< Back to H.R. 6940 (96th Congress, 1979–1980)

Text of the Infant Formula Act of 1980

This bill was enacted after being signed by the President on September 26, 1980. The text of the bill below is as of Sep 26, 1980 (Passed Congress/Enrolled Bill).

94 STAT. 1190                      PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980

                     Public Law 96-359
                     96th Congress
                                                       An Act
 Sept. 26, 1980      To amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to strengthen the authority
  [H.R. 6940]          under that Act to assure the safety and nutrition of infant formulas, and for
                       other purposes.

                        Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
Infant Formula       United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be
Act of 1980.         cited as the "Infant Formula Act of 1980".
21 u s e 301 note.
                        SEC. 2. Chapter IV of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is
                     amended by adding after section 411 the following new section:
                                       REQUIREMENTS FOR INFANT FORMULAS

Adulterated             "SEC. 412. (a)(1) An infant formula shall be deemed to be adulter-
formulas.            ated if—
21 u s e 350a.
                             "(A) such infant formula does not provide nutrients as
                          required by subsection (g);
                             "(B) such infant formula does not meet the quality factor
                          requirements prescribed by the Secretary under this section; or
                             "(C) the processing of such infant formula is not in compliance
                          with the quality control requirements prescribed by the Secre-
                          tary under this section.
                        "(2) The Secretary may by regulation—
                             "(A) revise the list of nutrients in the table in subsection (g);
                             "(B) revise the required level for any nutrient required by
                          subsection (g);
                             "(C) establish requirements for quality factors for such nutri-
                          ents; and
Quality control              "(D) establish such quality control procedures as the Secretary
procedures.               determines necessary to assure that an infant formula provides
                          nutrients in accordance with this section and establish require-
                          ments respecting the retention of records of procedures required
                          under this clause (including maintaining necessary nutrient
                          testing records).
Testing.             Quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary shall include
                     the periodic testing of infant formulas to determine whether they are
                     in compliance with this section.
Notification to         "(b)(1) On the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this
Secretary.           section, and on each 90th day thereafter, a manufacturer of infant
                     formula shall notify the Secretary that each infant formula manufac-
                     tured by such manufacturer provides the nutrients required under
                     subsection (g). Such notification requirement shall expire upon the
                     effective date of regulations relating to quality control procedures
                     prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (a)(2)(D).
                        "(2) Not later than the 90th day before the first processing of any
                     infant formula for commercial or charitable distribution for human
                     consumption, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary whether—
                             "(A) such infant formula provides nutrients in accordance with
                          subsection (g) and meets the quality factor requirements pre-
                          scribed by the Secretary; and
                             "(B) the processing of such infant formula meets the quality
                          control procedure requirements prescribed by the Secretary.

PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980 94 STAT. 1191 "(3) Before the first processing of any infant formula for commer- cial or charitable distribution for human consumption— "(A) after a change in its formulation, or "(B) after a change in its processing, which the manufacturer reasonably determines may affect whether the formula is adulterated as determined under subsection (a)(1), the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary of such changes and that the formula provides nutrients in accordance with subsection (g) and meets the quality factor requirements prescribed by the Secretary and that the processing of such infant formula is in compliance with the quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary. "(c)(1) If the manufacturer of an infant formula has knowledge which reasonably supports the conclusion that an infant formula which has been processed by the manufacturer and which has left an establishment subject to the control of the manufacturer— "(A) may not provide the nutrients required by subsection (g); or "(B)(i) may be otherwise adulterated or misbranded, and "(ii) if so adulterated or misbranded presents a risk to human health, the manufacturer shall promptly notify the Secretary of such non- compliance or risk to health. "(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term 'knowledge' as applied "Knowledge, to a manufacturer means (A) the actual knowledge that the manufac- turer had, or (B) the knowledge which a reasonable person would have had under like circumstances or which would have been obtained upon the exercise of due care. "(d)(1) If a recall of an infant formula is begun by a manufacturer, Recall. the recall shall be carried out in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary may prescribe under paragraph (2), and— "(A) the Secretary shall, not later than the 15th day after the Review. beginning of such recall and at least once every 15 days thereaf- ter until the recall is terminated, review the actions taken under the recall to determine whether the recall meets the require- ments prescribed under paragraph (2); and "(B) the manufacturer shall, not later than the 14th day after Report to the beginning of such recall and at least once every 14 days Secretary. thereafter until the recall is terminated, report to the Secretary the actions taken to implement the recall. "(2) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the scope and Regulations. extent of recalls of infant formulas necessary and appropriate for the degree of risk to human health presented by the formula subject to the recall. "(e)(1) Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and Records. retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect and monitor recalls of the formula. No manufacturer shall be required under this subsection to retain any record respecting the distribution of an infant formula for a period of longer than 2 years from the date the record was made. "(2) To the extent that the Secretary determines that records are not being made or maintained in accordance with paragraph (1), the Secretary may by regulation prescribe the records required to be made under paragraph (1) and requirements respecting the retention of such records under such paragraph. Such regulations shall take effect on such date as the Secretary prescribes but not sooner than the 180th day after the date such regulations are promulgated. Such regulations shall apply only with respect to distributions of infant formulas made after such effective date.
94 STAT. 1192 PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980 Exemptions. "(f)(1) Any infant formula which is represented and labeled for use by an infant— "(A) who has an inborn error of metabolism or a low birth weight, or "(B) who otherwise has an unusual medical or dietary problem, is exempt from the requirements of subsections (a) and (b). The manufacturer of an infant formula exempt under this paragraph shall, in the case of the exempt formula, be required to provide the notice required by subsection (c)(1) only with respect to adulteration or misbranding described in subsection (c)(1)(B), and to comply with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2). "(2) The Secretary may by regulation establish terms and condi- tions for the exemption of an infant formula from the requirements of subsections (a) and (b). An exemption of an infant formula under paragraph (1) may be withdrawn by the Secretary if such formula is not in compliance with applicable terms and conditions prescribed under this paragraph. Nutrient "(g) An infant formula shall contain nutrients in accordance with contents. the table set out in this subsection or, if revised by the Secretary under subsection (a)(2), as so revised: "NUTRIENTS Protein (gm) 1.8" 4.5. Fat: gm 3.3 6.0. percent cal 30.0 54.0. Essential fatty acids (linoleate): percent cal 2.7 mg... 300.0 Vitamins: A (lU) 250.0 (75 ixg)' 750.0 (225 ug).' D (lU) 40.0 100.0. K(ug) 4.0 E (lU) 0.7 (with 0.7 lU/gm lin- oleic acid). C (ascorbic acid) (mg) 8.0 B, (thiamine) (jug) 40.0 Bj (riboflavin) (fxg) 60.0 Be (pyridoxine) (fxg) 35.0 (with 15 ixg/gm of protein in formula). B,2 i^ig) 0.15 Niacin (jug) 250.0 Folic acid ifxg) 4.0 Pantothenic acid (/a,g) 300.0 Biotin {^lg} 1.5* Choline (mg) 7.0" Inositol (mg) 4.0'' Minerals: Calcium (mg) 50.0* Phosphorus (mg) 25.0* Magnesium (mg) 6.0 Iron (mg) 0.15 Iodine (ju,g) 5.0 Zinc(mg) 0.5 Copper (;xg) 60.0 Manganese (fig) 5.0 Sodium (mg) 20.0 60.0. Potassium (mg) 80.0 200.0. Chloride (mg) 55.0 150.0. "Stated per 100 kilocalories. "The source of protein shall be at least nutritionally equivalent to casein. ' Retinol equivalents. " Required to be included in this amount only in formulas which are not milk-based. 'Calcium to phosphorus ratio must be no less than 11 nor more than 2.0."
PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980 94 STAT. 1193 SEC. 3. Section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321) is amended by adding at the end the following: "(aa) The term 'infant formula' means a food which purports to be "Infant or is represented for special dietary use solely £is a food for infants by formula." reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.". SEC. 4. Section 704(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 374(a)) is amended— (1) in the first sentence, by inserting "(1)" before "For pur- poses" and by redesignating clauses (1) and (2) as clauses (A) and (B), respectively; (2) in the third sentence, by inserting "or by paragraph (3)" after "preceding sentence"; (3) in the sixth sentence, (A) by striking out "The provisions of the second sentence of this subsection" and inserting in lieu thereof the following: "(2) The provisions of the second sentence of paragraph (1)", and (B) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (4) as subpara- graphs (A) through (D), respectively; and (4) by adding at the end the following: "(3) An officer or employee making an inspection under paragraph (1) for purposes of enforcing the requirements of section 412 applica- Ante, p. 1190. ble to infant formulas shall be permitted, at all reasonable times, to have access to and to copy and verify any records— "(A) bearing on whether the infant formula manufactured or held in the facility inspected meets the requirements of section 412, or "(B) required to be maintained under section 412.". SEC. 5. (a) Section 301 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 21 u s e 331. is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph: "(s) The failure to provide the notice required by section 412(b) or 412(c), the failure to make the reports required by section 412(d)(1)(B), or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 412(d)(2).". Ob) Section 301(e) of such Act is amended (1) by striking out "section 703" and inserting in lieu thereof "section 412 or 703", and (2) by striking out "section 505" and inserting in lieu thereof "section 412, 505". (c) Section 301(j) of such Act is amended by inserting "412," before "505". SEC. 6. Section 412 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Effective date. (added by section 2) shall apply with respect to infant formulas 21 u s e 350a note. manufactured on or after the 90th day after the date of the enact- ment of this Act. SEC. 7. (a) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall Health study. conduct a study to determine the long-term effect on infants of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis resulting from infant formulas deficient in chloride. The Secretary shall report the results of such Report to study to the Congress. eongress. Ot)) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct a Federal labeling review of existing Federal requirements for the labeling of infant requirements, formula to determine the effect of such requirements on infant review. nutrition and proper use of infant formula. Not later than the 180th Submittal to day after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall congressional committees.
94 STAT. 1194 PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980 submit a report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives containing the results of the review and including recommendations for any legislative or administrative action with respect to the labeling of infant formula as the Secretary determines appropriate. Export issues, (c) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct a review. review of issues concerning the export of infant formula that, if marketed in the United States, would be in violation of section 412 of Ante, p. 1190. the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Not later than the 180th Submittal to day after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit congressional committees. a report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives, containing the results of the review and including recommendations regarding appropriate legislative or administrative action to improve current export policies, as the Secretary determines appropriate. SEC. 8. (a) Section 503 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 873) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection: Controlled "(c) The Attorney General shall annually (1) select the controlled substance with substance (or controlled substances) contained in schedule II which, highest abuse rate. in the Attorney General's discretion, is determined to have the highest rate of abuse, and (2) prepare and make available to regula- tory, licensing, and law enforcement agencies of States descriptive and analytic reports on the actual distribution patterns in such States of each such controlled substance.". 21 u s e 830, 841, Ot)) Section 203 of the Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 (Public 842, 843. Law 95-633) is amended by striking out subsection (d). (c) Section 401 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841) is amended— (1) by striking out "except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection" in the first sentence of subsection (b)(1)(B) and inserting in lieu thereof "except as provided in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of this subsection"; and (2) by adding after paragraph (5) of subsection (b) the following new paragraph: Penalties. "(6) In the case of a violation of subsection (a) involving a quantity of marihuana exceeding 1,000 pounds, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 15 years, and in addition, may be fined not more than $125,000. If any person commits such a violation after one or more prior convictions of such person for an offense punishable under paragraph (1) of this paragraph, or for a
PUBLIC LAW 96-359—SEPT. 26, 1980 94 STAT. 1195 felony under any other provision of this title, title III, or other law of ^^ use 801, 951. the United States relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depres- sant or stimulant substances, have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years, and in addition, may be fined not more than $250,000.". Approved September 26, 1980. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY: HOUSE REPORT No. 96-936 (Ck)mm. on Interstate and Foreign Commerce). SENATE REPORT No. 96-916 accompanying S. 2490 (Comm. on Labor and Human Resources) CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 126 (1980): May 20, considered and passed House. Sept. 8, considered and passed Senate, amended, in lieu of S. 2490. Sept. 9, House concurred in Senate amendment, WEEKLY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS, Vol. 16, No. 39: Sept. 26, Presidential remarks and statement.