment by evidence of conviction of c r i m e : (a) General rule. (b) Time limit. (c) Effect of pardon, annulment, or certificate of rehabilitation. (d) Juvenile adjudications. (e) Pendency of appeal. Rule 610. Religious beliefs or opinions. Rule 611. Mode and order of interrogation and presentation : (a) Control by court. (b) Scope of cross-examination. (c) Leading questions. Rule 612. Writing used to refresh memory. Rule 613. P r i o r statements of witnesses: ( a ) Examining witness concerning prior statement. (b) Extrinsic evidence of prior inconsistent statement of witness. Rule 614. Calling and interrogation of witnesses by c o u r t : ( a ) Calling by court. (b) Interrogation by court. (c) Objections. Rule 615. Exclusion of witnesses.
1928 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. ARTICLE V I I . O P I N I O N S AND EXPERT T E S T I M O N Y Bule 701. Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. Rule 702. Testimony by experts. Kule 703. Bases of opinion testimony by experts. Rule 704. Opinion on ultimate issue. Rule 705. Disclosure of facts or d a t a underlying expert opinion. Bule 706. Court appointed e x p e r t s : ( a ) Appointment. (b) Compensation. (c) Disclosure of appointment. (d) P a r t i e s ' experts of own selection. ARTICLE V I I I . HEARSAY Rule 801. Definitions: ( a ) Statement. (b) Declarant. (c) H e a r s a y . ( d ) Statements which a r e not h e a r s a y : (1) Prior statement by witness. (2) Admission by party-opponent. Rule 802. H e a r s a y rule. Rule 803. H e a r s a y exceptions; availability of declarant i m m a t e r i a l : (1) Present sense impression. (2) Excited utterance. (3) Then existing mental, emotional, or physical condition. (4) Statements for purposes of medical diagnosis or treatment. (5) Recorded recollection. (6) Records of regularly conducted activity. (7) Absence of entry in records kept in accordance with t h e provisions of p a r a g r a p h ( 6 ) . (8) Public records and reports. (9) Records of vital statistics. (10) Absence of public record or entry. (11) Records of religious organizations. (12) Marriage, baptismal, and similar certificates. (13) Family records. (14) Records of documents affecting an interest in property. (15) Statements in documents affecting an interest in property. (16) Statements in ancient documents. (17) Market reports, commercial publications. (18) Learned treatises. (19) Reputation concerning personal or family history. (20) Reputation concerning boundaries or general history. (21) Reputation a s to character. (22) J u d g m e n t of previous conviction. (23) J u d g m e n t a s to personal, family, o r general history, or boundaries. (24) Other exceptions. Rule 804. H e a r s a y exceptions; declarant unavailable : ( a ) Definition of unavailability. (b) H e a r s a y exceptions: (1) Former testimony. (2) Statement under belief of impending death. (3) Statement against interest. (4) Statement of personal or family history. (5) Other exceptions. Rule 805. H e a r s a y within hearsay. Rule 800. Attacking and supporting credibility of declarant. AuTicLE I X . AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION Rule 901. Requirement of authentication or identification: ( a ) General provision. (b) l l l n s t r a U o n s : (1) Testimony of witness with knowledge. (2) Nonexpert opinion on handwriting. (3) Comparison by trier or expert witness. (4) Distinctive characteristics and the like, (5) A'oice identification. (6) Telephone conversations. (7) Public records or reports. (8) Ancient documents o r d a t a compilations. (9) Process or system, (10) Methods provided by s t a t u t e or rule.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1929 Rule 902. Self-authentication; (1) Domestic public documents under seal. (2) Domestic public documents not under seal. (3) Foreign public documents. (4) Certified copies of public records. (5) OflScial publications. (6) Newspapers and periodicals. (7) T r a d e inscriptions and the like. (8) Acknowledged documents. (9) Commercial paper a n d related documents. (10) Presumptions under Acts of Congress. Rule 903. Subscribing witness' testimony unnecessary. ARTICLE X . CONTENTS OF W E I T I N Q S , RECOEDINGS, AND PHOTOGEAPHS R u l e 1001. Definitions: (1) Writings a n d recordings. (2) Photographs. (3) Original. (4) Duplicate. Rule 1002. Requirement of original. Rule 1003. Admissibility of duplicates. Rule 1004. Admissibility of other evidence of contents : (1) Originals lost or destroyed. (2) Original not obtainable. (3) Original in possession of opponent. (4) Collateral m a t t e r s . Rule 1005. Public records. Rule 1006. Summaries. Rule 1007. Testimony or written admission of p a r t y . Rule 1008. Functions of court a n d jury. AETICLE X I . MISCELLANEOUS R U L E S Rule 1101. Applicability of rules : ( a ) Courts and magistrates. (b) Proceedings generally. (c) Rules of privilege. (d) Rules inapplicable: (1) Preliminary questions of fact. (2) Grand j u r y . (3) Miscellaneous proceedings. (e) Rules applicable in part. Rule 1102. Amendments. Rule 1103. Title. RULES OF EVIDENCE FOR UNITED STATES 28 use app. COURTS AND MAGISTRATES ARTICLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Rule 101. Scope These rules govern proceedings in the courts of the United States m d before United States magistrates, to the extent and with the excep- tions stated in rule 1101. Rule 102. Purpose and Construction These rules shall be construed to secure fairness in administration, elimination of unjustifiable expense and delay, and promotion of growth and development of the law of evidence to the end that the truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined. Rule 103. Rulings on Evidence (a) Effect of erroneous ruling.—Error may not be predicated upon a ruling which admits or excludes evidence unless a substantial right of the party is affected, and (1) Objection.—In case the ruling is one admitting evidence, a timely objection or motion to strike appears of record, stating
1930 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. the specific ground of objection, if the specific ground was not apparent from the context; or (2) Offer of proof.—In case the ruling is one excluding evidence, the substance of the evidence was made known to the court by offer or was apparent from the context within which questions were asked. (b) Record of offer and ruling.—The court may add any other or further statement which shows the character of the evidence, the form in which it was offered, the objection made, and the ruling thereon. I t may direct the making of an offer in question and answer form. (c) Hearing of jury.—In jury cases, proceedings shall be con- ducted, to the extent practicable, so as to prevent inadmissible evi- dence from being suggested to the jury by any means, such as making statements or offers of proof or asking questions in the hearing of the jury. (d) Plain error.—Nothing in this rule precludes taking notice of plain errors affecting substantial rights although they were not brought to the attention of the court. Rule 104. Preliminary Questions (a) Questions of admissibility generally.—Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness, the existence of a privilege, or the admissibility of evidence shall be determined by the court, subject to the provisions of subdivision (b). I n making its determination it is not bound by the rules of evidence except those with respect to privileges. (b) Relevancy conditioned on fact.—^When the relevancy of evi- dence depends upon the fulfillment of a condition of fact, the court shall admit it upon, or subject to, the introduction of evidence suffi- cient to support a finding of the fulfillment of the condition. (c) Hearing of jury.—Hearings on the admissibility of confessions shall in all cases be conducted out of the hearing of the jury. Hearings on other preliminary matters shall be so conducted when the interests of justice require or, when an accused is a witness, if he so requests. (d) Testimony by accused.—The accused does not, by testifying upon a preliminary matter, subject himself to cross-examination as to other issues in the case. (e) Weight and credibility.—This rule does not limit the ri^ht of a party to introduce before the jury evidence relevant to weight or credibility. Rule 105. Limited Admissibility When evidence which is admissible as to one party or for one pur- pose but not admissible as to another party or for another purpose is admitted, the court, upon request, shall restrict the evidence to its proper scope and instruct the jury accordingly. Rule 106. Remainder of or Related Writings or Recorded Statements When a writing or recorded statement or part thereof is introduced by a party, an adverse party may require him at that time to intro- diice any other part or any other writing or recorded statement which ought in fairness to be considered contemporaneously with it. ARTICLE I I . JUDICIAL NOTICE Rule 201. Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts (a) Scope of rule.—This rule governs only judicial notice of adju- dicative facts.
88 STAT.] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-J AN. 2, 1975 1931 (b) Kinds of facts.—A judicially noticed fact must be one not subject to reasonable dispute in that it is either (1) generally known within the territorial jurisdiction of the trial court or (2) capable of accurate and ready determination by resort to sources whose accu- racy cannot reasonably be questioned. (c) When discretionary.—^A court may take judicial notice, whether requested or not. (d) When mandatory.—^A court shall take judicial notice if requested by a jDarty and supplied with the necessary information. (e) Opportunity to be heard.—A party is entitled upon timely request to an opportunity to be heard as to the propriety of taking judicial notice and the tenor of the matter noticed. In the absence of prior notification, the request may be made after judicial notice has been taken. (f) Time of taking notice.—Judicial notice may be taken at any stage of the proceeding. (g) Instructing jury.—In a civil action or proceeding, the court shall instruct the jury to accept as conclusive any fact judicially noticed. I n a criminal case, the court shall instruct the jury that it may, but is not required to, accept as conclusive any fact judicially noticed. ARTICLE I I I . PRESUMPTIONS I N CIVIL ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS Eule 301. Presumptions in General in Civil Actions and Proceedings I n all civil actions and proceedings not otherwise provided for by Act of Congress or by these rules, a presumption imposes on the party against whom it is directed the burden of going forward with evidence to rebut or meet the presumption, but does not shift to such party the burden of proof in the sense of the risk of nonpersuasion, which remains throughout the trial upon the party on whom it was originally cast. Rule 302. Applicability of State Law in Civil Actions and Proceedings I n civil actions and proceedings, the effect of a presumption respect- ing a fact which is an element of a claim or defense as to which State law supplies the rule of decision is determined in accordance with State law. ARTICLE IV. RELEVANCY AND I T S LIMITS Rule 401. Definition of "Relevant Evidence" "Relevant evidence" means evidence having any tendency to make the existence of any fact that is of consequence to the determination of the action more probable or less probable than it would be without the evidence. Rule 402. Relevant Evidence Generally Admissible; Irrelevant Evidence Inadmissible All relevant evidence is admissible, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution of the United States, by Act of Congress, by these rules, or by other rules prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority. Evidence which is not relevant is not admissible.
1932 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. Rule 403. Exclusion of Relevant Evidence on Grounds of Prejudice, Confusion, or Waste of Time Although relevant, evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, con- fusion of the issues, or misleading the jury, or by considerations of undue delay, waste of time, or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. Rule 404. Character Evidence Not Admissible To Prove Conduct; Exceptions; Other Crimes (a) Character evidence generally.—Evidence of a person's character or a trait of his character is not admissible for the purpose of proving that he acted in conformity therewith on a particular occasion, except: (1) Character of accused.—Evidence of a pertinent trait of his character offered by an accused, or by the prosecution to rebut the same; (2) Character of victim.—Evidence of a pertinent trait of char- acter of the victim of the crime offered by an accused, or by the prosecution to rebut the same, or evidence of a character trait of peacefulness of the victim offered by the prosecution in a homicide case to rebut evidence that the victim was the first aggressor; (3) Character of witness.—Evidence of the character of a witness, as provided in rules 607, 608, and 609. (b) Other crimes, wrongs, or acts.—Evidence of other crimes, wrongs, or acts is not admissible to prove the character of a person in order to show that he acted in conformitj^ therewith. It may, however, be admissible for other purposes, such as proof of motive, opportunity, intent, preparation, plan, knowledge, identity, or absence of inistake or accident. Rule 405. Methods of Proving *te Character (a) Reputation or opinion.—In all cases in which evidence of character or a trait of character of a person is admissible, proof may be made by testimony as to reputation or by testimony in the form of an opinion. On cross-examination, inquiry is allowable into relevant specific instances of conduct. (b) Specific instances of conduct.—In cases in which character or a trait of character of a person is an essential element of a charge, claim, or defense, proof may also be made of specific instances of his conduct. Rule 406. Habit; Routine Practice Evidence of the habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization, whether corroborated or not and regardless of the presence of eyewitnesses, is relevant to prove that the conduct of the person or organization on a particular occasion was in conformity with the habit or routine practice. Rule 407. Subsequent Remedial Measures When, after an event, measures are taken which, if taken previously, would have made the event less likely to occur, evidence of the sub- sequent measures is not admissible to prove negligence or culpable conduct in connection with the event. This rule does not require the exclusion of evidence of subsequent measures when offered for another purpose, such as proving ownership, conti'ol, or feasibility of pre- cautionary measures, if controverted, or impeachment.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1933 Rule 408. Compromise and Offers to Compromise Evidence of (1) furnishing or offering or promising to furnish, or (2) accepting or offering or promising to accept, a valuable considera- tion in compromising or attempting to compromise a claim which was disputed as to either validity or amount, is not admissible to prove liability for or invalidity of the claim or its amount. Evidence of conduct or statements made in compromise negotiations is likewise not admissible. This rule does not require the exclusion of any evi- dence otherwise discoverable merely because it is presented in the course of compromise negotiations. This rule also does not require exclusion when the evidence is offered for another purpose, such as proving bias or prejudice of a witness, negativing a contention of undue delay, or proving an effort to obstruct a criminal investigation or prosecution. Rule 409. Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses Evidence of furnishing or offering or promising to pay medical, hospital, or similar expenses occasioned by an injury is not admissible to prove liability for the injury. Rule 410. Offer To Plead Gulity; Nolo Contendere; Withdrawn Plea of Guilty Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, evidence of a plea of guilty, later withdrawn, or a plea of nolo contendere, or of an offer to plead guilty or nolo contendere to the crime charged or any other crime, or of statements made in connection with any of the foregoing pleas or offers, is not admissible in an}' civil or criminal action, case, or proceeding against the person who made the plea or offer. This rule shall not apply to the introduction of voluntary and reliable state- ments made in court on the record in connection with any of the foregoing pleas or offers where offered for impeachment purposes or in a subsequent prosecution of the declarant for perjury or false statement. This rule shall not take effect until August 1, 1975, and shall be Effective date. supei'seded bj^ any amendment to the Federal Rules of Criminal Pro- cedure wliich is inconsistent with this rule, and which takes effect after ^^ ^^^ ^^^' the date of the enactment of the Act establishing these Federal Rules of Evidence. Rule 411. Liability Insurance Evidence that a person was or was not insured against liability is not admissible upon the issue whether he acted negligently or other- wise wrongfully. This rule does not require the exclusion of evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of agency, ownership, or control, or bias or prejudice of a witness. ARTICLE V. PRIVILEGES Rule 501. General Rule Except as otherAvise required by the Constitution of the United States or provided by Act of Congress or in rules prescribed by the ."^^ P'"*''- Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority, the privilege of a '" ^ witness, person, government, State, or political subdivision "thereof shall be governed by the principles of the common law as they may be interpreted by the courts of the United States in the light of reason and experience. However, in civil actions and proceedings, with respect to an element of a claim or defense as to which State law
1934 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. supplies the rule of decision, the privilege of a witness, person, government, State, or political subdivision thereof shall be determined in accordance with State law. ARTICLJ: V L WITNESSES Rule 601. General Rule of Competency Every person is competent to be a witness except as otherwise pro- vided in these rules. However, in civil actions and proceedings, with respect to an element of a claim or defense as to which State law supplies the rule of decision, the competency of a witness shall be determined in accordance with State law. Rule 602. Lack of Personal Knowledge A witness may not testify to a matter unless evidence is introduced sufficient to support a finding that he has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may, but need not, consist of the testimony of the witness himself. This rule is subject to the provisions of rule 703, relating to opinion testimony by expert witnesses. Rule 603. Oath or Affirmation Before testifying, every witness shall be required to declare that he will testify truthfully, by oath or affirmation administered in a form calculated to awaken his conscience and impress his mind with his duty to do so. Rule 604. Interpreters An interpreter is subject to the provisions of these rules relating to qualification as an expert and the administration of an oath or affirma- tion that he will make a true translation. Rule 605. Competency of Judge as Witness The judge presiding at the trial may not testify in that trial as a witness. No objection need be made in order to preserve the point. Rule 606. Competency of J u r o r as Witness (a) A t the trial.—A member of the jury may not testify as a wit- ness before that jury in the trial of the case in which he is sitting as a juror. If he is called so to testify, the opposing party shall be afforded an opportunity to object out of the presence of the jury. (b) Inquiry into validity of verdict or indictment.—Upon an inquiry into the validity of a verdict or indictment, a juror may not testify as to any matter or statement occurring during the course of the jury's deliberations or to the effect of anything upon his or any other juror's mind or emotions as influencing him to assent to or dissent from the verdict or indictment or concerning his mental proc- esses in connection therewith, except that a juror may testify on the question whether extraneous prejudicial information was improperly brought to the jury's attention or whether any outside influence was improperly brought to bear upon any juror. Nor may his affidavit or evidence of any statement by him concerning a matter about what he would be precluded from testifying be received for these purposes. Rule 607. Who May Impeach The credibility of a witness may be attacked by any party, including the party calling him.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1935 Rule 608. Evidence of Character and Conduct of Witness (a) Opinion and reputation evidence of character.—The credibility of a witness may be attacked or supported by evidence in the form of opinion or reputation, but subject to these limitations: (1) the evi- dence may refer only to character for truthfulness or untruthfulness, and (2) evidence of truthful character is admissible only after the character of the witness for truthfulness has been attacked by opinion or reputation evidence or otherwise. (b) Specific instances of conduct.—Specific instances of the conduct of a witness, for the purpose of attacking or supporting his credibility, other than conviction of crime as provided in rule 609, may not be proved by extrinsic evidence. They may, however, in the discretion of the court, if probative of truthfulness or untruthfulness, be inquired into on cross-examination of the witness (1) concerning his character for truthfulness or untruthfulness, or (2) concerning the character for truthfulness or untruthfulness of another witness as to which character the witness being cross-examined has testified. The giving of testimony, whether by an accused or by any other witness, does not operate as a waiver of his privilege against self- incrimination when examined with respect to matters which relate only to credibility. Rule 609. Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime (a) General rule.—For the purpose of attacking the credibility of a witness, evidence that he has been convicted of a crime shall be admitted if elicited from him or established by public record during cross-examination but only if the crime (1) was punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year under the law under which he was convicted, and the court determines that the probative value of admitting this evidence outweighs its prejudicial effect to the defend- ant, or (2) involved dishonesty or false statement, regardless of the punishment. (b) Time limit.—Evidence of a conviction under this rule is not admissible if a period of more than ten years has elapsed since the date of the conviction or of the release of the witness from the con- finement imposed for that conviction, whichever is the later date, unless the court determines, in the interests of justice, that the probative value of the conviction supported by specific facts and circumstances sub- stantially outweighs its prejudicial effect. However, evidence of a con- viction more than 10 years old as calculated herein, is not admissible unless the proponent gives to the adverse party sufficient advance written notice of intent to use such evidence to provide the adverse party with a fair opportunity to contest the use of such evidence. (c) Effect of pardon, annulment, or certificate of rehabilitation.— Evidence of a conviction is not admissible under this rule if (1) the conviction has been the subject of a pardon, annulment, certificate of rehabilitation, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation of the person convicted, and that person has not been convicted of a subsequent crime which was punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year, or (2) the conviction has been the subject of a pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of innocence. (d) Juvenile adjudications.—Evidence of juvenile adjudications is generally not admissible under this rule. The court may, how^ever, in a criminal case allow evidence of a juvenile adjudication of a wit- ness other than the accused if conviction of the offense would be admissible to attack the credibility of an adult and the court is satis- fied that admission in evidence is necessary for a fair determination of the issue of guilt or innocence.
1936 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. (e) Pendency of appeal.—The pendency of an appeal therefrom does not render evidence of a conviction inadmissible. Evidence of the pendency of an appeal is admissible. Rule 610. Religious Beliefs or Opinions Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the purpose of showing that by reason of their nature his credibility is impaired or enhanced. Rule 611. Mode and Order of Interrogation and Presentation (a) Control by court.—The court shall exercise reasonable control over the mode and order of interrogating witnesses and presenting evidence so as to (1) make the interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) avoid needless consumption of time, and (3) protect witnesses from harassment or undue embar- rassment. (b) Scope of cross-examination.—Cross-examination should be lim- ited to the subject matter of the direct examination and matters affect- ing the credibility of the witness. The court may, in the exercise of discretion, permit inquiry into additional matters as if on direct examination. (c) Leading questions.—Leading questions should not be used on the direct examination of a witness except as may be necessary to develop his testimony. Ordinarily leading questions should be per- mitted on cross-examination. When a party calls a hostile witness, an adverse party, or a witness identified with an adverse party, interro- gation may be by leading questions. Rule 612. Writing Used To Refresh Memory Except as otherwise provided in criminal proceedings by section 3500 of title 18, United States Code, if a witness uses a writing to refresh his memory for the purpose of testifying, either— (1) while testifying, or (2) before testifying, if the court in its discretion determines it is necessary in the interests of justice, an adverse party is entitled to have the writing produced at the hear- ing, to inspect it, to cross-examine the witness thereon, and to intro- duce in evidence those portions which relate to the testimony of the witness. If it is claimed that the writing contains matters not related to the subject matter of the testimony the court shall examine the writing in camera, excise any portions not so related, and order deliv- ery of the remainder to the party entitled thereto. Any portion with- held over objections shall be preserved and made available to the appellate court in the event of an appeal. If a writing is not produced or delivered pursuant to order under this rule, the court shall make any order justice requires, except that in criminal cases when the prosecution elects not to comply, the order shall be one striking the testimony or, if the court in its discretion determines that the interests of justice so require, declaring a mistrial. Rule 613. Prior Statements of Witnesses (a) Examining witness concerning prior statement.—In examining a witness concerning a prior statement made by him, whether written or not, the statement need not be shown nor its contents disclosed to him at that time, but on request the same shall be shown or disclosed to opposing counsel.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1937 (b) Extrinsic evidence of prior inconsistent statement of witness.— Extrinsic evidence of a prior inconsistent statement by a witness is not admissible unless the witness is afforded an opportunity to explain or deny the same and the opposite party is afforded an opportunity to interrogate him thereon, or the interests of justice otherwise require. This provision does not apply to admissions of a party-opponent as defined in rule 801(d) (2). Rule 614. Calling and Interrogation of Witnesses by Court (a) Calling by court.—The court may, on its own motion or at the suggestion of a party, call witnesses, and all parties are entitled to cross-examine witnesses thus called. (b) Interrogation by court.—The court may interrogate witnesses, whether called by itself or by a party. (c) Objections.—Objections to the calling of witnesses by the court or to interrogation by it may be made at the time or at the next avail- able opportunity when the jury is not present. Rule 615. Exclusion of Witnesses A t the request of a party the court shall order witnesses excluded so that they cannot hear the testimony of other witnesses, and it may make the order of its own motion. This rule does not authorize exclu- sion of (1) a party who is a natural person, or (2) an officer or employee of a party w^hich is not a natural person designated as its representative by its attorney, or (3) a person whose presence is shown by a party to be essential to the presentation of his cause. ARTICLE V I I . OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY Rule 701. Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses If the witness is not testifying as an expert, his testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are (a) rationally based on the perception of the witness and (b) helpful to a clear understanding of his testimony or the determina- tion of a fact in issue. Rule 702. Testimony by Experts If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an exj)ert by knowledge, skill, experience, train- ing, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise. Rule 703. Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert bases an opinion or inference may be those perceived by or made known to him at or before the hearing. If of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field in forming opinions or inferences upon the subject, the facts or data need not be admissible in evidence. Rule 704. Opinion on Ultimate Issue Testimony in the form of an opinion or inference otherwise admis- sible is not objectionable because it embraces an ultimate issue to be decided by the trier of fact.
1938 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. Rule 705. Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion The expert may testify in terms of opinion or inference and give his reasons therefor without prior disclosure of the underlying facts or data, unless the court requires otherwise. The expert may in any event be required to disclose the underlying facts or data on cross- examination. Rule 706. Court Appointed Experts (a) Appointment.—The court may on its own motion or on the motion of any party enter an order to show cause why expert wit- nesses should not be appointed, and may request the parties to submit nominations. The court may appoint any expert witnesses agreed upon by the parties, and may appoint expert witnesses of its own selection. An expert witness shall not be appointed by the court unless he con- sents to act. A witness so appointed shall be informed of his duties by the court in writing, a copy of which shall be filed with the clerk, or at a conference in which the parties shall have opportunity to partici- pate. A witness so appointed shall advise the parties of his findings, if any; his deposition may be taken by any party; and he may be called to testify by the court or any party. He shall be subject to cross- examination by each party, including a party calling him as a witness. (b) Compensation.—Expert witnesses so appointed are entitled to reasonable compensation in whatever sum the court may allow. The compensation thus fixed is payable from funds which may be pro- vided by law in criminal cases and civil actions and proceedings involving just compensation under the fifth amendment. In other civil actions and proceedings the compensation shall be paid by the parties in such proportion and at such time as the court directs, and there- after charged in like manner as other costs. (c) Disclosure of appointment.—In the exercise of its discretion, the court may authorize disclosure to the jury of the fact that the court appointed the expert witness. (d) Parties' experts of own selection.—Nothing in this rule limits the parties in calling expert witnesses of their own selection. ARTICLE V I I I . HEARSAY Rule 801. Definitions The following definitions apply under this article: (a) Statement.—A "statement" is (1) an oral or written assertion or (2) nonverbal conduct of a person, if it is intended by him as an assertion. (b) Declarant.—A "declarant" is a person who makes a statement. (c) Hearsay.—"Hearsay" is a statement, other than one made by the declarant while testifying at the trial or hearing, offered in evi- dence to prove the truth of the matter asserted. (d) Statements which are not hearsay.—A statement is not hearsay if— (1) Prior statement by witness.—The declarant testifies at the trial or hearing and is subject to cross-examination concerning the statement, and the statement is (A) inconsistent with his testi- mony, and was given under oath subject to the penalty of perjury at a trial, hearing, or other proceeding, or in a deposition, or (B) consistent with his testimony and is offered to rebut an express or implied charge against him of recent fabrication or improper influence or motive, or
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1939 (2) Admission by party-opponent.—The statement is offered against a party and is (A) his own statement, in either his indi- vidual or a representative capacity or (B) a statement of which he has manifested his adoption or belief in its truth, or (C) a state- ment by a person authorized by him to make a statement concern- ing the subject, or (D) a statement by his agent or servant concerning a matter within the scope of his agency or employment, made during the existence of the relationship, or ( E ) a statement by a coconspirator of a party during the course and in furtherance of the conspiracy. Rule 802. Hearsay Rule Hearsay is not admissible except as provided by these rules or by other rules prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority or by Act of Congress. Rule 803. Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial The following are not excluded by the hearsay rule, even though the declarant is available as a witness: (1) Present sense impression.—A statement describing or explaining an event or condition made while the declarant was perceiving the event or condition, or immediately thereafter. (2) Excited utterance.—^A statement relating to a startling event or condition made while the declarant was under the stress of excitement caused by the event or condition. (3) Then existing mental, emotional, or physical condition.—A statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind, emotion, sensation, or physical condition (such as intent, plan, motive, design, mental feeling, pain, and bodily health), but not including a statement of memory or belief to prove the fact remembered or believed unless it relates to the execution, revocation, identifica- tion, or terms of declarant's will. (4) Statements for purposes of medical diagnosis or treat- ment.—Statements made for purposes of medical diagnosis or treatment and describing medical history, or past or present symp- toms, pain, or sensations, or the inception or general character of the cause or external source thereof insofar as reasonably pertinent to diagnosis or treatment. (5) Recorded recollection.—A memorandum or record concern- ing a matter about which a witness once had knowledge but now has insufficient recollection to enable him to testify fully and accurately, shown to have been made or adopted by the wit- ness when the matter was fresh in his memory and to reflect that knowledge correctly. If admitted, the memorandum or record may be read into evidence but may not itself be received as an exhibit unless offered by an adverse party. (6) Records of regularly conducted activity.—A memorandum, report, record, or data compilation, in any form, of acts, events, conditions, opinions, or diagnoses, made at or near the time by. or from information transmitted by, a person with knowledge, if kept in the course of a regularly conducted business activity, and if it was the regular practice of that business activity to make the memorandum, repoit, record, or data compilation, all as shown by the testimony of the custodian or other qualified witness, unless the source of information or the method or circumstances of preparation indicate lack of trustworthiness. The term "business"
1940 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. as used in this paragraph includes business, institution, associa- tion, profession, occupation, and calling of every kind, whether or not conducted for profit. (7) Absence of entry in records kept in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (6).—Evidence that a matter is not included in the memoranda reports, records, or data compilations, in any form, kept in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (6), to prove the nonoccurrence or nonexistence of the matter, if the matter was of a kind of which a memorandum, report, record, or data compilation was regularly made and preserved, unless the sources of information or other circumstances indicate lack of trustworthiness. (8) Public records and reports.—Records, reports, statements, or data compilations, in any form, of public offices or agencies, setting forth (A) the activities of the office or agency, or (B) matters observed pursuant to duty imposed by law as to which matters there was a duty to report, excluding, however, in criminal cases matters observed by police officers and other law" enforcement personnel, or (C) in civil actions and proceedings and against the Government in criminal cases, factual findings resulting from an investigation made pursuant to authority granted by law, unless the sources of information or other circumstances indicate lack of trustworthiness. (9) Records of vital statistics,—Records or data compilations, in any form, of births, fetal deaths, deaths, or marriages, if the report thereof was made to a public office pursuant to require- ments of law, (10) Absence of public record or entry.—To prove the absence of a record, report, statement, or data compilation, in any form, or the nonoccurrence or nonexistence of a matter of which a record, report, statement, or data compilation, in any form, was regularly made and preserved by a public office or agency, evidence in the form of a certification in accordance with rule 902, or testi- mony, that diligent search failed to disclose the record, report, statement, or data compilation, or entry. (11) Records of religious organizations.—Statements of births, marriages, divorces, deaths, legitimacy, ancestry, relationship by blood or marriage, or other similar facts of personal or family history, contained in a regularly kept record of a religious organization. (12) Marriage, baptismal, and similar certificates.—Statements of fact contained in a certificate that the maker performed a marriage or other ceremony or administered a sacrament, made by a clergyman, public official, or other person authorized by the rules or practices of a religious organization or by law to perform the act certified, and purporting to have been issued at the time of the act or within a reasonable time thereafter. (13) Family records.—Statements of fact concerning personal or family history contained in family Bibles, genealogies, charts, engravings on rings, inscriptions on family portraits, engravings on urns, ci'ypts, or tombstones, or the like. (14) Records of documents affecting an interest in property.— The record of a document purporting to establish or affect an interest in property, as proof of the content of the original recorded document and its execution and delivery by each person by whom it purports to have been executed, if the record is a record of a public office and an applicable statute authorizes the recording of documents of that kind in that office.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1941 (15) Statements in documents affecting an interest in prop- erty.—^A statement contained in a document purporting to estab- lish or aft'ect an interest in property if the matter stated was relevant to the purpose of the document, unless dealings with the property since the document was made have been inconsistent with the truth of the statement or the purport of the document. (16) Statements in ancient documents.—Statements in a docu- ment in existence twenty years or more the authenticity of which is established. (17) Market reports, commercial publications.—Market quota- tions, tabulations, lists, directories, or other published compila- tions, generally used and relied upon by the public or by persons in particular occupations. (18) Learned treatises.—To the extent called to the attention of an expert witness upon cross-examination or relied upon by him in direct examination, statements contained in published treatises, periodicals, or pamphlets on a subject of history, medi- cine, or other science or art, established as a reliable authority by the testimony or admission of the witness or by other expert testimony or by judicial notice. If admitted, the statements may be read into evidence but may not be received as exhibits. (19) Reputation concerning personal or family history.— Reputation among members of his family by blood, adoption, or marriage, or among his associates, or m the community, con- cerning a person's birth, adoption, marriage*, divorce, death, legiti- macy, relationship by blood, adoption, or marriage, ancestry, or other similar fact of his personal or family history. (20) Reputation concerning boundaries or general history.— Reputation in a community, arising before the controversy, as to boundaries of or customs affecting lands in the community, and reputation as to events of general history important to the com- munity or State or nation in which located. (21) Reputation as to character.—Reputation of a person's character among his associates or in the community. (22) Judgment of previous conviction.—Evidence of a final judgment, entered after a trial or upon a plea of guilty (but not upon a plea of nolo contendere), adjudging a person guilty of a crime punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year, to prove any fact essential to sustain the judgment, but not including, when offered by the Government in a criminal prosecution for purposes other than impeachment, judgments against persons other than the accused. The pendency of an appeal may be shown but does not affect admissibility. (23) Judgment as to personal, family or general history, or boundaries.—Judgments as proof of matters of personal, family or general history, or boundaries, essential to the judgment, if the same would be provable by evidence of reputation. (24) Other exceptions.—A statement not specifically covered by any of the foregoing exceptions but having equivalent cir- cumstantial guarantees of trustworthiness, if the court determines that (A) the statement is offered as evidence of a material fact; (B) the statement is more probative on the point for which it is offered than any other evidence which the proponent can procure through reasonable efforts; and (C) the general purposes of these rules and the interests of justice will best be served by admission of the statement into evidence. However, a statement may not be admitted under this exception unless the proponent of it makes known to the adverse party sufficiently in advance of the trial 38-194 O - 76 - 40 Pt. 2
1942 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. or hearing to provide the adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet it, his intention to offer the statement and the particulars of it, including the name and address of the declarant. Rule 804, Hearsay Exceptions: Declarant Unavailable (a) Definition of unavailability.—"Unavailability as a witness" includes situations in which the declarant— (1) is exempted by ruling of the court on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the subject matter of his statement; or (2) persists in refusing to testify concerning the subject matter of his statement despite an order of the court to do so; or (3) testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of his statement; or (4) is unable to be present or to testify at the hearing because of death or then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity; or (5) is absent from the hearing and the proponent of his state- ment has been unable to procure his attendance (or in the case of a hearsay exception under subdivision (b) (2), (3), or (4), his attendance or testimony) by process or other reasonable means. A declarant is not unavailable as a witness if his exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procure- ment or wrongdoing of the proponent of his statement for the purpose of preventing the witness from attending or testifying. (b) Hearsay exceptions.—The following are not excluded by the hearsay rule if the declarant is unavailable as a witness: (1) Former testimony.—Testimony given as a witness at another hearing of the same or a different proceeding, or in a dep- osition taken in compliance with law in the course of the same or another proceeding, if the party against whom the testimony is now offered, or, in a civil action or proceeding, a predecessor in interest, had an opportunity and similar motive to develop the testimony by direct, cross, or redirect examination. (2) Statement under belief of impending death.—In a prosecu- tion for homicide or in a civil action or proceeding, a statement made by a declarant while believing that his death was imminent, concerning the cause or circumstances of what he believed to be his impending death. (3) Statement against interest.—A statement which was at the time of its making so far contrary to the declarant's pecuniary or proprietary interest, or so far tended to subject him to civil or criminal liability, or to render invalid a claim by him against another, that a reasonable man in his position would not have made the statement unless he believed it to be true. A statement tending to expose the declarant to criminal liability and offered to exculpate the accused is not admissable unless corroborating circumstances clearly indicate the trustworthiness of the statement. (4) Statement of personal or family history.—(A) A state- ment concerning the declarant's own birth, adoption, marriage, divorce, legitimacy, relationship by blood, adoption, or marriage, ancestry, or other similar fact of personal or family history, even though declarant had no means of acquiring personal knowledge of the matter stated; or (B) a statement concerning the fore- going matters, and death also, of another person, if the declar- ant was related to the other by blood, adoption, or marriage or
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1943 was so intimately associated with the other's family as to be likely to have accurate information concerning the matter declared. (5) Other exceptions.—A statement not specifically covered by any of the foregoing exceptions but having equivalent circumstan- tial guarantees of trustworthiness, if the court determines that (A) the statement is offered as evidence of a material fact; (B) the statement is more probative on the point for which it is offered than any other evidence which the proponent can procure through reasonable efforts; and (C) the general purposes of these rules and the interests of justice will best be served by admission of the statement into evidence. However, a statement may not be admit- ted under this exception unless the proponent of it makes known to the adverse party sufficiently in advance of the trial or hearing to provide the adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet it, his intention to offer the statement and the particulars of it, including the name and address of the declarant. Kule 805. Hearsay Within Hearsay Hearsay included within hearsay is not excluded under the hearsay rule if each part of the combined statements conforms with an excep- tion to the hearsay rule provided in these rules. Rule 806. Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Declarant When a hearsay statement, or a statement defined in Rule 801(d) (2), (C), ( D ) , o r ( E ) , has been admitted in evidence, the credibility of the declarant may be attacked, and if attacked may be supported, by any evidence which would be admissible for those purposes if declarant had testified as a witness. Evidence of a statement or con- duct by the declarant at any time, inconsistent with his hearsay statement, is not subject to any requirement that he may have been afforded an opportunity to deny or explain. If the party against whom a hearsay statement has been admitted calls the declarant as a witness, the party is entitled to examine him on the statement as if under cross-examination. ARTICLE I X . AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION Rule 901. Requirement of Authentication or Identification (a) General provision.—The requirement of authentication or identification as a condition precedent to admissibility is satisfied by evidence sufficient to support a finding that the matter in question is what its proponent claims. (b) Illustrations.—By way of illustration only, and not by way of limitation, the following are examples of authentication or identifi- cation conforming with the requirements of this rule: (1) Testimony of witness with knowledge.—Testimony that a matter is what it is claimed to be. (2) Nonexpert opinion on handwriting.—Nonexpert opinion as to the genuineness of handwriting, based upon familiarity not acquired for purposes of the litigation. (3) Comparison by trier or expert witness.—Comparison by the trier of fact or by expert witnesses with specimens which have been authenticated.
1944 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. (4) Distinctive characteristics and the like.—Appearance, contents, substance, internal patterns, or other distinctive char- acteristics, taken in conjunction with circumstances. (5) Voice identification.—Identification of a voice, whether heard firsthand or through mechanical or electronic transmission or recording, by opinion based upon hearing the voice at any time under circumstances cojinecting it with the alleged speaker. (6) Telephone conversations.—Telephone conversations, by evidence that a call was made to the number assigned at the time by the telephone company to a particular person or business, if (A) in the case of a person, circumstances, including self-identi- fication, show the person answering to be the one called, or (B) in the case of a business, the call was made to a place of business and the conversation related to business reasonably transacted over the telephone. (7) Public records or reports.—Evidence that a writing author- ized by law to be recorded or filed and in fact recorded or filed in a public office, or a purported public record, report, statement, or data compilation, in any form, is from the public office where items of this nature are kept. (8) Ancient documents or data compilation.—Evidence that a document or data compilation, in any form, (A) is in such condition as to create no suspicion concerning its authenticity, (B) was in a place where it, if authentic, would likely be, and (C) has been in existence 20 years or more at the time it is offered. (9) Process or system.—Evidence describing a process or sys- tem used to produce a result and showing that the process or system produces an accurate result. (10) Methods provided by statute or rule.—Any method of authentication or identification provided by Act of Congress or by other rules prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority. Kule 902. Self-authentication Extrinsic evidence of authenticity as a condition precedent to admissibility is not required with respect to the following: (1) Domestic public documents under seal.—^A document bear- ing a seal purporting to be that of the United States, or of any State, district. Commonwealth, territory, or insular possession thereof, or the Panama Canal Zone, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or of a political subdivision, department, officer, or agency thereof, and a signature purporting to be an attestation or execution. (2) Domestic public documents not under seal.—A document purporting to bear the signature in his official capacity of an officer or employee of any entity included in paragraph (1) hereof, having no seal, if a public officer having a seal and having official duties in the district or political subdivision of the officer or employee certifies under seal that the signer has the official capacity and that the signature is genuine. (3) Foreign public documents.—A document purporting to be executed or attested in his official capacity by a person authorized by the laws of a foreign country to make the execution or attes- tation, and accompanied by a final certification as to the genuine- ness of the signature and official position (A) of the executing or attesting person, or (B) of any foreign official whose certif- icate of genuineness of signature and official position relates to
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1945 the execution or attestation or is in a chain of certificates of genuineness of signature and official position relating to the exe- cution or attestation. A final certification may be made by a sec- retary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice consul, or consular agent of the United States, or a diplomatic or con- sular official of the foreign country assigned or accredited to the United States. If reasonable opportunity has been given to all parties to investigate the authenticity and accuracy of official documents, the court may, for good cause shown, order that they be treated as presumptively authentic without final certification or permit them to be evidenced by an attested summary with or without final certification. (4) Certified copies of public records.—A copy of an official record or report or entry therein, or of a document authorized by law to be recorded or filed and actually recorded or filed in a public office, including data compilations in any form, certified as correct by the custodian or other person authorized to make the certification, by certificate complying with paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this rule or complying with any Act of Congress or rule prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority. (5) Official publications.—Books, pamphlets, or other publica- tions purporting to be issued bj^ public authority. (6) Newspapers and periodicals.—Printed materials purport- ing to be newspapers or periodicals. (7) Trade inscriptions and the like.—Inscriptions, signs, tags, or labels purporting to have been affixed in the course of business and indicating ownership, control, or origin. (8) Acknowledged documents.—Documents accompanied by a certificate of acknowledgment executed in the manner provided by law by a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments. (9) Commercial paper and related documents.—Commercial paper, signatures thereon, and documents relating thereto to the extent provided by general commercial law. (10) Presumptions under Acts of Congress.—Any signature, document, or other matter declared by Act of Congress to be presumptively or prima facie genuine or authentic. Kule 903. Subscribing Witness' Testimony Unnecessary The testimony of a subscribing witness is not necessary to authenti- cate a writing unless required by the laws of the jurisdiction whose laws govern the validity of the writing. ARTICLE X . CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, RECORDINGS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS Rule 1001. Definitions. For purposes of this article the following definitions are applicable: (1) Writings and recordings.—"Writings" and "recordings" consist of letters, words, or numbers, or their equivalent, set down by handwriting, typewriting, printing, photostating, photograph- ing, magnetic impulse, mechanical or electronic recording, or other form of data compilation. (2) Photographs.—"Photographs" include still photographs, X-ray films, video tapes, and motion pictures. (3) Original.—An "original" of a Avriting or recording is the writing or recording itself or any counterpart intended to have
1946 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. the same effect by a person executing or issuing it. An "original" of a photograph includes the negative Or any print therefrom. If data are stored in a computer or similar device, any printout or other output readable by sight, shown to reflect the data accu- rately, is an "original". (4) Duplicate.—A "duplicate" is a counterpart produced by the same impression as the original, or from the same matrix, or by means of photography, including enlargements and minia- tures, or by mechanical or electronic re-recording, or by chemical reproduction, or by other equivalent techniques which accurately reproduces the original. Rule 1002. Requirement of Original To' prove the content of a writing, recording, or photograph, the original writing, recording, or photograph is required, except as other- wise provided in these rules or by Act of Congress. Rule 1003. Admissibility of Duplicates A duplicate is admissible to the same extent as an original unless (1) a genuine question is raised as to the authenticity of the original or (2) in the circumstances it would be unfair to admit the duplicate in lieu of the original. Rule 1004. Admissibility of Other Evidence of Contents The original is not required, and other evidence of the contents of a writing, recording, or photograph is admissible if— (1) Originals lost or destroyed.—All originals are lost or have been destroyed, unless the proponent lost or destroyed them in bad faith; or (2) Original not obtainable.—No original can be obtained by any available judicial process or procedure; or (3) Original in possession of opponent.—At a time when an original was under the control of the party against whom offered, he was put on notice, by the pleadings or otherwise, that the con- tents would be a subject of proof at the hearing, and he does not produce the original at the hearing; or (4) Collateral matters.—The writing, recording, or photograph is not closely related to a controlling issue. Rule 1005. Public Records The contents of an official record, or of a document authorized to be recorded or filed and actually recorded or filed, including data com- pilations in any form, if otherwise admissible, may be proved by copy, certified as correct in accordance with rule 902 or testified to be correct by a witness who has compared it with the original. If a copy which complies with the foregoing cannot be obtained by the exercise of reasonable diligence, then other evidence of the contents may be given. Rule 1006. Summaries The contents of voluminous writings, recordings, or photographs which cannot conveniently be examined in court may be presented in the form of a chart, summary, or calculation. The originals, or dupli- cates, shall be made available for examination or copying, or both, by other parties at reasonable time and place. The court may order that they be produced in court.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 1947 Kule 1007. Testimony or Written Admission of Party- Contents of writings, recordings, or photographs may be proved by the testimony or deposition of the party against whom offered or by his written admission, without accounting for the nonproduction of the original. Rule 1008. Functions of Court and J u r y When the admissibility of other evidence of contents of writings, recordings, or photographs under these rules depends upon the ful- fillment of a condition of fact, the question whether the condition has been fulfilled is ordinarily for the court to determine in accordance with the provisions of rule 104. However, when an issue is raised (a) whether the asserted writing ever existed, or (b) whether another writ- ing, recording, or photograph produced at the trial is the original, or (c) whether other evidence of contents correctly reflects the contents, the issue is for the trier of fact to determine as in the case of other issues of fact. ARTICLE X I . MISCELLANEOUS RULES Rule 1101. Applicability of Rules (a) Courts and magistrates.—These rules apply to the United States district courts, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the United States courts of appeals, the Court of Claims, and to United States magistrates, in the actions, cases, and proceedings and to the extent hereinafter set forth. The terms "judge" and "court" in these rules include United States magistrates, referees in bankruptcy, and commissioners of the Court of Claims. (b) Proceedings generally.—These rules apply generally to civil actions and proceedings, including admiralty and maritime cases, to criminal cases and proceedings, to contempt proceedings except those in which the court may act summarily, and to proceedings and cases under the Banki'uptcy Act. 11 u s e 1 note. (c) Rule of privilege.—The rule with respect to privileges applies at all stages of all actions, cases, and proceedings. (d) Rules inapplicable.—The rules (other than with respect to privileges) do not apply in the following situations: (1) Preliminary questions of fact.—The determination of ques- tions of fact preliminary to admissibility of evidence when the issue is to be determined by the court under rule 104. (2) Grand jury.—Proceedings before grand juries. (3) Miscellaneous proceedings.—Proceedings for extradition or rendition; preliminary examinations in criminal cases; sentencing, or granting or revoking probation; issuance of warrants for arrest, criminal summonses, and search warrants; and proceedings with respect to release on bail or otherwise. (e) Rules applicable in part.—In the following proceedings these rules apply to the extent that matters of evidence are not provided for in the statutes which govern procedure therein or in other rules prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority: the trial of minor and petty offenses by United States magistrates; review of agency actions when the facts are subject to trial de novo under section 706(2) ( F ) of title 5, United States Code; review of orders of the Secretary of Agriculture under section 2 of the Act entitled "An Act to authorize association of producers of agricultural products" approved February 18, 1922 (7 U.S.C. 292), and under sections 6 and 7(c) of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. 1930 (7 U.S.C.
1948 PUBLIC LAW 93-595-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. -l:99f, 499g(c)) ; naturalization and revocation of naturalization under sections 310-318 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1421-1429) ; prize proceedings in admiralty under sections 7651-7681 of title 10, United States Code; review of orders of the Secretary of the Interior under section 2 of the Act entitled "An Act authorizing associations of producers of aquatic products" approved June 25, 1934 (15 U.S.C. 522) ; review of orders of petroleum control boards under section 5 of the Act entitled "An Act to regulate inter- state and foreign connnerce in petroleum and its products by prohibiting the shipment in such commerce of petroleum and its products produced in violation of State law, and for other purposes", approved February 22, 1935 (15 U.S.C. 715d) ; actions for fines, penalties, or forfeitures under part V of title I V of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1581-1624), or under the Anti-Smuggling Act (19 U.S.C. 1701-1711) ; criminal libel for condemnation, exclusion of imports, or other proceedings under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301-392) ; disputes between seamen under sections 4079, 4080, and 4081 of the Revised Statutes (22 U.S.C. 256-258; habeas corpus under sections 2241-2254 of title 28, United States Code; motions to vacate, set aside or correct sentence under section 2255 of title 28, United States Code; actions for penalties for refusal to transport destitute seamen under section 4578 of the Revised Statutes (46 U.S.C. 679) ; actions against the United States under the Act entitled "An Act authorizing suits against the United States in admii'ality for damage caused by and salvage service rendered to public vessels belonging to the LTnited States, and for other purposes", approved March 3, 1925 (46 U.S.C. 781-790), as implemented by section 7730 ol* title 10, United States Code. Rule 1102. Amendments Amendments to the Federal Rules of Evidence may be made as Infra. })rovided in section 2076 of title 28 of the United States Code. Rule 1103. Title These rules may be known and cited as the Federal Rules of Evidence. SEC. 2. (a) Title 28 of the United States Code is amended— (1) by inserting immediately after section 2075 the following new section: 28 u s e 2076. "§ 2076. Rules of evidence "The Supreme (^ourt of the United States shall have the power to C(fn^^esV° prescribe amendments to the Federal Rules of Evidence. Such amend- ments shall not take effect until they have been reported to Congress by the Chief Justice at or after the beginning of a regular session of Congress but not later than the first day of May, and until the expira- tion of one hundred and eighty days after they have been so reported; but if either House of Congress within that time shall by resolution disapprove any amendment so reported it shall not take effect. The effective date of any amendment so reported may be deferred by either House of Congi'css to a later date or until approved by Act of Con- gress. Any rule whether proposed or in force may be amended by Act of Congress. Any provision of law in force at the expiration of such time and in conflict with any such amendment not disapproved shall be of no further force or effect after such amendment has taken effect. Any such amendment creating, abolishing, or modifying a privilege shall have no force or effect unless it shall be approved by act of Congress"; and
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-596-JAN. 2, 1975 1949 (2) by adding at the end of the table of sections of chapter 131 the following new item: "2076. Rules of evidence." (b) Section 1Y32 of title 28 of the United States Code is amended by striking out subsection ( a ) , and by striking out " ( b ) " . (c) Section 1733 of title 28 of the United States Code is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subsection: "(c) This section does not apply to cases, actions, and proceedings to which the Federal Kules of Evidence apply." SEC. 3. The Congress expressly approves the amendments to the „„J^ "^*^ ^^^^ Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, and the amendments to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, which are embraced by the orders entered 28 use 2071 by the Supreme Court of the United States on November 20, 1972, "°'^' and December 18, 1972, and such amendments shall take effect on Effective date. the one hundred and eightieth day beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act. Approved January 2, 1975. Public Law 93-596 AN A C T , 9 ,Q,^ J a n u a r y 2, 1 9 / 5 To amend the Trademark Act of 1946 and title 35 of the United States Code to [H. R. 7599] change the name of the Patent Office to the "Patent and Trademark Oflice". Be it enacted hy the Seriate arul House of Rejn-esentatives of the United States of America in Congress asseinbled^ P a t e n t Office. SECTION 1. The Trademark Act of 1946, 60 Stat. 127, as amended ^^'"^ '^''^"^^• (15 U.S.C. sec. 1051 et seq. (1970)), and title 35 of the United States Code, entitled "Patents", are amended by striking out each time they ^s use i et appear "Patent Office" and "Commissioner of Patents" and inserting ^^^* in lieu thereof "Patent and Trademark Office" and "Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks", respectively. SEC. 2. Section 29 of the Trademark Act of 1946 is further amended i s use 1111. by striking out "Reg. U.S. P a t . Off." and inserting in lieu thereof "Reg. U.S. Pat. «& Tm. Off." SEC. 3. The terms "Patent Office" and "Commissioner of Patents" 3 5 use i note. in all laws of the United States shall mean "Patent and Trademark Office" and "Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks", respectively. SEC. 4. This Act shall become effective upon enactment. However, f^f,';';!,^^,'^,^/'' any registrant may continue to give notice of his registration in accord- 15 use n i l ance with section 29 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 427), n o t e . as amended Oct. 9, 1962 (76 Stat. 769), as an alternative to notice in accordance with section 29 of the Trademark Act as amended by sec- tion 2 of this Act, regardless of whether his mark was registered before or after the effective date of this Act. Approved January 2, 1975.