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1896 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. prepare and execute without consideration such instruments as may be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act. Approved December 3 1 , 1974. Public Law 93-579 D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 1974 AN ACT ^^••^^^i^] To amend title 5, United States Code, by adding a section 552a to safeguard individual privacy from the misuse of Federal records, to provide that individuals be granted access to records concerning them vs^hich are maintained by Federal agencies, to establish a Privacy Protection Study Commission, and for other purposes. Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the Privacy Act of 1974 United States of America in Congress assembled^ That this Act may 5 use 552a bc clted as the "Privacy Act of 1974". Congressional SEC. 2. (a) Thc CoRgress finds that— ^''s^ulc'552a ^^) ^^^ privacy of an individual is directly affected by the note. collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personal infor- mation by Federal agencies; (2) the increasing use of computers and sophisticated infor- mation technology, while essential to the efficient operations of the Government, has greatly magnified the harm to individual privacy that can occur from any collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal information; (3) the opportunities for an individual to secure employment, insurance, and credit, and his right to due process, and other legal protections are endangered by the misuse of certain information systems; (4) the right to privacy is a personal and fundamental right protected by the Constitution of the United States; and (5) in order to protect the privacy of individuals identified in information systems maintained by Federal agencies, it is neces- sary and proper for the Congress to regulate the collection, main- tenance, use, and dissemination of information by such agencies. statement of (^Q^ 'pj^g purposc of this Act is to providc certain safeguards for an purpose. individual against an invasion of personal privacy by requiring Federal agencies, except as otherwise provided by law, to— (1) permit an individual to determine what records pertaining to him are collected, maintained, used, or disseminated by such agencies; (2) permit an individual to prevent records pertaining to him obtained by such agencies for a particular purpose from being used or made available for another purpose without his consent; (3) permit an individual to gain access to information pertain- ing to him in Federal agency records, to have a copy made of all or any portion thereof, and to correct or amend such records; (4) collect, maintain, use, or disseminate any record of identi-- fiable personal information in a manner that assures that such action is for a necessary and lawful purpose, that the infor- mation is current and accurate for its intended use, and that adequate safeguards are provided to prevent misuse of such information; (5) permit exemptions from the requirements with respect to records provided in this Act only in those cases where there is an important public policy need for such exemption as has been determined by specific statutory authority; and (6) be subject to civil suit for any damages which occur as a result of willful or intentional action which violates any indi- vidual's rights under this Act.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1897 SEC. 3. Title 5, United States Code, is amended by adding after section 552 the following new section: 5 u s e 552a. ^'§ 552a. Records maintained on individuals " (a) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this section— "(1) the term 'agency' means agency as defined in section 552(e) of this title; Ante, p . 1564. "(2) the term 'individual' means a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence; "(3) the term 'maintain' includes maintain, collect, use, or dis- seminate ; "(4) the term 'record' means any item, collection, or grouping of information about an individual that is maintained by an agency, including, but not limited to, his education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or employment history and that contains his name, or the identifying number, symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual, such as a finger or voice print or a photograph; "(5) the term 'system of records' means a group of any records under the control of any agency from which information is retrieved by the name of the individual or by some identifying number, symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual; "(6) the term 'statistical record' means a record in a system of records maintained for statistical research or reporting pur- poses only and not used in whole or in part in making any deter- mination about an identifiable individual, except as provided by section 8 of title 13; and "(7) the term 'routine use' means, with respect to the dis- closure of a record, the use of such record for a purpose which is compatible with the purpose for which it was collected. "(b) CONDITIONS OF DISCLOSURE.—No agency shall disclose any record which is contained in a system of records by any means of com- munication to any person, or to another agency, except pursuant to a written request by, or with the prior written consent of, the individual to whom the record pertains, unless disclosure of the record would be—• " (1) to those officers and employees of the agency which main- tains the record who have a need for the record in the performance of their duties; "(2) required under section 552 of this title; "(3) for a routine use as defined in subsection (a) (7) of this section and described under subsection ( e ) ( 4 ) ( D ) of this section; "(4) to the Bureau of the Census for purposes of planning or c a n y i n g out a census or survey or related activity pursuant to the provisions of title 13; "(5) to a recipient who has provided the agency with advance adequate written assurance that the record will be used solely as a statistical research or reporting record, and the record is to be transferred in a form that is not individually identifiable; "(6) to the National Archives of the United States as a record which has sufficient historical or other value to warrant its con- tinued preservation by the United States Government, or for evaluation by the Administrator of General Services or his designee to determine whether the record has such value; "(7) to another agency or to an instrumentality of any govern- mental jurisdiction within or under the control of the LTnited States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is authorized by law, and if the head of the agency or instrumentality has made a written request to the agency which
1898 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. maintains the record specifying the particular portion desired and the law enforcement activity for which the record is sought ; "(8) to a person pursuant to a showing of compelling circum- stances affecting the health or safety of an individual if upon such disclosure notification is transmitted to the last known address of such individual; "(9) to either House of Congress, or, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee thereof, any joint committee of Congress or subcommittee of any such joint committee; "(10) to the Comptroller General, or any of his authorized rep- resentatives, in the course of the performance of the duties of the General Accounting Office; or "(11) pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdic- tion. "(c) ACCOUNTING OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURES.—Each agency, with respect to each system of records under its control, shall— "(1) except for disclosures made under subsections (b) (1) or (b) (2) of this section, keep an accurate accounting of— " ( A ) the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any person or to another agency made under subsection (b) of this section; and " ( B ) the name and address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure is made; "(2) retain the accounting made under paragraph (1) of this subsection for at least five years or the life of the record, which- ever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made; "(3) except for disclosures made under subsection ( b ) ( 7 ) of this section, make the accounting made under paragraph (1) of this subsection available to the individual named in the record at his request; and "(4) inform any person or other agency about any correction or notation of dispute made by the agency in accordance with subsection (d) of this section of any record that has been dis- closed to the person or agency if an accounting of the disclosure was made. " ( d ) ACCESS TO RECORDS,—Each agency that maintains a system of records shall— TiTw""^^ " ( 1 ) upon request by any individual to gain access to his review. record or to any information pertaining to him which is con- tained in the system, permit him and upon his request, a person of his own choosing to accompany him, to review the record and have a copy made of all or any portion thereof in a form compre- hensible to him, except that the agency may require the indi- vidual to furnish a written statement authorizing discussion of that individual's record in the accompanying person's presence; Ar^endment "(£) permit the iudividual to request amendment of a record request pertaining to him and— " ( A ) not later than 10 days (excluding Saturdays, Sun- days, and legal public holidays) after the date of receipt of such request, acknowledge in writing such receipt; and " ( B ) promptly, either— "(i) make any correction of any portion thereof which the individual believes is not accurate, relevant, timely, or complete; or "(ii) inform the individual of its refusal to amend the record in accordance with his request, the reason
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 189S) for the refusal, the procedures established by the agency for the individual to request a review of that refusal by the head of the agency or an officer designated by the head of the agency, and the name and business address of that official; Review. " (3) permit the individual who disagrees with the refusal of the agency to amend his record to request a review of such refusal, and not later than 30 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays) from the date on which the individual requests such review, complete such review and make a final determination unless, for good cause shown, the head of the agency extends such 30-day period; and if, after his review, the reviewing official also refuses to amend the record in accordance with the request, permit the individual to file with the agenc}' a concise statement setting forth the reasons for his disagreement with the refusal of the agency, and notify the individual of the provisions for judicial review of the reviewing official's determination under subsection (g) (1) (A) of this section; "(4) in any disclosure, containing information about which Notation dispute. the individual has filed a statement of disagreement, occurring after the filing of the statement under paragraph (3) of this sub- section, clearly note any portion of the record which is disputed and provide copies of the statement and, if the agency deems it appropriate, copies of a concise statement of the reasons of the agency for not making the amendments requested, to persons or other agencies to whom the disputed record has been disclosed; and "(5) nothing in this section shall allow an individual access to any information compiled in reasonable anticipation of a civil action or proceeding. "(e) AGENCY REQUIREMENTS.—Each agency that maintains a system of records shall— "(1) maintain in its records only such information about an individual as is relevant and necessary to accomplish a purpose of the agency required to be accomplished by statute or by executive order of the President; "(2) collect information to the greatest extent practicable directly from the subject individual when the information may result in adverse determinations about an individual's rights, bene- fits, and privileges under Federal programs; "(3) inform each individual whom it asks to supply informa- tion, on the form which it uses to collect the information or on a separate form that can be retained by the individual— " ( A ) the authority (whether granted by statute, or by executive order of the President) which authorizes the solici- tation of the information and whether disclosure of such information is mandatory or voluntary; " ( B ) the principal purpose or purposes for which the information is intended to be used; " ( C ) the routine uses which may be made of the informa- tion, as published pursuant to paragraph (4) (D) of this subsection; and " ( D ) the effects on him, if any, of not providing all or any part of the requested information; P u b l i c a t i on in "(4) subject to the provisions of paragraph (11) of this sub- F e d e r a l Re g i s t e r . section, publish in the Federal Register at least annually a notice of the exiptence and character of the system of records, which notice shall include— " (A) the name and location of the system;
1900 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. " ( B ) the categories of individuals on whom records are maintained in the system; " ( C ) the categories of records maintained in the system; " ( D ) each routine use of the records contained in the sys- tem, including the categories of users and the purpose of such use; " ( E ) the policies and practices of the agency regarding storage, retrievability, access controls, retention, and disposal of the records; " ( F ) the title and business address of the agency official who is responsible for the system of records; " ( G ) the agency procedures whereby an individual can be notified at his request if the system of records contains a rec- ord pertaining to him; " ( H ) the agency procedures whereby an individual can be notified at his request how he can gain access to any record pertaining to him contained in the system of records, and how he can contest its content; and " ( I ) the categories of sources of records in the system; "(5) maintain all records which are used by the agency in mak- ing any determination about any individual with such accuracy, relevance, timeliness, and completeness as is reasonably necessary to assure fairness to the individual in the determination; "(6) prior to disseminating any record about an individual to any person other than an agency, unless the dissemination is made pursuant to subsection (b) (2) of this section, make reason- able efforts to assure that such records are accurate, complete, timely, and relevant for agency purposes; "(7) maintain no record describing how any individual exer- cises rights guaranteed by the First Amendment unless expressly authorized by statute or by the individual about whom the record is maintained or unless pertinent to and within the scope of an authorized law enforcement activity; "(8) make reasonable efforts to serve notice on an individual when any record on such individual is made available to any per- son under compulsory legal process when such process becomes a matter of public record; duc"^*"^ °^'^°"' " ( ^ ) establish rules of conduct for persons involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records, or in maintaining any record, and instruct each such per- son with respect to such rules and the requirements of this section, including any other rules and procedures adopted pursuant to this section and the penalties for noncompliance; of'^ecotdt""^^''^ "(10) establish appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to insure the security and confidentiality of records and to protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to their security or integrity which could result in substantial harm, embarrassment, inconvenience, or unfairness to any individ- ual on whom information is maintained; and Publication in " ( H ) at least 30 days prior to publication of information under Register. paragraph (4) (D) of this subsection, publish in the Federal Register notice of any new use or intended use of the information in the system, and provide an opportunity for interested persons to submit written data, views, or arguments to the agency. "(f) AGENCY RULES.—In order to carry out the provisions of this section, each agency that maintains a system of records shall pro- mulgate rules, in accordance with the requirements (including general 5 use 553. notice) of section 553 of this title, which shall— " (1) establish procedures whereby an individual can be notified
88 STAT.] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1901 in response to his request if any system of records named by the individual contains a record pertaining to him; ''(2) define reasonable times, places, and requirements for iden- tifyiiio- an mdividual who requests his record or information pertaining- to him before the agency shall make the record or nii'orniation available to the individual; ''(;3) establish procedures for the disclosure to an individual upon his request of his record or information pertaining to him, including special procedure, if deemed necessary, for the disclo- sure to an individual of medical records, including psychological records, pertaining to him; "(4) establish procedures for reviewing a request from an individual concerning the amendment of any record or informa- tion pertaining to the individual, for making a determination on the request, for an appeal within the agency of an initial adverse agency determination, and for Avhatever additional means may be necessary for each individual to be able to exercise fully his rights under this section; and "(5) establish fees to be charged, if any, to any individual for making copies of his record, excluding the cost of any search for and review of the record. The Office of the Federal Register shall annually compile and publish P u b l i c a t i o n in Federal Register. the rules promulgated under this subsection and agency notices pub- lished under subsection (e) (4) of this section in a form available to the public at low cost. " ( g ) (1) CIVIL REMEDIES.—Whenever any agency " ( A ) makes a determination under subsection ( d ) ( 3 ) of this section not to amend an individual's record in accordance with his request, or fails to make such review in conformity with that subsection; " ( B ) refuses to comply with an individual request under sub- section (d) (1) of this section; " ( C ) fails to maintain any record concerning any individual with such accuracy, relevance, timeliness, and completeness as is necessary to assure fairness in any determination relating to the qualifications, character, rights, or opportunities of. or benefits to the individual that may be made on the basis of such record, and consequently a determination is made which is adverse to the individual; or " ( D ) fails to comply with any other provision of this section, or any rule promulgated thereunder, in such a way as to have an adverse effect on an individual, the individual may bring a civil action against the agency, and the Jurisdiction. district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction in the matters under the provisions of this subsection. "(2) (A) In any suit brought under the provisions of subsection Amendment of record. (g) (1) (A) of this section, the court may order the agency to amend the individual's record in accordance with his request or in such other way as the court may direct. In such a case the court shall determine the matter de novo. " ( B ) The court may assess against the United States reasonable attorney fees and other litigation costs reasonably incurred in any case under this paragraph in which the complainant has substantially prevailed. "(3) (A) In any suit brought under the provisions of subsection Injunction. (g) (1) (B) of this section, the court may enjoin the agency from with- holding the records and order the production to the complainant of any agency records improperly withheld from him. In such a case the court shall determine the matter de novo, and may examine the contents of
1902 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. any agency records in camera to determine whether the records or any portion thereof may be withheld under any of the exemptions set forth in subsection (k) of this section, and the burden is on the agency to sustain its action. " ( B ) The court may assess against the United States reasonable attorney fees and other litigation costs reasonably incurred in any case under this paragraph m which the complainant has substantially prevailed. Damages. u^^^ jj^ ^^y g^j^ brought uudcr the provisions of subsection ( g ) ( 1 ) ( C ) or (D) of this section in which the court determines that the agency acted in a manner which was intentional or willful, the United States shall be liable to the individual in an amount equal to the sum of— " ( A ) actual damages sustained by the individual as a result of the refusal or failure, but in no case shall a person entitled to recovery receive less than the sum of $1,000; and " ( B ) the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney fees as determined by the court. "(5) An action to enforce any liability created under this section may be brought in the district court of the United States in the district in which the complainant resides, or has his principal place of business, or in which the agency records are situated, or in the District of Colum- bia, without regard to the amount in controversy, within two years from the date on which the cause of action arises, except that where an agency has materially and willfully misrepresented any informa- tion required under this section to be disclosed to an individual and the information so misrepresented is material to establishment of the liability of the agency to the individual under this section, the action may be brought at any time within two years after discovery by the individual of the misrepresentation. Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any civil action by reason of any injury sus- tained as the result of a disclosure of a record prior to the effective date of this section. " ( h ) RIGHTS OF LEGAL GUARDIANS.—For the purposes of this section, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental inca- pacity or age by a court of competent jurisdiction, may act on behalf of the individual. " ( i ) ( l ) CRIMINAL PENALTIES.—Any officer or employee of an agency, who by virtue of his employment or official position, has pos- session of, or access to, agency records which contain individually identifiable information the disclosure of which is prohibited by this section or by rules or regulations established thereunder, and who knowing that disclosure of the specific material is so prohibited, will- fully discloses the material in any manner to any person or agency not entitled to receive it, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. " (2) Any officer or employee of any agency who willfully maintains a system of records without meeting the notice requirements of sub- section (e) (4) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. "(3) Any person who knowingly and willfully requests or obtains any record concerning an individual from an agency under false pre- tenses shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. " (j) GENERAL EXEMPTIONS.—The head of any agency may promul- gate rules, in accordance with the requirements (including general 5 use 553. notice) of sections 553 (b) (1), (2), and (3), (c), and (e) of this title, to exempt any system of records within the agency from any part of this section except subsections (b), (c) (1) and (2), (e) (4) (A) through
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1903 _(F), ( e ) ( 6 ) , (7), (9), (10), and (11), and (i) if the system of records is— "(1) maintained by the Central Intelligence Agency; or "(2) maintained by an agency or component thereof which performs as its principal function any activity pertaining to the enforcement of criminal laws, including police efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or to apprehend criminals, and the activ- ities of prosecutors, courts, correctional, probation, pardon, or parole authorities, and which consists of (A) information com- piled for the purpose of identifying individual criminal offenders and alleged offenders and consisting only of identifying data and notations of arrests, the nature and disposition of criminal charges, sentencing, confinement, release, and parole and proba- tion status; (B) information compiled for the purpose of a criminal investigation, including reports of informants and investigators, and associated with an identifiable individual; or (C) reports identifiable to an individual compiled at any stage of the process of enforcement of the criminal laws from arrest or indictment through release from supervision. At the time rules are adopted under this subsection, the agency shall include in the statement required under section 553(c) of this title, ^ use 553. the reasons why the system of records is to be exempted from a pro- vision of this section. " ( k ) SPEGIFIC EXEMPTIONS.—The head of any agency may pro- mulgate rules, in accordance with the requirements (including general notice) of sections 553(b) (1), (2), and (3), (c), and (e) of this title, to exempt any system of records within the agency from subsections (c) (3), ( d ) , (e) (1), (e) (4) ( G ) , ( H ) , and (I) and (f) of this sec- tion if the system of records is— "(1) subject to the provisions of section 552(b) (1) of this title; ^ ^^^ ^^2. "(2) investigatory material compiled for law enforcement pur- poses, other than material within the scope of subsection (j) (2) of this section: Provided^ hoioever, That if any individual is denied any right, privilege, or benefit that he would otherwise be entitled by Federal law, or for which he would otherwise be eligible, as a result of the maintenance of such material, such material shall be provided to such individual, except to the extent that the disclosure of such material would reveal the identity of a source who furnished information to the Government under an express promise that the identity of the source would be held in confidence, or, prior to the effective date of this section, under an implied promise that the identity of the source would he held in confidence; "(3) maintained in connection with providing protective serv- ices to the President of the United States or other individuals pui-suant to section 3056 of title 18; "(4) required by statute to be maintained and used solely as statistical records; "(5) investigatory material compiled solely for the purpose of determining suitability, eligibility, or qualifications for Federal civilian employment, military service. Federal contracts, or access to classified information, but only to the extent that the disclosure of such material would reveal the identity of a source who furnished information to the Government under an express promise that the identity of the source would be held in confi- dence, or, prior to the effective date of this section, under an implied promise that the identity of the source would be held in confidence; "(6) testing or examination material used solely to determine individual qualifications for appointment or promotion in the
1904 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. Federal service the disclosure of which would compromise the objectivity or fairness of the testing or examination process; or "(7) evaluation material used to determine potential for pro- motion in the armed services, but only to the extent that the disclosure of such material would reveal the identity of a source who furnished information to the Government under an express promise that the identity of the source would be held in confi- dence, or, prior to the effective date of this section, under an implied promise that the identity of the source would be held in confidence. At the time rules are adopted under this subsection, the agency shall 5 u s e 553. include in the statement required under section 553 (c) of this title, the reasons why the system of records is to be exempted from a pro- vision of this section. " (1) (1) ARCHIVAL RECORDS.—Each agency record which is accepted by the Administrator of General Services for storage, processing, and 44 u s e 3103. servicing in accordance with section 3103 of title 44 shall, for the pur- poses of this section, be considered to be maintained by the agency which deposited the record and shall be subject to the provisions of this section. The Administrator of General Services shall not disclose the record except to the agency which maintains the record, or under rules established by that agency which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this section. "(2) Each agency record pertaining to an identifiable individual which was transferred to the National Archives of the United States as a record which has sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government, prior to the effective date of this section, shall, for the purposes of this section, be considered to be maintained by the National Archives and shall Publication in JJQ(; ]JQ subiect to tlic provisious of this section, except that a statement Federal Register, generally describing such records (modeled after the requirements relating to records subject to subsections ( e ) ( 4 ) ( A ) through (G) of this section) shall be published in the Federal Register. "(3) Each agency record pertaining to an identifiable individual which is transferred to the National Archives of the United States as a record which has sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government, on or after the effective date of this section, shall, for the purposes of this section, be considered to be maintained by the National Archives and shall be exempt from the requirements of this section except subsections (e) (4) (A) through (G) and (e) (9) of this section. " ( m ) GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS.—When an agency provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of the agency of a system of records to accomplish an agency function, the agency shall, con- sistent with its authority, cause the requirements of this section to be applied to such system. For purposes of subsection (i) of this section any such contractor and any employee of such contractor, if such contract is agreed to on or after the effective date of this section, shall be considered to be an employee of an agency. " ( n ) MAILING LISTS.—An individual's name and address may not be sold or rented by an agency unless such action is specifically author- ized by law. This provision shall not be construed to require the withholding of names and addresses otherwise permitted to be made public. Notice to "(o) REPORT ON NEW SYSTEMS.—Each agency shall provide adequate eongress and oMB."° ° " advance notice to Congress and the Office of ISIanagement and Budget of any proposal to establish or alter any system of records in order to permit an evaluation of the probable or potential effect of such
88 STAT. 1 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1905 proposal on the privacy and other personal or property rights of individuals or the disclosure of information relating to such indi- viduals, and its effect on the preservation of the constitutional principles of federalism and separation of powers. " ( p ) ANNUAL REPORT.—The President shall submit to the Speaker g ^^3^°'^'o°the of the House and the President of the Senate, by June 30 of each Hou^se^and Presi- calendar year, a consolidated report, separately listing for each Fed- dent of the eral agency the number of records contained in any system of records ^"^*^* which were exempted from the application of this section under the provisions of subsections (j) and (k) of this section during the pre- ceding calendar year, and the reasons for the exemptions, and such other information as indicates efforts to administer fully this section. (q) EFFECT OF OTHER LAWS.—No agency shall rely on any exemp- tion contained in section 552 of this title to withhold from an indi- ^ use 552. vidual any record which is otherwise accessible to such individual under the provisions of this section.". SEC. 4. The chapter analysis of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, is amended by inserting: "552a. Records about individuals." immediately below: "552. Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, and proceedings.". SEC. 5. (a) (1) There is established a Privacy Protection Study ^^^^l^^''^^Ja'°' Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "Commission") which commission. shall be composed of seven members as follows: Establishment. (A) three appointed by the President of the United States, note. (B) two appointed by the President of the Senate, and Membership. (C) two appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- tives. Members of the Commission shall be chosen from among persons who, by reason of their knowledge and expertise in any of the following areas—civil rights and liberties, law, social sciences, computer tech- nology, business, records management, and State and local govern- ment—are well qualified for service on the Commission. (2) The members of the Commission shall elect a Chairman from among themselves. (3) Any vacancy in the membership of the Commission, as long as vacancies. there are four members in office, shall not impair the power of the Commission but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made. (4) A quorum of the Commission shall consist of a majority of the members, except that the Commission may establish a lower num- ber as a quorum for the purpose of taking testimony. The Com- mission is authorized to establish such committees and delegate such authority to them as may be necessary to carry out its functions. Each member of the Commission, including the Chairman, shall have equal responsibility and authority in all decisions and actions of the Commission, shall have full access to all information necessary to the performance of their functions, and shall have one vote. Action of the Commission shall be determined by a majority vote of the mem- bers present. The Chairman (or a member designated by the Chair- man to be acting Chairman) shall be the official spokesman of the Commission in its relations with the Congress, Government agencies, other persons, and the public, and, on behalf of the Commission, shall see to the faithful execution of the administrative policies and deci- sions of the Commission, and shall report thereon to the Commission from time to time or as the Commission may direct.
1906 PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. Budget re- (5^ (^^ Whenever the Commission submits any budget estimate ""^^ ^* or request to the President or the OiRce of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit a copy of that request to Congress. re^ommind'atlons. ( ^ ) Wheuevcr the Commissiou submits any legislative recommen- dations, or testimony, or comments on legislation to the President or Office of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit a copy thereof to the Congress. No officer or agency of the United States shall have any authority to require the Commission to submit its legislative recommendations, or testimony, or comments on legisla- tion, to any officer or agency of the United States for approval, com- ments, or review, prior to the submission of such recommendations, testimony, or comments to the Congress. (b) The Commission shall— study. (1) make a study of the data banks, automated data process- ing programs, and information systems of governmental, regional, and private organizations, in order to determine the standards and procedures in force for the protection of personal information; and (2) recommend to the President and the Congress the extent, if any, to which the requirements and principles of section 552a Ante, p. 1897. gf ^]^\^ 5^ United States Code, should be applied to the informa- tion practices of those organizations by legislation, administrative action, or voluntary adoption of such requirements and principles, and report on such other legislative recommendations as it may determine to be necessary to protect the privacy of individuals while meeting the legitimate needs of government and society for information. (c) (1) In the course of conducting the study required under sub- section (b) (1) of this section, and in its reports thereon, the Com- mission may research, examine, and analyze— (A) interstate transfer of information about individuals that is undertaken through manual files or by computer or other elec- tronic or telecommunications means; (B) data banks and information programs and systems the operation of which significantly or substantially affect the enjoy- ment of the privacy and other personal and property rights of individuals; (C) the use of social security numbers, license plate numbers, universal identifiers, and other symbols to identify individuals in data banks and to gain access to, integrate, or centralize information systems and files; and (D) the matching and analysis of statistical data, such as Federal census data, with other sources of personal data, such as automobile registries and telephone directories, in order to reconstruct individual responses to statistical questionnaires for commercial or other purposes, in a way which results in a violation of the implied or explicitly recognized confidentiality of such information. (2) (A) The Commission may include in its examination personal information activities in the following areas: medical; insurance; education; employment and personnel; credit, banking and financial institutions; credit bureaus; the commercial reporting industry; cable television and other telecommunications media; travel, hotel and entertainment reservations; and electronic check processing. (B) The Commission shall include in its examination a study of— (i) whether a person engaged in interstate commerce w^ho maintains a mailing list should be required to remove an individuaPs name and address from such list upon request of that individual;
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1907 (ii) whether the Internal Revenue Service should be pro- hibited from transfering individually indentifiable data to other agencies and to agencies of State governments; (iii) whether the Federal Government should be liable for eneral damages incurred by an individual as the result of a will- f Lil or intentional violation of the provisions of sections 552a (g) (1) (C) or (D) of title 5, United States Code; and ^"f«. p- is^?. (iv) whether and ho^^' the standards for security and con- fidentiality of records required under section 552a (e) (10) of such title" should be applied when a record is disclosed to a person other than an agency. (C) The Commission may study such other personal information g aRnei zl iagtiioounss , or- ex- activities necessary to carry out the congi'essional policy embodied in cepuon this Act, except that the Commission shall not investigate information systems maintained by religious organizations. (3) In conducting such study, the Commission shall— Guidelines for (A) determine what laws. Executive orders, regulations, ^^^'^y* directives, and judicial decisions govern the activities under study and the extent to which they are consistent with the rights of privac}^, due process of law, and other guarantees in the Constitution; (B) determine to Avhat extent governmental and private information systems affect Federal-State relations or the principle of separation of powers; (C) examine the standards and criteria governing programs, policies, and practices relating to the collection, soliciting, processing, use, access, integration, dissemination, and transmis- sion of personal information; and (D) to the maximum extent practicable, collect and utilize findings, reports, studies, hearing transcripts, and recommenda- tions of governmental, legislative and private bodies, institutions, organizations, and individuals which pertain to the problems under study by the Commission. (d) In addition to its other functions the Commission may— (1) request assistance of the heads of appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Federal Government, of State and local governments, and other persons in carrying out its functions under this Act; (2) upon request, assist Federal agencies in complying with the requirements of section 552a of title 5, United States Code; (3) determine what specific categories of information, the col- lection of which would violate an individual's right of privacy, should be prohibited by statute from collection by Federal agen- cies; and (4) upon request, prepare model legislation for use by State and local governments in establishing procedures for handling, maintaining, and disseminating personal information at the State and local level and provide such technical assistance to State and local governments as they may require in the preparation and implementation of such legislation. (e) (1) The Commission may, in carrying out its functions under this section, conduct such inspections, sit and act at such times and places, hold such hearings, take such testimony, require by subpena the attendance of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, papers, correspondence, and documents, administer such oaths, have such printing and binding done, and make such expendi- tures as the Commission deems advisable. A subpena shall be issued only upon an affirmative vote of a majority of all members of the Com-
1908 PUBLIC LAW 93-579~DEC. 31, 1974 [88 STAT. mission. Subpenas shall be issued under the signature of the Chair- man or any member of the Commission designated by the Chairman and shall be served by any person designated by the Chairman or any such member. Any member of the Commission may administer oaths or affirmations to witnesses appearing before the Commission. (2) (A) Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the execu- tive branch of the Government is authorized to furnish to the Com- mission, upon request made by the Chairman, such information, data, reports and such other assistance as the Commission deems necessary Reports, t r a n s - mittal to Com- to carry out its functions under this section. Whenever the head of mission. any such department, agency, or instrumentality submits a report Ante, p . 1897. pursuant to section 552a (o) of title 5, United States Code, a copy of such report shall be transmitted to the Commission. (B) In carrying out its functions and exercising its powers under this section, the Commission may accept from any such department, agency, independent instrumentality, or other person any individu- ally indentifiable data if such data is necessary to carry out such powers and functions. In any case in which the Commission accepts any such information, it shall assure that the information is used only for the purpose for which it is provided, and upon completion of that purpose such information shall be destroyed or returned to such de- partment, agency, independent instrumentality, or person from which it is obtained, as appropriate. (3) The Commission shall have the power to (A) appoint and fix the compensation of an executive director, and such additional staff personnel as may be necessary, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, govern- ing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard 5 u s e 5101, to chapter 51 and subchapter I I I of chapter 53 of such title re- 5331 . lating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, but at rates not in excess of the maximum rate for GS-18 of the General 5 u s e 5332 Schedule under section 5332 of such title; and note. (B) procure temporary and intermittent services to the same extent as is authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code. The Commission may delegate any of its functions to such personnel of the Commission as the Commission may designate and may authorize such successive redelegations of such functions as it may deem desirable. (4) The Commission is authorized— Rules and (A) to adopt, amend, and repeal rules and regulations govern- regulations. ing the manner of its operations, organization, and personnel; (B) to enter into contracts or other arrangements or modifica- tions thereof, with any government, any department, agency, or independent instrumentality of the United States, or with any person, firm, association, or corporation, and such contracts or other arrangements, or modifications thereof, may be entered into without legal consideration, without performance or other bonds, and without regard to section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5 ) ; (C) to make advance, progress, and other payments which the Commission deems necessary under this Act without regard to the provisions of section 3648 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (31 U.S.C. 529); and (D) to take such other action as may be necessary to carry out its functions under this section.
88 STAT. ] PUBLIC LAW 93-579-DEC. 31, 1974 1909 (f) (1) Each [the] member of the Commission who is an officer or compensation. employee of the United States shall serve without additional compen- sation, but shall continue to receive the salary of his regular position when engaged in the performance of the duties vested in the Com- mission. (2) A member of the Commission other than one to whom paragraph P^'' '^''^"'^ (!) applies shall receive per diem at the maximum daily rate for GS-18 of the General Schedule when engaged in the actual per- ^^^^^^ ^^^^ note. formance of the duties vested in the Commission. Travel ex- (3) All members of the Commission shall be reimbursed for travel, penses. subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by them in the per- formance of the duties vested in the Commission, (g) The Commission shall, from time to time, and in an annual p^^^^^^^^nl° ^^ report, report to the President and the Congress on its activities in congress. carrying out the provisions of this section. The Commission shall make a final report to the President and to the Congress on its findings pursuant to the study required to be made under subsection (b) (1) of this section not later than two years from the date on which all of the members of the Commission are appointed. The Commission shall cease to exist thirty days after the date on which its final report is submitted to the President and the Congress. (h) (1) Any member, officer, or employee of the Commission, who Penalties, by virtue of his employment or official position, has possession of, or access to, agency records which contain individually identifiable infor- mation the disclosure of which is prohibited by this section, and who knowing that disclosure of the specific material is so prohibited, will- fully discloses the material in any manner to any person or agency not entitled to receive it, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. (2) Any person who knowingly and willfully requests or obtains any record concerning an individual from the Commission under false pretenses shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. SEC. 6. The Office of Management and Budget shall— s use 552a •» • note (1) develop guidelines and regulations for the use of agencies in implementing the provisions of section 552a of title 6, United States Code, as added by section 3 of this Act; and ^"'«» P- i ^97. (2) provide continuing assistance to and oversight of the im- plementation of the provisions of such section by agencies. SEC. 7. (a) (1) I t shall be unlawful for any Federal, State or local n^^ o t e"sc . 552a government agency to deny to any individual any right, benefit, or "" ° privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to dis- close his social security account number. (2) the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply with respect to— (A) any disclosure which is required by Federal statute, or (B) the disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency maintaining a system of records in existence and operating before January 1, 1975, if such disclosure was required under statute or regulation adopted prior to such date to verify the identity of an individual. (b) Any Federal, State, or local government agency which requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall inform that individual whether that disclosure is mandatory or volun- tary, by what statutory or other authority such number is solicited, and what uses will be made of it. 38-194 O - 76 - 38 Pt. 2
1910 PUBLIC LAW 93-580-JAN. 2, 1975 [88 STAT. Effective d a t e , SEC. 8. The provisions of this Act shall be effective on and after the 5 u s e 552a note. date of enactment, except that the amendments made by sections 3 and 4 shall become effective 270 days following the day on which this Act is enacted. Appropriation. SEC. 9. There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out the pro- 5 u s e 552a note. visions of section 5 of this Act for fiscal years 1975,1976, and 1977 the sum of $1,500,000, except that not more than $750,000 may be expended during any such fiscal year. Approved December 31, 1974. Public Law 93-580 January 2, 1975 JOINT RESOLUTION [S. J . R e s . 133] To provide for the establishment of the American Indian Policy Review Commission. CONOUESSIONAL FINDINGS 2 5 u s e 174 The Congress, after careful review of the Federal Government's note. historical and special legal relationship with American Indian people, finds that— (a) the policy implementing this relationship has shifted and changed with changing administrations and passing years, with- out apparent rational design and without a consistent goal to achieve Indian self-sufficiency; (b) there has been no general comprehensive review of conduct of Indian affairs by the United States nor a coherent investigation of the many problems and issues involved in the conduct of Indian affairs since the 1928 Meriam Report conducted by the Institute for Government Research; and (c) in carrying out its responsibilities under its plenary power over Indian affairs, it is imperative that the Congress now cause such a comprehensive review of Indian affairs to be conducted. DECLARATION OF PURPOSE Congress declares that it is timely and essential to conduct a com- prehensive review of the historical and legal developments underlying the Indians' unique relationship with the Federal Government in order to determine the nature and scope of necessary revisions in the formulation of policies and programs for the benefit of Indians. Resolved hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United American In- States of America in Congress assembled, That— dian Policy R e - view Commis- (a) In order to carry out the purposes described in the preamble sion. hereof and as further set out herein, there is hereby created the Amer- Establishment. 2 5 u s e 174 ican Indian Policy Review Commission, hereinafter referred to as the note. "Commission". Membership. (b) The Commission shall be composed of eleven members, as follows: (1) three Members of the Senate appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate, two from the majority party and one from the minority party; (2) three Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, two from the majority party and one from the minority party; and (3) five Indian members as provided in subsection (c) of this section.