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H.R. 6933 (96th): Government Patent Policy Act of 1980


The text of the bill below is as of Dec 12, 1980 (Passed Congress).

Summary of this bill

Source: Wikipedia

The Bayh–Dole Act or Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act (Pub. L. 96-517, December 12, 1980) is United States legislation dealing with intellectual property arising from federal government-funded research. Sponsored by two senators, Birch Bayh of Indiana and Bob Dole of Kansas, the Act was adopted in 1980, is codified at 94 Stat. 3015, and in 35 U.S.C. § 200–212, and is implemented by 37 C.F.R. 401.

The key change made by Bayh–Dole was in ownership of inventions made with federal funding. Before the Bayh–Dole Act, federal research funding contracts and grants obligated inventors (wherever they worked) to assign inventions they made using ...


PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980                                94 STAT. 3015
Public Law 96-517
96th Congress
                                       An Act
                       To amend the patent and trademark laws.                      Dec. 12, 1980
                                                                                     [H.R. 6933]
  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That title 35 of the Patent and
United States Code, entitled "Patents", is amended by adding after amenTment^"^^'
chapter 29 the following new chapter 30:                             ^"^®" "^®" '
   "CHAPTER 30—PRIOR ART CITATIONS TO OFFICE AND
                 REEXAMINATION OF PATENTS
"Sec.
"301.   Citation of prior art.
"302.   Request for reexamination.
"303.   Determination of issue by Commissioner.
"304.   Reexamination order by Commissioner.
"305.   Conduct of reexamination proceedings.
"306.   Appeal.
"307.   Certificate of patentability, unpatentability, and claim cancellation.
"§ 301. Citation of prior art                                            35 use 301.
   "Any person at any time may cite to the Office in writing prior art
consisting of patents or printed publications which that person
believes to have a bearing on the patentability of any claim of a
particular patent. If the person explains in writing the pertinency
and manner of applying such prior art to at least one claim of the
patent, the citation of such prior art and the explanation thereof will
become a part of the official file of the patent. At the written request
of the person citing the prior art, his or her identity will be excluded
from the patent file and kept confidential.
"§ 302. Request for reexamination                                       35 use 302.
   "Any person at any time may file a request for reexamination by
the Office of any claim of a patent on the basis of any prior art cited
under the provisions of section 301 of this title. The request must be Fee.
in writing and must be accompanied by payment of a reexamination
fee established by the Commissioner of Patents pursuant to the
provisions of section 41 of this title. The request must set forth the Post, p. 3017.
pertinency and manner of applying cited prior art to every claim for
which reexamination is requested. Unless the requesting person is
the owner of the patent, the Commissioner promptly will send a copy
of the request to the owner of record of the patent.
"§ 303. Determination of issue by Commissioner                         35 use 303.
  "(a) Within three months following the filing of a request for
reexamination under the provisions of section 302 of this title, the
Commissioner will determine whether a substantial new question of
patentability affecting any claim of the patent concerned is raised by
the request, with or without consideration of other patents or printed
publications. On his own initiative, and any time, the Commissioner
may determine whether a substantial new question of patentability is

94 STAT. 3016 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 raised by patents and publications discovered by him or cited under the provisions of section 301 of this title. Record. "(b) A record of the Commissioner's determination under subsec- tion (a) of this section will be placed in the official file of the patent, and a copy promptly will be given or mailed to the owner of record of the patent and to the person requesting reexamination, if any. "(c) A determination by the Commissioner pursuant to subsection (a) of this section that no substantial new question of patentability Refund. has been raised will be final and nonappealable. Upon such a determination, the Commissioner may refund a portion of the reex- amination fee required under section 302 of this title. 35 use 304. "§ 304. Reexamination order by Commissioner "If, in a determination made under the provisions of subsection 303(a) of this title, the Commissioner finds that a substantial new question of patentability affecting any claim of a patent is raised, the determination will include an order for reexamination of the patent Filing period. for resolution of the question. The patent owner will be given a reasonable period, not less than two months from the date a copy of the determination is given or mailed to him, within which he may file a statement on such question, including any amendment to his patent and new claim or claims he may wish to propose, for consideration in the reexamination. If the patent owner files such a statement, he promptly will serve a copy of it on the person who has requested reexamination under the provisions of section 302 of this title. Within a period of two months from the date of service, that person may file and have considered in the reexamination a reply to any statement filed by the patent owner. That person promptly will serve on the patent owner a copy of any reply filed. 35 use 305. "§ 305. Conduct of reexamination proceedings "After the times for filing the statement and reply provided for by section 304 of this title have expired, reexamination will be conducted according to the procedures established for initial examination under 35 use 132,133. the provisions of sections 132 and 133 of this title. In any reexamina- tion proceeding under this chapter, the patent owner will be permit- ted to propose any amendment to his patent and a new claim or claims thereto, in order to distinguish the invention as claimed from the prior art cited under the provisions of section 301 of this title, or in response to a decision adverse to the patentability of a claim of a patent. No proposed amended or new claim enlarging the scope of a claim of the patent will be permitted in a reexamination proceeding under this chapter. All reexamination proceedings under this section, including any appeal to the Board of Appeals, will be conducted with special dispatch within the Office. 35 use 306. "§306. Appeal "The patent owner involved in a reexamination proceeding under this chapter may appeal under the provisions of section 134 of this 35 use 134. title, and may seek court review under the provisions of sections 141 35 use 141-145. to 145 of this title, with respect to any decision adverse to the patentability of any original or proposed amended or new claim of the patent. 35 use 307. "§ 307. Certificate of patentability, unpatentability, and claim can- cellation "(a) In a reexamination proceeding under this chapter, when the time for appeal has expired or any appeal proceeding has terminated.
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3017 the Commissioner will issue and publish a certificate canceling any claim of the patent finally determined to be unpatentable, confirming any claim of the patent determined to be patentable, and incorporat- ing in the patent any proposed amended or new claim determined to be patentable. 0^) Any proposed amended or new claim determined to be patent- able and incorporated into a patent following a reexamination proceeding will have the same effect as that specified in section 252 of this title for reissued patents on the right of any person who made, 35 use 252. purchased, or used anything patented by such proposed amended or new claim, or who made substantial preparation for the same, prior to issuance of a certificate under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section.". SEC. 2. Section 41 of title 35, United States Code, is amended to read as follows: "§ 41. Patent fees 35 use 4i. "(a) The Commissioner of Patents will establish fees for the processing of an application for a patent, from filing through disposi- tion by issuance or abandonment, for maintaining a patent in force, and for providing all other services and materials related to patents. No fee will be established for maintaining a design patent in force. "(b) By the first day of the first fiscal year beginning on or after one calendar year after enactment of this Act, fees for the actual processing of an application for a patent, other than for a design patent, from filing through disposition by issuance or abandonment, will recover in aggregate 25 per centum of the estimated average cost to the Office of such processing. By the first day of the first fiscal year beginning on or after one calendar year after enactment, fees for the processing of an application for a design patent, from filing through disposition by issuance or abandonment, will recover in aggregate 50 per centum of the estimated average cost to the Office of such processing. "(c) By the fifteenth fiscal year following the date of enactment of this Act, fees for maintaining patents in force will recover 25 per centum of the estimated cost to the Office, for the year in which such maintenance fees are received, of the actual processing all applica- tions for patents, other than for design patents, from filing through disposition by issuance or abandonment. Fees for maintaining a patent in force will be due three years and six months, seven years and six months, and eleven years and six months after the grant of the patent. Unless payment of the applicable maintenance fee is received in the Patent and Trademark Office on or before the date the fee is due or within a grace period of six months thereafter, the patent will expire as of the end of such grace period. The Commissioner may require the payment of a surcharge as a condition of accepting within such six-month grace period the late payment of an applicable maintenance fee. "(d) By the first day of the first fiscal year beginning on or after one calendar year after enactment, fees for all other services or materials related to patents will recover the estimated average cost to the Office of performing the service or furnishing the m.aterial. The yearly fee for providing a library specified in section 13 of this title 35 use 13. with uncertified printed copies of the specifications and drawings for all patents issued in that year will be $50. ' (e) The Commissioner may waive the payment of any fee for any Waiver. service or material related to patents in connection with an occa- sional or incidental request made by a department or agency of the
94 STAT. 3018 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 Government, or any officer thereof. The Commissioner may provide 35 u s e 132. any applicant issued a notice under section 132 of this title with a copy of the specifications and drawings for all patents referred to in that notice without charge. "(f) Fees will be adjusted by the Commissioner to achieve the levels of recovery specified in this section; however, no patent application processing fee or fee for maintaining a patent in force will be adjusted more than once every three years. Notice. "(g) No fee established by the Commissioner under this section will take effect prior to sixty days following notice in the Federal Register.". SEC. 3. Section 42 of title 35, United States Code, is amended to read as follows: 35 u s e 42. "§ 42. Patent and Trademark Office funding "(a) All fees for services performed by or materials furnished by the Patent and Trademark Office will be payable to the Commissioner. "(b) All fees paid to the Commissioner and all appropriations for defraying the costs of the activities of the Patent and Trademark Office will be credited to the Patent and Trademark Office Appropri- ation Account in the Treasury of the United States, the provisions of section 725e of title 31, United States Code, notwithstanding. "(c) Revenues from fees will be available to the Commissioner of Patents to carry out, to the extent provided for in appropriation Acts, the activities of the Patent and Trademark Office. Refund. "(d) The Commissioner may refund any fee paid by mistake or any amount paid in excess of that required,". SEC. 4. Section 154 of title 35, United States Code, is amended by deleting the word "issue". SEC. 5. Section 31 of the Trademark Act of 1946, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1113), is amended to read as follows: "§31. Fees "(a) The Commissioner of Patents will establish fees for the filing and processing of an application for the registration of a trademark or other mark and for all other services performed by and materials furnished by the Patent and Trademark Office related to trademarks and other marks. Fees will be set and adjusted by the Commissioner to recover in aggregate 50 per centum of the estimated average cost to the Office of such processing. Fees for all other services or materials related to trademarks and other marks will recover the estimated average cost to the Office of performing the service or furnishing the material. However, no fee for the filing or processing of an applica- tion for the registration of a trademark or other mark or for the renewal or assignment of a trademark or other mark will be adjusted Notice. more than once every three years. No fee established under this section will take effect prior to sixty days following notice in the Federal Register. Waiver. "(b) The Commissioner may waive the payment of any fee for any service or material related to trademarks or other marks in connec- tion with an occasional request made by a department or agency of Indian products, the Government, or any officer thereof. The Indian Arts and Crafts exception. Board will not be charged any fee to register Government trademarks of genuineness and quality for Indian products or for products of particular Indian tribes and groups.". SEC. 6. (a) Title 35 of the United States Code, entitled "Patents", is amended by adding after chapter 37 the following new chapter 38:
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3019 "CHAPTER 38—PATENT RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE WITH FEDERAL ASSISTANCE "Sec. "200. Policy and objective. "201. Definitions. "202. Disposition of rights. "203. March-in rights. "204. Preference for United States industry. "205. Confidentiality. "206. Uniform clauses and regulations. "207. Domestic and foreign protection of federally owned inventions. "208. Regulations governing Federal licensing. "209. Restrictions on licensing of federally owned inventions. "210. Precedence of chapter. "211. Relationship to antitrust laws. "§ 200. Policy and objective 35 use 200. "It is the policy and objective of the Congress to use the patent system to promote the utiUzation of inventions arising from federally supported research or development; to encourage maximum partici- pation of small business firms in federally supported research and development efforts; to promote collaboration between commercial concerns and nonprofit organizations, including universities; to ensure that inventions made by nonprofit organizations and small business firms are used in a manner to promote free competition and enterprise; to promote the commercialization and public availability of inventions made in the United States by United States industry and labor; to ensure that the Government obtains sufficient rights in federally supported inventions to meet the needs of the Government and protect the public against nonuse or unreasonable use of inven- tions; and to minimize the costs of administering policies in this area. "§ 201. Definitions 35 use 201. "As used in this chapter— "(a) The term 'Federal agency' means any executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, and the military departments as defined by section 102 of title 5, United States Code. "(b) The term 'funding agreement' means any contract, grant, or cooperative agreement entered into between any Federal agency, other than the Tennessee Valley Authority, and any contractor for the performance of experimental, developmental, or research work funded in whole or in part by the Federal Government. Such term includes any assignment, substitution of parties, or subcontract of any type entered into for the perform- ance of experimental, developmental, or research work under a funding agreement as herein defined. "(c) The term 'contractor' means any person, small business firm, or nonprofit organization that is a party to a funding agreement. "(d) The term 'invention' means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under this title. "(e) The term 'subject invention' means any invention of the contractor conceived or first actually reduced to practice in the performance of work under a funding agreement. "(0 The term 'practical application' means to manufacture in the case of a composition or product, to practice in the case of a process or method, or to operate in the case of a machine or system; and, in each case, under such conditions as to establish
94 STAT. 3020 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 that the invention is being utilized and that its benefits are to the extent permitted by law or Government regulations available to the public on reasonable terms. "(g) The term 'made' when used in relation to any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention. "(h) The term 'small business firm' means a small business concern as defined at section 2 of Public Law 85-536 (15 U.S.C. 632) and implementing regulations of the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. "(i) The term 'nonprofit organization' means universities and other institutions of higher education or an organization of the type described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 501(c)) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501(a)) or any nonprofit scientific or educational organization qualified under a State nonprofit organization statute. 35 u s e 202. "§ 202. Disposition of rights "(a) Each nonprofit organization or small business firm may, within a reasonable time after disclosure as required by paragraph (c)(1) of this section, elect to retain title to any subject invention: Funding Provided, however, That a funding agreement may provide otherwise agreement. (i) when the funding agreement is for the operation of a Government- owned research or production facility, (ii) in exceptional circum- stances when it is determined by the agency that restriction or elimination of the right to retain title to any subject invention will better promote the policy and objectives of this chapter or (iii) when it is determined by a Government authority which is authorized by statute or Executive order to conduct foreign intelligence or counter- intelligence activities that the restriction or elimination of the right to retain title to any subject invention is necessary to protect the security of such activities. The rights of the nonprofit organization or small business firm shall be subject to the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section and the other provisions of this chapter. Written "(b)(1) Any determination under (ii) of paragraph (a) of this section determination. shall be in writing and accompanied by a written statement of facts Copy to justifying the determination. A copy of each such determination and Comptroller justification shall be sent to the Comptroller General of the United General. States within thirty days after the award of the applicable funding Copy to SBA. agreement. In the case of determinations applicable to funding agreements with small business firms copies shall also be sent to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration. Contrary agency "(2) If the Comptroller General believes that any pattern of determinations. determinations by a Federal agency is contrary to the policy and objectives of this chapter or that an agency's policies or practices are otherwise not in conformance with this chapter, the Comptroller General shall so advise the head of the agency. The head of the agency shall advise the Comptroller General in writing within one hundred and twenty days of what action, if any, the agency has taken or plans to take with respect to the matters raised by the Comptroller General. Report to "(3) At least once each year, the Comptroller General shall trans- congressional mit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and committees. House of Representatives on the manner in which this chapter is being implemented by the agencies and on such other aspects of Government patent policies and practices with respect to federally funded inventions as the Comptroller General believes appropriate.
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3021 "(c) Each funding agreement with a small business firm or non- Funding profit organization shall contain appropriate provisions to effectuate agreement requirements. the following: "(1) A requirement that the contractor disclose each subject invention to the Federal agency within a reasonable time after it is made and that the Federal Government may receive title to any subject invention not reported to it within such time. (2) A requirement that the contractor make an election to retain title to any subject invention within a reasonable time after disclosure and that the Federal Government may receive title to any subject invention in which the contractor does not elect to retain rights or fails to elect rights within such time. "(3) A requirement that a contractor electing rights file patent applications within reasonable times and that the Federal Gov- ernment may receive title to any subject inventions in the United States or other countries in which the contractor has not filed patent applications on the subject invention within such times. "(4) With respect to any invention in which the contractor elects rights, the Federal agency shall have a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced for or on behalf of the United States any subject invention throughout the world, and may, if provided in the funding agreement, have additional rights to sublicense any foreign government or international organization pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement. '(5) The right of the Federal agency to require periodic reporting on the utilization or efforts at obtaining utilization that are being made by the contractor or his licensees or assignees: Provided, That any such information may be treated by the Federal agency as commercial and financial information obtained from a person and privileged and confidential and not subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5 of the United States Code. "(6) An obligation on the part of the contractor, in the event a United States patent application is filed by or on its behalf or by any assignee of the contractor, to include within the specification of such application and any patent issuing thereon, a state- ment specifying that the invention was made with Government support and that the Government has certain rights in the invention. "(7) In the case of a nonprofit organization, (A) a prohibition upon the assignment of rights to a subject invention in the United States without the approval of the Federal agency, except where such assignment is made to an organization which has as one of its primary functions the management of inventions and which is not, itself, engaged in or does not hold a substantial interest in other organizations engaged in the manufacture or sale of products or the use of processes that might utilize the invention or be in competition with embodiments of the inven- tion (provided that such assignee shall be subject to the same provisions as the contractor); (B) a prohibition against the grant- ing of exclusive licenses under United States Patents or Patent Applications in a subject invention by the contractor to persons other than small business firms for a period in excess of the earlier of five years from first commercial sale or use of the invention or eight years from the date of the exclusive license excepting that time before regulatory agencies necessary to
94 STAT. 3022 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 obtain premarket clearance unless, on a case-by-case basis, the Federal agency approves a longer exclusive license. If exclusive field of use licenses are granted, commercial sale or use in one field of use shall not be deemed commercial sale or use as to other fields of use, and a first commercial sale or use with respect to a product of the invention shall not be deemed to end the exclusive period to different subsequent products covered by the invention; (C) a requirement that the contractor share royalties with the inventor; and (D) a requirement that the balance of any royalties or income earned by the contractor with respect to subject inventions, after payment of expenses (including payments to- inventors) incidental to the administration of subject inventions, be utilized for the support of scientific research or education. "(8) The requirements of sections 203 and 204 of this chapter. Rights, "(d) If a contractor does not elect to retain title to a subject retention. invention in cases subject to this section, the Federal agency may consider and after consultation with the contractor grant requests for retention of rights by the inventor subject to the provisions of this Act and regulations promulgated hereunder. Rights, transfer "(e) In any case when a Federal employee is a coinventor of any or assignment. invention made under a funding agreement with a nonprofit organi- zation or small business firm, the Federal agency employing such coinventor is authorized to transfer or assign whatever rights it may acquire in the subject invention from its employee to the contractor subject to the conditions set forth in this chapter. Third-party "(f)(1) No funding agreement with a small business firm or non- licensing, profit organization shall contain a provision allowing a Federal prohibition. agency to require the licensing to third parties of inventions owned by the contractor that are not subject inventions unless such provi- sion has been approved by the head of the agency and a written justification has been signed by the head of the agency. Any such provision shall clearly state whether the licensing may be required in connection with the practice of a subject invention, a specifically identified work object, or both. The head of the agency may not delegate the authority to approve provisions or sign justifications required by this paragraph. ' (2) A Federal agency shall not require the licensing of third parties under any such provision unless the head of the agency determines that the use of the invention by others is necessary for the practice of a subject invention or for the use of a work object of the funding agreement and that such action is necessary to achieve the practical application of the subject invention or work object. Any such determination shall be on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing. Any action commenced for judicial review of such determination shall be brought within sixty days after notification of such determination. 35 use 203. "§203. March-in rights "With respect to any subject invention in which a small business firm or nonprofit organization has acquired title under this chapter, the Federal agency under whose funding agreement the subject invention was made shall have the right, in accordance with such procedures as are provided in regulations promulgated hereunder to require the contractor, an assignee or exclusive licensee of a subject invention to grant a nonexclusive, partially exclusive, or exclusive license in any field of use to a responsible applicant or applicants, upon terms that are reasonable under the circumstances, and if the contractor, assignee, or exclusive licensee refuses such request, to
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3023 grant such a license itself, if the Federal agency determines that such— "(a) action is necessary because the contractor or assignee has not taken, or is not expected to take within a reasonable time, effective steps to achieve practical application of the subject invention in such field of use; "(b) action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs which are not reasonably satisfied by the contractor, assignee, or their licensees; "(c) action is necessary to meet requirements for public use specified by Federal regulations and such requirements are not reasonably satisfied by the contractor, assignee, or licensees; or "(d) action is necessary because the agreement required by section 204 has not been obtained or waived or because a licensee of the exclusive right to use or sell any subject invention in the United States is in breach of its agreement obtained pursuant to section 204. "§ 204. Preference for United States industry 35 USC 204. "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no small business firm or nonprofit organization which receives title to any subject invention and no assignee of any such small business firm or nonprofit organization shall grant to any person the exclusive right to use or sell any subject invention in the United States unless such person agrees that any products embodying the subject invention or produced through the use of the subject invention will be manufac- tured substantially in the United States. However, in individual Waiver. cases, the requirement for such an agreement may be waived by the Federal agency under whose funding agreement the invention was made upon a showing by the small business firm, nonprofit organiza- tion, or assignee that reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to grant licenses on similar terms to potential licensees that would be likely to manufacture substantially in the United States or that under the circumstances domestic manufacture is not commer- cially feasible. "§ 205. Confidentiality 35 USC 205. "Federal agencies are authorized to withhold from disclosure to the public information disclosing any invention in which the Federal Government owns or may own a right, title, or interest (including a nonexclusive license) for a reasonable time in order for a patent application to be filed. Furthermore, Federal agencies shall not be required to release copies of any document which is part of an application for patent filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office or with any foreign patent office. "§ 206. Uniform clauses and regulations 35 use 206. "The Office of Federal Procurement Policy, after receiving recom- mendations of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, may issue regulations which may be made applicable to Federal agencies implementing the provisions of sections 202 through 204 of this chapter and the Office of Federal Procurement Policy shall establish standard funding agreement provisions required under this chapter. "§ 207. Domestic and foreign protection of federally owned inven- 35 use 207. tions "Each Federal agency is authorized to—
94 STAT. 3024 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 "(1) apply for, obtain, and maintain paitents or other forms of protection in the United States and in foreign countries on inventions in which the Federal Government owns a right, title, or interest; "(2) grant nonexclusive, exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses under federally owned patent applications, patents, or other forms of protection obtained, royalty-free or for royalties or other consideration, and on such terms and conditions, mcluding the grant to the licensee of the right of enforcement pursuant to 35 u s e 281 et the provisions of chapter 29 of this title as determined appropri- seq. ate in the public interest; "(3) undertake all other suitable and necessary steps to protect and administer rights to federally owned inventions on behalf of the Federal Government either directly or through contract; and "(4) transfer custody and administration, in whole or in part, to another Federal agency, of the right, title, or interest in any federally owned invention. 35 u s e 208. "§ 208. Regulations governing Federal licensing "The Administrator of General Services is authorized to promul- gate regulations specifying the terms and conditions upon which any federally owned invention, other than inventions owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, may be licensed on a nonexclusive, partially exclusive, or exclusive basis. 35 u s e 209. "§ 209. Restrictions on licensing of federally owned inventions Development or "(a) No Federal agency shall grant any license under a patent or marketing plan. patent application on a federally owned invention unless the person requesting the license has supplied the agency with a plan for development and/or marketing of the invention, except that any such plan may be treated by the Federal agency as commercial and financial information obtained from a person and privileged and confidential and not subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5 of the United States Code. Manufacture in "(b) A Federal agency shall normally grant the right to use or sell U.S. any federally owned invention in the United States only to a licensee that agrees that any products embodying the invention or produced through the use of the invention will be manufactured substantially in the United States. "(c)(1) Each Federal agency may grant exclusive or partially exclusive licenses in any invention covered by a federally owned domestic patent or patent application only if, after public notice and opportunity for filing written objections, it is determined that— "(A) the interests of the Federal Government and the public will best be served by the proposed license, in view of the applicant's intentions, plans, and ability to bring the invention to practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utili- zation by the public; "(B) the desired practical application has not been achieved, or is not likely expeditiously to be achieved, under any nonexclusive license which has been granted, or which may be granted, on the invention; "(C) exclusive or partially exclusive licensing is a reasonable and necessary incentive to call forth the investment of risk capital and expenditures to bring the invention to practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public; and
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3025 "(D) the proposed terms and scope of exclusivity are not greater than reasonably necessary to provide the incentive for bringing the invention to practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. "(2) A Federal agency shall not grant such exclusive or partially Antitrust exclusive license under paragraph (1) of this subsection if it deter- factors. mines that the grant of such license will tend substantially to lessen competition or result in undue concentration in any section of the country in any line of commerce to which the technology to be licensed relates, or to create or maintain other situations inconsistent with the antitrust laws. "(3) First preference in the exclusive or partially exclusive licens- Small business ing of federally owned inventions shall go to small business firms preference. submitting plans that are determined by the agency to be within the capabilities of the firms and equally likely, if executed, to bring the invention to practical application as any plans submitted by appli- cants that are not small business firms. "(d) After consideration of whether the interests of the Federal Antitrust Government or United States industry in foreign commerce will be factors. enhanced, any Federal agency may grant exclusive or partially exclusive licenses in any invention covered by a foreign patent application or patent, after public notice and opportunity for filing written objections, except that a Federal agency shall not grant such exclusive or partially exclusive license if it determines that the grant of such license will tend substantially to lessen competition or result in undue concentration in any section of the United States in any line of commerce to which the technology to be licensed relates, or to create or maintain other situations inconsistent with antitrust laws. "(e) The Federal agency shall maintain a record of determinations Record. to grant exclusive or partially exclusive licenses. "(f) Any grant of a license shall contain such terms and conditions Terms and as the Federal agency determines appropriate for the protection of conditions. the interests of the Federal Government and the public, including provisions for the following: "(1) periodic reporting on the utilization or efforts at obtaining utilization that are being made by the licensee with particular reference to the plan submitted: Provided, That any such infor- mation may be treated by the Federal agency as commercial and financial information obtained from a person and privileged and confidential and not subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5 of the United States Code; "(2) the right of the Federal agency to terminate such license in whole or in part if it determines that the licensee is not executing the plan submitted with its request for a license and the licensee cannot otherwise demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Federal agency that it has taken or can be expected to take within a reasonable time, effective steps to achieve practical application of the invention; "(3) the right of the Federal agency to terminate such license in whole or in part if the licensee is in breach of an agreement obtained pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section; and "(4) the right of the Federal agency to terminate the license in whole or in part if the agency determines that such action is necessary to meet requirements for public use specified by Federal regulations issued after the date of the license and such requirements are not reasonably satisfied by the licensee.
94 STAT. 3026 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 35 use 210. "§ 210. Precedence of chapter "(a) This chapter shall take precedence over any other Act which would require a disposition of rights in subject inventions of small business firms or nonprofit organizations contractors in a manner that is inconsistent with this chapter, including but not necessarily limited to the following: "(1) section 10(a) of the Act of June 29,1935, as added by title I of the Act of August 14, 1946 (7 U.S.C. 427i(a); 60 Stat. 1085); "(2) section 205(a) of the Act of August 14, 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1624(a); 60 Stat. 1090); "(3) section 501(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 91 Stat. 1320. 1977 (30 U.S.C. 951(c); 83 Stat. 742); "(4) section 106(c) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C 1395(c); 80 Stat. 721); "(5) section 12 of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 64 Stat. 154. (42 U.S.C. 1871(a); 82 Stat. 360); "(6) section 152 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 68 Stat. 944. 2182; 68 Stat. 943); "(7) section 305 of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2457); "(8) section 6 of the Coal Research Development Act of 1960 (30 U.S.C. 666; 74 Stat. 337); "(9) section 4 of the Helium Act Amendments of 1960 (50 U.S.C. 167b; 74 Stat. 920); "(10) section 32 of the Arms Control and Disarmament Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2572; 75 Stat. 634); "(11) subsection (e) of section 302 of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (40 U.S.C. App. 302(e); 79 Stat. 5); "(12) section 9 of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research 88 Stat. 1887. and Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5901; 88 Stat, 1878); 42 use 5908. "(13) Section 5(d) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2054(d); 86 Stat. 1211); "(14) section 3 of the Act of April 5,1944 (30 U.S.C. 323; 58 Stat. 191); "(15) section 8001(c)(3) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6981(c); 90 Stat. 2829); "(16) section 219 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2179; 83 Stat. 806); "(17) section 427(b) of the Federal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 937(b); 86 Stat. 155); "(18) section 306(d) of the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 1226(d); 91 Stat. 455); "(19) section 21(d) of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2218(d); 88 Stat. 1548); "(20) section 60^) of the Solar Photovoltaic E n e r ^ Research Development and Demonstration Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 5585(b); 92 Stat. 2516); "(21) section 12 of the Native Latex Commercialization and 7 use I78j. Economic Development Act of 1978 (7 U.S.C. 178(j); 92 Stat. 2533); and "(22) section 408 of the Water Resources and Development Act 92 Stat. 1316. of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 7879; 92 Stat. 1360). The Act creating this chapter shall be construed to take precedence over any future Act unless that Act specifically cites this Act and provides that it shall take precedence over this Act. "Ot>) Nothing in this chapter is intended to alter the effect of the laws cited in paragraph (a) of this section or any other laws with respect to the disposition of rights in inventions made in the perform-
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3027 ance of funding agreements with persons other than nonprofit organizations or small business firms. "(c) Nothing in this chapter is intended to limit the authority of Rights, agencies to agree to the disposition of rights in inventions made in the disposition. performance of work under funding agreements with persons other than nonprofit organizations or small business firms in accordance with the Statement of Government Patent Policy issued on August 23, 1971 (36 Fed. Reg. 16887), agency regulations, or other applicable regulations or to otherwise limit the authority of agencies to allow such persons to retain ownership of inventions. Any disposition of rights in inventions mdde in accordance with the Statement or implementing regulations, including any disposition occurring before enactment of this section, are hereby authorized. "(d) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require the Disclosure. disclosure of intelligence sources or methods or to otherwise affect the authority granted to the Director of Central Intelligence by statute or Executive order for the protection of intelligence sources or methods. "§ 21L Relationship to antitrust laws 35 use 2ii. "Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to convey to any person immunity from civil or criminal liability, or to create any defenses to actions, under any antitrust law.". (b) The table of chapters for title 35, United States Code, is amended by adding immediately after the item relating to chapter 37 the following: "38. Patent rights in inventions made with Federal assistance.". SEC. 7. AMENDMENTS TO OTHER ACTS.—The following Acts are amended as follows: (a) Section 156 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2186; 68 Stat. 947) is amended by deleting the words "held by the Commission or". (b) The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is amended by repealing paragraph (g) of section 305 (42 U.S.C. 2457(g); 72 Stat. 436). (c) The Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 is amended by repealing paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of section 9 (42 U.S.C. 5908 (g), (h), and (i); 88 Stat. 1889-1891). SEC. 8. (a) Sections 2, 4, and 5 of this Act will take effect upon Effective dates, enactment. 35 USC 41 note. (b) Section 1 of this Act will take effect on the first day of the seventh month beginning after its enactment and will apply to patents in force as of that date or issued thereafter. (c) Section 3 of this Act will take effect on the first day of the first fiscal year beginning on or after one calendar year after enactment. However, until section 3 takes effect, the Commissioner may credit the Patent and Trademark Office appropriation account in the Treasury of the United States with the revenues from collected reexamination fees, which will be available to pay the costs to the Office of reexamination proceedings. (d) Any fee in effect as of the date of enactment of this Act will remain in effect until a corresponding fee established under section 41 of title 35, United States Code, or section 1113 of title 15, United States Code, takes effect. (e) Fees for maintaining a patent in force will not be applicable to patents applied for prior to the date of enactment of this Act.
94 STAT. 3028 PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 (f) Sections 6 and 7 of this Act will take effect on the first day of the seventh month beginning after its enactment. Implementing regula- tions may be issued earlier. (g) Sections 8 and 9 will take effect on the date of enactment of this Act. Computerized SEC. 9. The Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks shall report data and to Congress, within two years after the effective date of this Act, a retrieval system, report to plan to identify, and if necessary develop or have developed, comput- Congress. erized data and retrieval systems equivalent to the latest state of the 35 u s e 14 note. art which can be applied to all aspects of the operation of the Patent and Trademark Office, and particularly to the patent search file, the patent classification system, and the trademark search file. The report shall specify the cost of implementing the plan, how rapidly the plan can be implemented by the Patent and Trademark Office, without regard to funding which is or which may be available for this purpose in the future. SEC. 10. (a) Section 101 of title 17 of the United States Code is amended to add at the end thereof the following new language: "Computer "A 'computer program' is a set of statements or instructions to program." be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result.". Ob) Section 117 of title 17 of the United States Code is amended to read as follows: 17 u s e 117. **§ 117. Limitations on exclusive rights: Computer programs 17 u s e 106. "Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement for the owner of a copy of a computer program to make or authorize the making of another copy or adaptation of that computer program provided: "(1) that such a new copy or adaptation is created as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program in conjunction with a machine and that it is used in no other manner, or "(2) that such new copy or adaptation is for archival purposes only and that all archival copies are destroyed in the event that continued possession of the computer program should cease to be rightful.
PUBLIC LAW 96-517—DEC. 12, 1980 94 STAT. 3029 "Any exact copies prepared in accordance with the provisions of this section may be leased, sold, or otherwise transferred, along with the copy from which such copies were prepared, only as part of the lease, sale, or other transfer of all rights in the program. Adaptations so prepared may be transferred only with the authorization of the copyright owner." Approved December 12, 1980. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY: HOUSE REPORTS: No. 96-1307, Pt. I (Ck)mm. on the Judiciary) and No. 96-1307, Pt. 2 (Comm. on Government Operations). CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 126 (1980): Mar. 20, S. 2446 considered and passed Senate. Nov. 17, considered and passed House. Nov. 20, considered and passed Senate, amended. Nov. 21, House concurred in Senate amendment. 79-194 O—81—pt. 3 25 : QL3