< Back to H.R. 7020 (96th Congress, 1979–1980)

Text of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

This bill was enacted after being signed by the President on December 11, 1980. The text of the bill below is as of Dec 11, 1980 (Passed Congress/Enrolled Bill).

PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980                                   94 STAT. 2767

Public Law 96- -510
96th Congress
                                   An Act
                                                                                        Dec. 11, 1980
To provide for liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazard-      [H.R. 7020]
  ous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive hazard-
  ous waste disposal sites.

  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of American in Congress assembled, That this Act mayComprehensive
be cited as the "Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensa- Environmental
                                                                  Response,
tion, and Liability Act of 1980".                                 Compensation,
                                                                                      and Liability Act
 TITLE I—HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES, LIABILITY,                                    of 1980
                                                                                      42 u s e 9601
                 COMPENSATION                                                         note.
                                  DEFINITIONS
  SEC. 101. For purpose of this title, the term—                       42 u s e 9601.
       (1) "act of God" means an unanticipated g^rave natural disaster
    or other natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable, and
    irresistible character, the effects of which could not have been
    prevented or avoided by the exercise of due care or foresight;
       (2) "Administrator" means the Administrator of the United
    States Environmental Protection Agency;
       (3) "barrel" means forty-two United States gallons at sixty
    degrees Fahrenheit;
       (4) "claim" means a demand in writing for a sum certain;
       (5) "claimant" means any person who presents a claim for
    compensation under this Act;
       (6) "damages" means damages for injury or loss of natural
    resources as set forth in section 107(a) or 1110)) of this Act;
       (7) "drinking water supply" means any raw or finished water
    source that is or may be used by a public water system (as defined
    in the Safe Drinking Water Act) or as drinking water by one or 42 use 201 note.
    more individuals;
       (8) "environment" means (A) the navigable waters, the waters
    of the contiguous zone, and the ocean waters of which the natural
    resources are under the exclusive management authority of the
    United States under the Fishery Conservation and Management
    Act of 1976, and (B) any other surface water, ground water, Post, p. 3300.
    drinking water supply, land surface or subsurface strata, or
    ambient air within the United States or under the jurisdiction of
    the United States;
       (9) "facility" means (A) any building, structure, installation,
    equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or
    publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon,
    impoundment, ditch, landfill, storage container, motor vehicle,
    rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or area where a
    hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or
    placed, or otherwise come to be located; but does not include any
    consumer product in consumer use or any vessel;

94 STAT. 2768 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (10) "federally permitted release" m e a n s (A) discharges in compliance with a permit u n d e r section 402 of t h e Federal W a t e r 33 u s e 1342. Pollution Control Act, (B) discharges resulting from circum- stances identified a n d reviewed a n d made p a r t of t h e public record with respect to a permit issued or modified u n d e r section 402 of t h e Federal W a t e r Pollution Control Act a n d subject to a condition of such permit, (C) continuous or anticipated intermit- t e n t discharges from a point source, identified in a permit or permit application u n d e r section 402 of t h e Federal Water Pollution Control Act, which a r e caused by events occurring within t h e scope of relevant operating or t r e a t m e n t systems, (D) discharges in compliance with a legally enforceable permit under 83 u s e 1344. section 404 of t h e Federal W a t e r Pollution Control Act, (E) releases in compliance with a legally enforceable final permit issued p u r s u a n t to section 3005 (a) through (d) of t h e Solid Waste 42 u s e 6925. Disposal Act from a hazardous waste t r e a t m e n t , storage, or disposal facility when such permit specifically identifies t h e hazardous substances a n d m a k e s such substances subject to a s t a n d a r d of practice, control procedure or bioassay limitation or condition, or other control on t h e hazardous substances in such releases, (F) a n y release in compliance with a legally enforceable p e r m i t issued u n d e r section 102 of section 103 of t h e Marine 33 u s e 1412, Protection, Research, a n d Sanctuaries Act of 1972, (G) a n y 1413. injection of fluids authorized u n d e r Federal underground injec- tion control programs or State programs submitted for Federal approval (and not disapproved by t h e Administrator of t h e Environmental Protection Agency) p u r s u a n t to p a r t C of the Safe 42 u s e 300h. Drinking W a t e r Act, (H) a n y emission into t h e a i r subject to a permit or control regulation u n d e r section 111, section 112, title I 42 u s e 7411, part C, title I part D, or State implementation plans submitted in l9\%r^74in^^^' accordance with section 110 of the Clean Air Act (and not 42 use 7410. disapproved by the Administrator of the Environmental Protec- tion Agency), including any schedule or waiver granted, promul- gated, or approved under these sections, (I) any iiyection of fluids or other materials authorized under applicable State law (i) for the purpose of stimulating or treating wells for the production of crude oil, natural gas, or water, (ii) for the purpose of secondary, tertiary, or other enhanced recovery of crude oil or natural gas, or (iii) which are brought to the surface in conjunction with the production of crude oil or natural gas and which are reinjected, (J) the introduction of any pollutant into a publicly owned treatment works when such pollutant is specified in and in compliance with applicable pretreatment standards of section 33 use 1317. 307 (b) or (c) of the Clean Water Act and enforceable require- ments in a pretreatment program submitted by a State or 33 use 1342. municipality for Federal approval under section 402 of such Act, and (K) any release of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material, as those terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 42 use 2014. 1954, in compliance with a legally enforceable license, permit, regulation, or order issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; (11) "Fund" or "Trust Fund" means the Hazardous Substance Post, p. 2801. Response Fund established by section 221 of this Act or, in the case of a hazardous waste disposal facility for which liability has been transferred under section 107(k) of this Act, the Post-closure Post, p. 2804. Liability Fund established by section 232 of this Act; (12) "ground water" means water in a saturated zone or stratum beneath the surface of land or water;
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2769 (13) "guarantor" means any person, other than the owner or operator, who provides evidence of financial responsibihty for an owner or operator under this Act; (14) "hazardous substance" means (A) any substance designat- ed pursuant to section 311(bX2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (B) any element, compound, mixture, solution, or ^^ USC 1321. substance designated pursuant to section 102 of this Act, (C) any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under or listed pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act 42 USC 6921. (but not including any waste the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal Act has been suspended by Act of Congress), (D) any toxic pollutant listed under section 307(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (E) any hazardous air pollutant listed under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, and (F) any 42 USC 7412. imminently hazardous chemical substance or mixture with re- spect to which the Administrator has taken action pursuant to section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The term does not 15 USC 2606. include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance under subparagraphs (A) through (F) of this paragraph, and the term does not include natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas usable for fuel (or mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas); (15) "navigable waters" or "navigable waters of the United States" means the waters of the United States, including the territorial seas; (16) "natural resources" means land, fish, wildlife, biota, air, water, ground water, drinking water supplies, and other such resources belonging to, managed by, held in trust by, appertain- ing to, or otherwise controlled by the United States (including the resources of the fishery conservation zone established by the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976), any State or Post, p. 3300. local government, or any foreign government; (17) "offshore facility" means any facility of any kind located in, on, or under, any of the navigable waters of the United States, and any facility of any kind which is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and is located in, on, or under any other waters, other than a vessel or a public vessel; (18) "onshore facility" means any facility (including, but not limited to, motor vehicles and rolling stock) of any kind located in, on, or under, any land or nonnavigable waters within the United States; (19) "otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" means subject to the jurisdiction of the United States by virtue of United States citizenship. United States vessel documentation or numbering, or as provided by international agreement to which the United States is a party; (20)(A) "owner or operator" means (i) in the case of a vessel, any person owning, operating, or chartering by demise, such vessel, (ii) in the case of an onshore facility or an offshore facility, any person owning or operating such facility, and (iii) in the case of any abandoned facility, any person who owned, operated, or otherwise controlled activities at such facility immediately prior to such abandonment. Such term does not include a person, who, without participating in the management of a vessel or facility, holds indicia of ownership primarily to protect his security interest in the vessel or facility;
94 STAT. 2770 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (B) in the C£ise of a hazardous substance which has been accepted for transportation by a common or contract carrier and except as provided in section 107(a) (3) or (4) of this Act, (i) the term "owner or operator" shall mean such common carrier or other bona fide for hire carrier acting as an independent contrac- tor during such transportation, (ii) the shipper of such hazardous substance shall not be considered to have caused or contributed to any release during such transportation which resulted solely from circumstances or conditions beyond his control; (C) in the case of a hazardous substance which has been delivered by a common or contract carrier to a disposal or treatment facility and except as provided in section 107(a) (3) or (4) (i) the term "owner or operator" shall not include such common or contract carrier, and (ii) such common or contract carrier shall not be considered to have caused or contributed to any release at such disposal or treatment facility resulting from circumstances or conditions beyond its control; (21) "person" means an individual, firm, corporation, associ- ation, partnership, consortium, joint venture, commercial entity, United States Government, State, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a State, or any interstate body; (22) "release" means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment, but excludes (A) any release which results in exposure to persons solely within a workplace, with respect to a claim which such persons may assert against the employer of such persons, (B) emissions from the engine exhaust of a motor vehicle, rolling stock, aircraft, vessel, or pipeline pumping station engine, (C) release of source, byproduct, or special nuclear material from a nuclear incident, 42 use 2011 as those terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, if "°^- such release is subject to requirements with respect to financial protection established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission 42 use 2210. under section 170 of such Act, or, for the purposes of section 104 of this title or any other response action, any release of source byproduct, or special nuclear material from any processing site designated under section 102(aXl) or 302(a) of the Uranium Mill 42 use 7912, Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, and (D) the normal "^^- application of fertilizer; (23) "remove" or "removal" means the cleanup or removal of released hazardous substances from the environment, such actions as may be necessary taken in the event of the threat of release of hazardous substances into the environment, such actions as may be necessary to monitor, assess, and evaluate the release or threat of release of hazardous substances, the disposal of removed material, or the taking of such other actions as may be necessary to prevent, minimize, or mitigate damage to the public health or welfare or to the environment, which may otherwise result from a release or threat of release. The term includes, in addition, without being limited to, security fencing or other measures to limit access, provision of alternative water supplies, temporary evacuation and housing of threatened indi- viduals not otherwise provided for, action taken under section 104(b) of this Act, and any emergency assistance which may be 42 use 5121 provided under the Disaster Relief Act of 1974; "°*^® (24) "remedy" or "remedial action" means those actions con- sistent with permanent remedy taken instead of or in addition to removal actions in the event of a release or threatened release of
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2771 a hazardous substance into the environment, to prevent or minimize the release of hazardous substances so that they do not migrate to cause substantial danger to present or future public health or welfare or the environment. The term includes, but is not limited to, such actions at the location of the release as storage, confinement, perimeter protection using dikes, trenches, or ditches, clay cover, neutralization, cleanup of released hazard- ous substances or contaminated materials, recycling or reuse, diversion, destruction, segregation of reactive wastes, dredging or excavations, repair or replacement of leaking containers, collection of leachate and runoff, onsite treatment or inciner- ation, provision of alternative water supplies, and any monitor- ing reasonably required to assure that such actions protect the public health and welfare and the environment. The term includes the costs of permanent relocation of residents and businesses and community facilities where the President deter- mines that, alone or in combination with other measures, such relocation is more cost-effective than and environmentally pref- erable to the transportation, storage, treatment, destruction, or secure disposition offsite of hazardous substances, or may other- wise be necessary to protect the public health or welfare. The term does not include offsite treinsport of hazardous substances, or the storage, treatment, destruction, or secure disposition offsite of such hazardous substances or contaminated materials unless the President determines that such actions (A) are more cost-effective than other remedial actions, (B) will create new capacity to manage, in compliance with subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, hazardous substances in addition to those 42 use 6921. located at the affected facility, or (C) are necessary to protect public health or welfare or the environment from a present or potential risk which may be created by further exposure to the continued presence of such substances or materials; (25) "respond" or "response" means remove, removal, remedy, and remedial action; (26) "transport" or "transportation" means the movement of a hazardous substance by any mode, including pipeline (as defined in the Pipeline Safety Act), and in the case of a hazardous 49 USC 1671 substance which has been accepted for transportation by a "°*® common or contract carrier, the term "transport" or "transpor- tation" shall include any stoppage in transit which is temporary, incidental to the transportation movement, and at the ordinary operating convenience of a common or contract carrier, and any such stoppage shall be considered as a continuity of movement and not as the storage of a hazardous substance; (27) "United States" and "State" include the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the (Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the C!ommonwealth of the Northern Marianeis, and any other territory or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction; (28) "vessel" means every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water; (29) "disposal", "hazardous waste", and "treatment" shall have the meaning provided in section 1004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act; 42 use 6903.
94 STAT. 2772 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (30) "territorial sea" and "contiguous zone" shall have the meaning provided in section 502 of the Federal Water Pollution 33 use 1362. Control Act. (31) "national contingency plan" means the national contin- gency plan published under section 311(c) of the Federal Water 33 use 1321. Pollution Control Act or revised pursuant to section 105 of this Act; and (32) "liable" or "liability" under this title shall be construed to be the standard of liability which obtains under section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. REPORTABLE QUANTITIES AND ADDITIONAL DESIGNATIONS Regulations. SEC. 102. (a) The Administrator shall promulgate and revise as may 42 use 9602. |jg appropriate, regulations designating as hazardous substances, in addition to those referred to in section 101(14) of this title, such elements, compounds, mixtures, solutions, and substances which, when released into the environment may present substantial danger to the public health or welfare or the environment, and shall promulgate regulations establishing that quantity of any hazardous substance the release of which shall be reported pursuant to section 103 of this title. The Administrator may determine that one single quantity shall be the reportable quantity for any hazardous sub- stance, regardless of the medium into which the hazardous substance is released. (b) Unless and until superseded by regulations establishing a reportable quantity under subsection (a) of this section for any hazardous substance as defined in section 101(14) of this title, (1) a quantity of one pound, or (2) for those hazardous substances for which reportable quantities have been established pursuant to section 33 use 1321. 311(b)(4) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, such reportable quantity, shall be deemed that quantity, the release of which requires notification pursuant to section 103 (a) or Ot>) of this title. NOTICES, PENALTIES 42 use 9603. SEC. 103. (a) Any person in charge of a vessel or an offshore or an onshore facility shall, as soon as he has knowledge of any release (other than a federally permitted release) of a hazardous substance from such vessel or facility in quantities equal to or greater than those determined pursuant to section 102 of this title, immediately notify the National Response Center established under the Clean 33 use 1251 Water Act of such release. The National Response Center shall ^°^- convey the notification expeditiously to all appropriate Government agencies, including the Governor of any affected State. (b) Any person— (1) in charge of a vessel from which a hazardous substance is released, other than a federally permitted release, into or upon the navigable waters of the United States, adjoining shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone, or (2) in charge of a vessel from which a hazardous substance is released, other than a federally permitted release, which may affect natural resources belonging to, appertaining to, or under the exclusive management authority of the United States (including resources under the Fishery Conservation and Man- Post, p. 3300. agement Act of 1976), and who is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the United States at the time of the release, or
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2773 (3) in charge of a facility from which a hazardous substance is released, other than a federally permitted release, in a quantity equal to or greater than that determined pursuant to section 102 of this title who fails to notify immediately the appropriate agency of the United States Government as soon as he has knowledge of such release shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. Notification received pursuant to this paragraph or infor- mation obtained by the exploitation of such notification shall not be used against any such person in any criminal case, except a prosecution for perjury or for giving a false statement. (c) Within one hundred and eighty days after the enactment of this Act, any person who owns or operates or who at the time of disposal owned or operated, or who accepted hazardous substances for trans- port and selected, a facility at which hazardous substances (as defined in section 101(14)(C) of this title) are or have been stored, treated, or disposed of shall, unless such facility has a permit issued under, or has been accorded interim status under, subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, notify the Administrator of the Environmental Protec- 42 USC 6921. tion Agency of the existence of such facility, specifying the amount and type of any hazardous substance to be found there, and any known, suspected, or likely releases of such substances from such facility. The Administrator may prescribe in greater detail the manner and form of the notice and the information included. The Administrator shall notify the affected State agency, or any depart- ment designated by the Governor to receive such notice, of the existence of such facility. Any person who knowingly fails to notify the Administrator of the existence of any such facility shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. In addition, any such person who knowingly fails to provide the notice required by this subsection shall not be entitled to any limitation of liability or to any defenses to liability set out in section 107 of this Act: Provided, however, That notification under this subsection is not required for any facility which would be reportable hereunder solely as a result of any stoppage in transit which is temporary, incidental to the transporta- tion movement, or at the ordinary operating convenience of a common or contract carrier, and such stoppage shall be considered as a continuity of movement and not as the storage of a hazardous substance. Notification received pursuant to this subsection or infor- mation obtained by the exploitation of such notification shall not be used against any such person in any criminal case, except a prosecu- tion for perjury or for giving a false statement. (d)(1) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Rules and is authorized to promulgate rules and regulations specifying, with regulations. respect to— (A) the location, title, or condition of a facility, and (B) the identity, characteristics, quantity, origin, or condition (including containerization and previous treatment) of any haz- ardous substances contained or deposited in a facility; the records which shall be retained by any person required to provide the notification of a facility set out in subsection (c) of this section. Such specification shall be in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. (2) Beginning with the date of enactment of this Act, for fifty years thereafter or for fifty years after the date of establishment of a record (whichever is later), or at any such earlier time as a waiver if obtained under paragraph (3) of this subsection, it shall be unlawful for any 79-194 O—81—pt. 3 9 : QL3
94 STAT. 2774 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 such person knowingly to destroy, mutilate, erase, dispose of, conceal, or otherwise render unavailable or unreadable or falsify any records identified in paragraph (1) of this subsection. Any person who violates this paragraph shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $20,000, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. (3) At any time prior to the date which occurs fifty years after the date of enactment of this Act, any person identified under paragraph (1) of this subsection may apply to the Administrator of the Environ- mental Protection Agency for a waiver of the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (2) of this subsection. The Administrator is authorized to grant such waiver if, in his discretion, such waiver would not unreasonably interfere with the attainment of the pur- Rules and poses and provisions of this Act. The Administrator shall promulgate regulations. rules and regulations regarding such a waiver so as to inform parties of the proper application procedure and conditions for approval of such a waiver. (4) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the Adminis- trator of the Environmental Protection Agency may in his discretion require any such person to retain any record identified pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection for such a time period in excess of the period specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection as the Administra- tor determines to be necessary to protect the public health or welfare. (e) This section shall not apply to the application of a pesticide product registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and 7 use 136 note. Rodenticide Act or to the handling and storage of such a pesticide product by an agricultural producer. (0 No notification shall be required under subsection (a) or Ot>) of this section for any release of a hazardous substance— (1) which is required to be reported (or specifically exempted from a requirement for reporting) under subtitle C of the Solid 42 use 6921. Waste Disposal Act or regulations thereunder and which has been reported to the National Response Center, or (2) which is a continuous release, stable in quantity and rate, and is— (A) from a facility for which notification has been given under subsection (c) of this section, or (B) a release of which notification has been given under subsections (a) and 0)) of this section for a period sufficient to establish the continuity, quantity, and regularity of such release: Provided, That notification in accordance with subsections (a) and Qo) of this paragraph shall be given for releases subject to this paragraph annually, or at such time as there is any statistically significant increase in the quantity of any hazardous substance or constituent thereof released, above that previously reported or occurring. RESPONSE AUTHORITIES 42 use 9604. SEC. 104. (aXD Whenever (A) any hazardous substance is released or there is a substantial threat of such a release into the environ- ment, or (B) there is a release or substantial threat of release into the environment of any pollutant or contaminant which may present an imminent and substantial danger to the public health or welfare, the President is authorized to act, consistent with the national contin- gency plan, to remove or arrange for the removal of, and provide for remedial action relating to such hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant at any time (including its removal from any contami-
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2775 nated natural resource), or take any other response measure consist- ent with the national contingency plan which the President deems necessary to protect the public health or welfare or the environment, unless the President determines that such removal and remedial action will be done properly by the owner or operator of the vessel or facility from which the release or threat of release emanates, or by any other responsible party. (2) For the purposes of this section, "pollutant or contaminant" ' P_°,^'^?i^_*_°/„ shall include, but not be limited to, any element, substance, com- contaminant. pound, or mixture, including disease-causing agents, which after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhala- tion, or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical deformations, in such organisms or their offspring. The term does not include petro- leum, including crude oil and any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as hazardous substances under section 101(14) (A) through (F) of this title, nor does it include natural gas, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas of pipeline quality (or mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas). (b) Whenever the President is authorized to act pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or whenever the President has reason to believe that a release has occurred or is about to occur, or that illness, disease, or complaints thereof may be attributable to exposure to a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant and that a release may have occurred or be occurring, he may undertake such investiga- tions, monitoring, surveys, testing, and other information gathering as he may deem necessary or appropriate to identify the existence and extent of the release or threat thereof, the source and nature of the hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants involved, and the extent of danger to the public health or welfare or to the environment. In addition, the President may undertake such plan- ning, legal, fiscal, economic, engineering, architectural, and other studies or investigations as he may deem necessary or appropriate to plan and direct response actions, to recover the costs thereof, and to enforce the provisions of this Act. (c)(1) Unless (A) the President finds that (i) continued response actions are immediately required to prevent, limit, or mitigate an emergency, (ii) there is an immediate risk to public health or welfare or the environment, and (iii) such assistance will not otherwise be provided on a timely basis, or (B) the President has determined the appropriate remedial actions pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection and the State or States in which the source of the release is located have complied with the requirements of paragraph (3) of this subsection, obligations from the Fund, other than those authorized by subsection OJ) of this section, shall not continue after $1,000,000 has been obligated for response actions or six months has elapsed from the date of initial response to a release or threatened release of hazardous substances. (2) The President shall consult with the affected State or States before determining any appropriate remedial action to be taken pursuant to the authority granted under subsection (a) of this section. (3) The President shall not provide any remedial actions pursuant to this section unless the State in which the release occurs first enters into a contract or cooperative agreement with the President provid- ing assurances deemed adequate by the President that (A) the State
94 STAT. 2776 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 will assure all future maintenance of the removal and remedial actions provided for the expected life of such actions as determined by the President; (B) the State will assure the availability of a hazardous waste disposal facility acceptable to the President and in compliance 42 use 6921. with the requirements of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act for any necessary offsite storage, destruction, treatment, or secure disposition of the hazardous substances; and (C) the State will pay or assure payment of (i) 10 per centum of the costs of the remedial action, including all future maintenance, or (ii) at least 50 per centum or such greater amount as the President may determine appropriate, taking into account the degree of responsibility of the State or political subdivision, of any sums expended in response to a release at a facility that was owned at the time of any disposal of hazardous substances therein by the State or a political subdivision thereof. The President shall grant the State a credit against the share of the costs for which it is responsible under this paragraph for any documented direct out-of-pocket non-Federal funds expended or obligated by the State or a political subdivision thereof after January 1, 1978, and before the date of enactment of this Act for cost-eligible response actions and claims for damages compensable under section 111 of this title relating to the specific release in question: Provided, however, That in no event shall the amount of the credit granted exceed the total response costs relating to the release. (4) The President shall select appropriate remedial actions deter- mined to be necessary to carry out this section which are to the extent practicable in accordance with the national contingency plan and which provide for that cost-effective response which provides a balance between the need for protection of public health and welfare and the environment at the facility under consideration, and the availability of amounts from the Fund established under title II of Post, p. 2796. this Act to respond to other sites which present or may present a threat to public health or welfare or the environment, taking into consideration the need for immediate action. (d)(1) Where the President determines that a State or political subdivision thereof has the capability to carry out any or all of the actions authorized in this section, the President may, in his discre- tion, enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with such State or political subdivision to take such actions in accordance with criteria and priorities established pursuant to section 105(8) of this title and to be reimbursed for the reasonable response costs thereof from the Fund. Any contract made hereunder shall be subject to the cost-sharing provisions of subsection (c) of this section. (2) If the President enters into a cost-sharing agreement pursuant to subsection (c) of this section or a contract or cooperative agreement pursuant to this subsection, and the State or political subdivision thereof fails to comply with any requirements of the contract, the President may, after providing sixty days notice, seek in the appropri- ate Federal district court to enforce the contract or to recover any funds advanced or any costs incurred because of the breach of the contract by the State or political subdivision. (3) Where a State or a political subdivision thereof is acting in behalf of the President, the President is authorized to provide technical and legal assistance in the administration and enforcement of any contract or subcontract in connection with response actions assisted under this title, and to intervene in any civil action involving the enforcement of such contract or subcontract. (4) Where two or more noncontiguous facilities are reasonably related on the basis of geography, or on the basis of the threat, or
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2777 potential threat to the public health or welfare or the environment, the President may, in his discretion, treat these related facilities as one for purposes of this section. (e)(1) For purposes of assisting in determining the need for response to a release under this title or enforcing the provisions of this title, any person who stores, treats, or disposes of, or, where necessary to ascertain facts not available at the facility where such hsizardous substances are located, who generates, transports, or otherwise handles or has handled, hazardous substances shall, upon request of any officer, employee, or representative of the President, duly desig- nated by the President, or upon request of any duly designated officer, employee, or representative of a State, where appropriate, furnish information relating to such substances and permit such person at all reasonable times to have access to, and to copy all records relating to such substances. For the purposes specified in the preceding sentence, such officers, employees, or representatives are authorized— (A) to enter at reasonable times any establishment or other place where such hsizardous substances are or have been gener- ated, stored, treated, or disposed of, or transported from; (B) to inspect and obtain samples from any person of any such substance and samples of any containers or labeling for such substances. Each such inspection shall be commenced and com- pleted with reasonable promptness. If the officer, employee, or representative obtains any samples, prior to leaving the prem- ises, he shall give to the owner, operator, or person in charge a receipt describing the sample obtained and if requested a portion of each such sample equal in volume of weight to the portion retained. If any analysis is made of such samples, a copy of the results of such analysis shall be furnished promptly to the owner, operator, or person in charge. (2XA) Any records, reports, or information obtained from any person under this section (including records, reports, or information obtained by representatives of the President) shall be available to the public, except that upon a showing satisfactory to the President (or the State, as the case may be) by any person that records, reports, or information, or particular part thereof (other than health or safety effects data), to which the President (or the State, as the case may be) or any officer, employee, or representative h£is access under this section if made public would divulge information entitled to protec- tion under section 1905 of title 18 of the United States Code, such information or particular portion thereof shall be considered confi- dential in accordance with the purposes of that section, except that such record, report, document or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this Act, or when relevant in any proceeding under this Act. (B) Any person not subject to the provisions of section 1905 of title 18 of the United States (Dode who knowingly and willfully divulges or discloses any information entitled to protection under this subsection shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $5,000 or to imprisonment not to exceed one year, or both. (C) In submitting data under this Act, a person required to provide such data may (i) designate the data which such person believes is entitled to protection under this subsection and (ii) submit such designated data separately from other data submitted under this Act. A designation under this paragraph shall be made in writing and in such manner as the President may prescribe by regulation.
94 STAT. 2778 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (D) Notwithstanding any limitation contained in this section or any other provision of law, all information reported to or otherwise obtained by the President (or any representative of the President) under this Act shall be made available, upon written request of any duly authorized committee of the Congress, to such committee, (f) In awarding contracts to any person engaged in response actions, the President or the State, in any case where it is awarding contracts pursuant to a contract entered into under subsection (d) of this section, shall require compliance with Federal health and safety Post, p. 2805. standards established under section 301(f) of this Act by contractors and subcontractors as a condition of such contracts. (g)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the performance of construction, repair, or alter- ation work funded in whole or in part under this section shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on projects of a character similar in the locality as determined by the Secretary of 40 use 276a Labor in accordance with the Davis-Bacon Act. The President shall "°^- not approve any such funding without first obtaining adequate assurance that required labor standards will be maintained upon the construction work. (2) The Secretary of Labor shall have, with respect to the labor standards specified in paragraph (1), the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (15 F.R. 3176; 64 5 use app. Stat. 1267) and section 276c of title 40 of the United States Code, (h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, subject to the provisions of section 111 of this Act, the President may authorize the use of such emergency procurement powers as he deems necessary to effect the purpose of this Act. Upon determination that such proce- dures are necessary, the President shall promulgate regulations prescribing the circumstances under which such authority shall be used and the procedures governing the use of such authority. Agency for Toxic (i) There is hereby established within the Public Health Service an Substances and agency, to be known as the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease EstlSfshmlnt ^' Registry, which shall report directly to the Surgeon General of the United States. The Administrator of said Agency shall, with the cooperation of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, the Directors of the National Institute of Medicine, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control, the Administrator of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the Admin- istrator of the Social Security Administration, effectuate and imple- ment the health related authorities of this Act. In addition, said Administrator shall— (1) in cooperation with the States, establish and maintain a national registry of serious diseases and illnesses and a national registry of persons exposed to toxic substances; (2) establish and maintain inventory of literature, research, and studies on the health effects of toxic substances; (3) in cooperation with the States, and other agencies of the Federal Government, establish and maintain a complete listing of areas closed to the public or otherwise restricted in use because of toxic substance contamination; (4) in cases of public health emergencies caused or believed to be caused by exposure to toxic substances, provide medical care and testing to exposed individuals, including but not limited to tissue sampling, chromosomal testing, epidemiological studies,
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2779 or any other assistance appropriate under the circumstances; and (5) either independently or as part of other health status survey, conduct periodic survey and screening programs to determine relationships between exposure to toxic substances and illness. In cases of public health emergencies, exposed persons shall be eligible for admission to hospitals and other facilities and services operated or provided by the Public Health Service. NATIONAL CONTINGENCY PLAN SEC. 105. Within one hundred and eighty days after the enactment 42 USC 9605. of this Act, the President shall, after notice and opportunity for public comments, revise and republish the national contingency plan for the removal of oil and hazardous substances, originally prepared and published pursuant to section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, to reflect and effectuate the responsibilities and powers ^^ USC 1321. created by this Act, in addition to those matters specified in section 311(c)(2). Such revision shall include a section of the plan to be known as the national hazardous substance response plan which shall establish procedures and standards for responding to releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants, which shall include at a minimum: (1) methods for discovering and investigating facilities at which hazardous substances have been disposed of or otherwise come to be located; (2) methods for evaluating, including analyses of relative cost, and remedying any releases or threats of releases from facilities which pose substantial danger to the public health or the environment; (3) methods and criteria for determining the appropriate extent of removal, remedy, and other measures authorized by this Act; (4) appropriate roles and responsibilities for the Federal, State, and local governments and for interstate and nongovernmental entities in effectuating the plan; (5) provision for identification, procurement, maintenance, and storage of response equipment and supplies; (6) a method for and assignment of responsibility for reporting the existence of such facilities which may be located on federally owned or controlled properties and any releases of hazardous substances from such facilities; (7) means of assuring that remedial action measures are cost- effective over the period of potential exposure to the hazardous substances or contaminated materials; (8)(A) criteria for determining priorities among releases or threatened releases throughout the United States for the pur- pose of taking remedial action and, to the extent practicable taking into account the potential urgency of such action, for the purpose of taking removal action. Criteria and priorities under this paragraph shall be based upon relative risk or danger to public health or welfare or the environment, in the judgment of the President, taking into accoujit to the extent possible the population at risk, the hazard potential of the hazardous sub- stances at such facilities, the potential for contamination of drinking water supplies, the potential for direct human contact, the potential for destruction of sensitive ecosystems, State pre-
94 STAT. 2780 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 paredness to assume State costs and responsibilities, and other appropriate factors; (B) based upon the criteria set forth in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the President shall list as part of the plan national priorities among the known releases or threatened releases throughout the United States and shall revise the list no less often than annually. Within one year after the date of enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter, each State shall establish and submit for consideration by the President priorities for remedial action among known releases and potential releases in that State based upon the criteria set forth in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. In assembling or revising the national list, the President shall consider any priorities established by the States. To the extent practicable, at least four hundred of the highest priority facilities shall be designated individually and shall be referred to as the "top priority among known response targets", and, to the extent practicable, shall include among the one hundred highest priority facilities at least one such facility from each State which shall be the facility designated by the State as presenting the greatest danger to public health or welfare or the environment among the known facilities in such State. Other priority facilities or incidents may be listed singly or grouped for response priority purposes; and (9) specified roles for private organizations and entities in preparation for response and in responding to releases of hazard- ous substances, including identification of appropriate qualifica- tions and capacity therefor. The plan shall specify procedures, techniques, materials, equipment, and methods to be employed in identifying, removing, or remedying releases of hazardous substances comparable to those required under section 311(c)(2) (F) and (G) and (j)(l) of the Federal Water Pollution 33 u s e 1321. Control Act. Following publication of the revised national contin- gency plan, the response to and actions to minimize damage from hazardous substances releases shall, to the greatest extent possible, Revision and be in accordance with the provisions of the plan. The President may, republication. from time to time, revise and republish the national contingency plan. ABATEMENT ACTION 42 u s e 9606. SEC. 106. (a) In addition to any other action taken by a State or local government, when the President determines that there may be an imminent and substantial endangerment to the public health or welfare or the environment because of an actual or threatened release of a hazardous substance from a facility, he may require the Attorney General of the United States to secure such relief as may be necessary to abate such danger or threat, and the district court of the United States in the district in which the threat occurs shall have jurisdiction to grant such relief as the public interest and the equities Notice. of the case may require. The President may also, after notice to the affected State, take other action under this section including, but not limited to, issuing such orders as may be necessary to protect public health and welfare and the environment. (b) Any person who willfully violates, or fails or refuses to comply with, any order of the President under subsection (a) may, in an action brought in the appropriate United States district court to enforce such order, be fined not more than $5,000 for each day in which such violation occurs or such failure to comply continues.
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2781 (c) Within one hundred and eighty days after enactment of this Act, Guidelines. the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, after consultation with the Attorney General, establish and publish guidelines for using the imminent hazard, enforcement, and emer- gency response authorities of this section and other existing statutes administered by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to effectuate the responsibilities and powers created by this Act. Such guidelines shall to the extent practicable be consistent with the national hazardous substance response plan, and shall include, at a minimum, the assignment of responsibility for coordinating response actions with the issuance of administrative orders, enforce- ment of standards and permits, the gathering of information, and other imminent hazard and emergency powers authorized by (1) sections 311(c)(2), 308, 309, and 504(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (2) sections 3007, 3008, 3013, and 7003 of the Solid Waste 33 use I32i, Disposal Act, (3) sections 1445 and 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water 1318, 1319, 1364. 42 use 6927, Act, (4) sections 113,114, and 303 of the Clean Air Act, and (5) section 6928; Ante, p. 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act. 2344^ 42 use 6973. LIABILITY 30of^^^^''~^' 42 u s e 7413 SEC. 107. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision or rule of law, 74^4 7303 ' and subject only to the defenses set forth in subsection (b) of this 15 use 2606. section— 42 use 9607. (1) the owner and operator of a vessel (otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the United States) or a facility, (2) any person who at the time of disposal of any hazardous substance owned or operated any facility at which such hazard- ous substances were disposed of, (3) any peison who by contract, agreement, or otherwise arranged for disposal or treatment, or arranged with a trans- porter for transport for disposal or treatment, of hazardous substances owned or possessed by such person, by any other party or entity, at any facility owned or operated by another party or entity and containing such hazardous substances, and (4) any person who accepts or accepted any hazardous sub- stances for transport to disposal or treatment facilities or sites selected by such person, from which there is a release, or a threatened release which causes the incurrence of response costs, of a hazardous substance, shall be liable for— (A) all costs of removal or remedial action incurred by the United States Government or a State not inconsistent with the national contingency plan; (B) any other necessary costs of response incurred by any other person consistent with the national contingency plan; and (C) damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources, including the reasonable costs of assessing such injury, destruction, or loss resulting from such a release. (b) There shall be no liability under subsection (a) of this section for a person otherwise liable who can establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the release or threat of release of a hazardous sub- stance and the damages resulting therefrom were caused solely by— (Dan act of God; (2) an act of war; (3) an act or omission of a third party other than an employee or agent of the defendant, or than one whose act or omission occurs in connection with a contractual relationship, existing
94 STAT. 2782 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 directly or indirectly, with the defendant (except where the sole contractual arrangement arises from a published tariff and acceptance for carriage by a common carrier by rail), if the defendant establishes by a preponderance of the evidence that (a) he exercised due care with respect to the hazardous substance concerned, taking into consideration the characteristics of such hazardous substance, in light of all relevant facts and circum- stances, and (b) he took precautions against foreseeable acts or omissions of any such third party and the consequences that could foreseeably result from such acts or omissions; or (4) any combination of the foregoing paragraphs. (c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the liability under this section of an owner or operator or other responsi- ble person for each release of a hazardous substance or incident involving release of a hazardous substance shall not exceed— (A) for any vessel which carries any hazardous substance as cargo or residue, $300 per gross ton, or $5,000,000, whichever is greater; (B) for any other vessel, $300 per gross ton, or $500,000, whichever is greater; (C) for any motor vehicle, aircraft, pipeline (as defined in the 49 use 2001 Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979), or rolling stock, ^°^^- $50,000,000 or such lesser amount as the President shall estab- lish by regulation, but in no event less than $5,000,000 (or, for releases of hazardous substances as defined in section 101(14)(A) of this title into the navigable waters, $8,000,000). Such regula- tions shall take into account the size, type, location, storage, and handling capacity and other matters relating to the likelihood of release in each such class and to the economic impact of such limits on each such class; or (D) for any facility other than those specified in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, the total of all costs of response plus $50,000,000 for any damages under this title. (2) Notwithstanding the limitations in paragraph (1) of this subsec- tion, the liability of an owner or operator or other responsible person under this section shall be the full and total costs of response and damages, if (AXi) the release or threat of release of a hazardous substance was the result of willful misconduct or willful negligence within the privity or knowledge of such person, or (ii) the primary cause of the relesise was a violation (within the privity or knowledge of such person) of applicable safety, construction, or operating stand- ards or regulations; or (B) such person fails or refuses to provide all reasonable cooperation and assistance requested by a responsible public official in connection with response activities under the national contingency plan with respect to regulated carriers subject to the provisions of title 49 of the United States Code or vessels subject to the provisions of title 33 or 46 of the United States Code, subparagraph (A)(ii) of this paragraph shall be deemed to refer to Federal standards or regulations. (3) If any person who is liable for a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance fails without sufficient cause to properly pro- vide removal or remedial action upon order of the President pursuant to section 104 or 106 of this Act, such person may be liable to the United States for punitive damages in an amount at least equal to, and not more than three times, the amount of any costs incurred by the Fund as a result of such failure to take proper action. The President is authorized to commence a civil action against any such person to recover the punitive damages, which shall be in addition to
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2783 any costs recovered from such person pursuant to section 112(c) of this Act. Any moneys received by the United States pursuant to this subsection shall be deposited in the Fund. (d) No person shall be liable under this title for damages as a result of actions taken or omitted in the course of rendering care, assistance, or advice in accordance with the national contingency plan or at the direction of an onscene coordinator appointed under such plan, with respect to an incident creating a danger to public health or welfare or the environment as a result of any release of a hazardous substance or the threat thereof. This subsection shall not preclude liability for damages as the result of gross negligence or intentional misconduct on the part of such person. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, reckless, willful, or wanton misconduct shall constitute gross negligence. (e)(1) No indemnification, hold harmless, or similar agreement or conveyance shall be effective to transfer from the owner or operator of any vessel or facility or from any person who may be liable for a release or threat of release under this section, to any other person the liability imposed under this section. Nothing in this subsection shall bar any agreement to insure, hold harmless, or indemnify a party to such agreement for any liability under this section. (2) Nothing in this title, including the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, shall bar a cause of action that an owner or operator or any other person subject to liability under this section, or a guarantor, has or would have, by reason of subrogation or otherwise against any person. (f) In the case of an injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a) liability shall be to the United States Government and to any State for natural resources within the State or belonging to, managed by, controlled by, or appertaining to such State: Provided, however, That no liability to the United States or State shall be imposed under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a), where the party sought to be charged has demonstrat- ed that the damages to natural resources complained of were specifi- cally identified as an irreversible and irretrievable commitment of natural resources in an environmental impact statement, or other comparable environment analysis, and the decision to grant a permit or license authorizes such commitment of natural resources, and the facility or project was otherwise operating within the terms of its permit or license. The President, or the authorized representative of any State, shall act on behalf of the public as trustee of such natural resources to recover for such damages. Sums recovered shall be available for use to restore, rehabilitate, or acquire the equivalent of such natural resources by the appropriate agencies of the Federal Government or the State government, but the measure of such damages shall not be limited by the sums which can be used to restore or replace such resources. There shall be no recovery under the authority of subparagraph (C) of subsection (a) where such damages and the release of a hazardous substance from which such damages resulted have occurred wholly before the enactment of this Act. (g) Each department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government shall be subject to, and comply with, this Act in the same manner and to the same extent, both procedurally and substantively, as any nongovern- mental entity, including liability under this section. (h) The owner or operator of a vessel shall be liable in accordance with this section and as provided under section 114 of this Act
94 STAT. 2784 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 notwithstanding any provision of the Act of March 3,1851 (46 U.S.C. 183ff). (i) No person (including the United States or any State) may recover under the authority of this section for any response costs or damages resulting from the application of a pesticide product regis- 7 use 136 note, tered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Nothing in this paragraph shall affect or modify in any way the obligations or liability of any person under any other provision of State or Federal law, including common law, for damages, injury, or loss resulting from a release of any hazardous substance or for removal or remedial action or the costs of removal or remedial action of such hazardous substance. (j) Recovery by any person (including the United States or any State) for response costs or damages resulting from a federally permitted release shall be pursuant to existing law in lieu of this section. Nothing in this paragraph shall affect or modify in any way the obligations or liability of any person under any other provision of State or Federal law, including common law, for damages, injury, or loss resulting from a release of any hazardous substance or for removal or remedial action or the costs of removal or remedial action of such hazardous substance. In addition, costs of response incurred by the Federal Government in connection with a discharge specified in section 101(10) (B) or (C) shall be recoverable in an action brought 33 use I3i9. under section 3C9(b) of the Clean Water Act. (k)(l) The liability established by this section or any other law for the owner or operator of a hazardous waste disposal facility which has received a permit under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, shall be transferred to and assumed by the Post-closure Liability Post, p. 2804. Fund established by section 232 of this Act when— (A) such facility and the owner and operator thereof has complied with the requirements of subtitle C of the Solid Waste 42 use 6921. Disposal Act and regulations issued thereunder, which may affect the performance of such facility after closure; and (B) such facility has been closed in accordance with such regulations and the conditions of such permit, and such facility and the surrounding area have been monitored as required by such regulations and permit conditions for a period not to exceed five years after closure to demonstrate that there is no substan- tial likelihood that any migration offsite or release from confine- ment of any hazardous substance or other risk to public health or welfare will occur. (2) Such transfer of liability shall be effective ninety days after the owner or operator of such facility notifies the Administrator of the Environmentsil Protection Agency (and the State where it has an authorized program under section 3006(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal 42 use 6926. Act) that the conditions imposed by this subsection have been satisfied. If within such ninety-day period the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency or such State determines that any such facility has not complied with all the conditions imposed by this subsection or that insufficient information has been provided to demonstrate such compliance, the Administrator or such State shall so notify the owner and operator of such facility and the administra- tor of the Fund established by section 232 of this Act, and the owner and operator of such facility shall continue to be liable with respect to such facility under this section and other law until such time as the Administrator and such State determines that such facility has complied with all conditions imposed by this subsection. A determina- tion by the Administrator or such State that a facility has not
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2785 complied with all conditions imposed by this subsection or that insufficient information has been supplied to demonstrate compli- ance, shall be a final administrative action for purposes of judicial review. A request for additional information shall state in specific terms the data required. (3) In addition to the assumption of liability of owners and opera- tors under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Post-closure Liability Fund established by section 232 of this Act may be used to pay costs of monitoring and care and maintenance of a site incurred by other persons after the period of monitoring required by regulations under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act for hazardous waste 42 use 6921. disposal facilities meeting the conditions of paragraph (1) of this subsection. (4)(A) Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury shall conduct a study and shall submit a report thereon to the Congress on the feasibility of establish- ing or qualifying an optional system of private insurance for postclo- sure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities to which this subsection applies. Such study shall include a specification of adequate and realistic minimum standards to assure that any such privately placed insurance will carry out the purposes of this subsec- tion in a reliable, enforceable, and practical manner. Such a study shall include an examination of the public and private incentives, programs, and actions necessary to make privately placed insurance a practical and effective option to the financing system for the Post- closure Liability Fund provided in title II of this Act. (B) Not later than eighteen months after the date of enactment of this Act and after a public hearing, the President shall by rule determine whether or not it is feasible to establish or qualify an optional system of private insurance for postclosure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities to which this subsection applies. If the President determines the establishment or qualification of such a system would be infeasible, he shall promptly publish an explanation of the reasons for such a determination. If the President determines the establishment or qualification of such a system would be feasible, he shall promptly publish notice of such determination. Not later than six months after an affirmative deter- mination under the preceding sentence and after a public hearing, the President shall by rule promulgate adequate and realistic mini- mum standards which must be met by any such privately placed insurance, taking into account the purposes of this Act and this subsection. Such rules shall also specify reasonably expeditious procedures by which privately placed insurance plans can qualify as meeting such minimum standards. (C) In the event any privately placed insurance plan qualifies under subparagraph (B), any person enrolled in, and complying with the terms of, such plan shall be excluded from the provisions of para- graphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection and exempt from the requirements to pay any tax or fee to the Post-closure Liability Fund under title II of this Act. (D) The President may issue such rules and take such other actions Rules. as are necessary to effectuate the purposes of this paragraph. FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SEC. 108. (a)(1) The owner or operator of each vessel (except a non- 42 use 9608. self-propelled barge that does not carry hazardous substances as cargo) over three hundred gross tons that uses any port or place in the
94 STAT. 2786 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 United States or the navigable waters or any offshore facility, shall establish and maintain, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the President, evidence of financial responsibility of $300 per gross ton (or for a vessel carrying hazardous substances as cargo, or $5,000,000, whichever is greater). Financial responsibility may be established by any one, or any combination, of the following: insur- ance, guarantee, surety bond, or qualification as a self-insurer. Any bond filed shall be issued by a bonding company authorized to do business in the United States. In cases where an owner or operator owns, operates, or charters more than one vessel subject to this subsection, evidence of financial responsibility need be established only to meet the maximum liability applicable to the largest of such vessels. (2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall withhold or revoke the clearance required by section 4197 of the Revised Statutes of the 46 use 91. United States of any vessel subject to this subsection that does not have certification furnished by the President that the financial responsibility provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection have been complied with. (3) The Secretary of Transportation, in accordance with regulations issued by him, shall (A) deny entry to any port or place in the United States or navigable waters to, and (B) detain at the port or place in the United States from which it is about to depart for any other port or place in the United States, any vessel subject to this subsection that, upon request, does not produce certification furnished by the President that the financial responsibility provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection have been complied with. Ot>)(l) Beginning not earlier than five years after the date of enactment of this Act, the President shall promulgate requirements (for facilities in addition to those under subtitle C of the Solid Waste 42 use 6921. Disposal Act and other Federal law) that classes of facilities establish and maintain evidence of financial responsibility consistent with the degree and duration of risk associated with the production, transpor- Publication in tation, treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous substances. Not Federal Register j^^^gj. ^j^^jj three years after the date of enactment of the Act, the President shall identify those classes for which requirements will be first developed and publish notice of such identification in the Federal Register. Priority in the development of such requirements shall be accorded to those classes of facilities, owners, and operators which the President determines present the highest level of risk of injury. (2) The level of financial responsibility shall be initially estab- lished, and, when necessary, adjusted to protect against the level of risk which the President in his discretion believes is appropriate based on the payment experience of the Fund, commercial insurers, courts settlements and judgments, and voluntary claims satisfaction. To the maximum extent practicable, the President shall cooperate with and seek the advice of the commercial insurance industry in developing financial responsibility requirements. (3) Regulations promulgated under this subsection shall incremen- tally impose financial responsibility requirements over a period of not less than three and no more than six years after the date of promulgation. Where possible, the level of financial responsibility which the President believes appropriate as a final requirement shall be achieved through incremental, annual increases in the requirements. (4) Where a facility is owned or operated by more than one person, evidence of financial responsibility covering the facility may be
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2787 established and maintained by one of the owners or operators, or, in consolidated form, by or on behalf of two or more owners or operators. When evidence of financial responsibility is established in a consoli- dated form, the proportional share of each participant shall be shown. The evidence shall be accompanied by a statement author- izing the applicant to act for and in behalf of each participant in submitting and maintaining the evidence of financial responsibility. (5) The requirements for evidence of financial responsibility for motor carriers covered by this Act shall be determined under section 30 of the Motor Carrier Act of 1980, Public Law 96-296. Ante, p. 820. (c) Any claim authorized by section 107 or 111 may be asserted directly against any guarantor providing evidence of financial responsibility as required under this section. In defending such a claim, the guarantor may invoke all rights and defenses which would be available to the owner or operator under this title. The guarantor may also invoke the defense that the incident was caused by the willful misconduct of the owner or operator, but such guarantor may not invoke any other defense that such guarantor might have been entitled to invoke in a proceeding brought by the owner or operator against him. (d) Any guarantor acting in good faith against which claims under this Act are asserted as a guarantor shall be liable under section 107 or section 112(c) of this title only up to the monetary limits of the policy of insurance or indemnity contract such guarantor has under- taken or of the guaranty of other evidence of financial responsibility furnished under section 108 of this Act, and only to the extent that liability is not excluded by restrictive endorsement: Provided, That this subsection shall not alter the liability of any person under section 107 of this Act. PENALTY SEC. 109. Any person who, after notice and an opportunity for a 42 USC 9609. hearing, is found to have failed to comply with the requirements of section 108, the regulations issued thereunder, or with any denial or detention order shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty, not to exceed $10,000 for each day of violation. EMPLOYEE PROTECTION SEC. 110. (a) No person shall fire or in any other way discriminate 42 use 96io. against, or cause to be fired or discriminated against, any employee or any authorized representative of employees by reason of the fact that such employee or representative has provided information to a State or to the Federal Government, filed, instituted, or caused to be filed or instituted any proceeding under this Act, or has testified or is about to testify in any proceeding resulting from the administration or enforcement of the provisions of this Act. Ot)) Any employee or a representative of employees who believes that he has been fired or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection (a) of this section may, within thirty days after such alleged violation occurs, apply to the Secretary of Labor for a review of such firing or alleged discrimination. A copy of the application shall be sent to such person, who shall be the respondent. Upon receipt of such application, the Secretary of Labor shall cause such investigation to be made as he deems appropriate. Such investigation shall provide an opportunity for a public hearing at the request of any party to such review to enable the parties to
94 STAT. 2788 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 present information relating to such alleged violation. The parties shall be given written notice of the time and place of the hearing at least five days prior to the hearing. Any such hearing shall be of record and shall be subject to section 554 of title 5, United States Code. Upon receiving the report of such investigation, the Secretary of Labor shall make findings of fact. If he finds that such violation did occur, he shall issue a decision, incorporating an order therein and his findings, requiring the party committing such violation to take such affirmative action to abate the violation as the Secretary of Labor deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, the rehiring or reinstatement of the employee or representative of employees to his former position with compensation. If he finds that there was no such violation, he shall issue an order denying the application. Such order issued by the Secretary of Labor under this subparagraph shall be subject to judicial review in the same manner as orders and decisions are subject to judicial review under this Act. (c) Whenever an order is issued under this section to abate such violation, at the request of the applicant a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including the attorney's fees) determined by the Secretary of Labor to have been reasonably incurred by the applicant for, or in connection with, the institution and prosecution of such proceedings, shall be assessed against the person committing such violation. (d) This section shall have no application to any employee who acting without discretion from his employer (or his agent) deliber- ately violates any requirement of this Act. (e) The President shall conduct continuing evaluations of potential loss of shifts of employment which may result from the administra- tion or enforcement of the provisions of this Act, including, where appropriate, investigating threatened plant closures or reductions in employment allegedly resulting from such administration or enforce- ment. Any employee who is discharged, or laid off, threatened with discharge or layoff, or otherwise discriminated against by any person because of the alleged results of such administration or enforcement, or any representative of such employee, may request the President to conduct a full investigation of the matter and, at the request of any party, shall hold public hearings, require the parties, including the employer involved, to present information relating to the actual or potential effect of such administration or enforcement on employ- ment and any alleged discharge, layoff, or other discrimination, and the detailed reasons or justification therefore. Any such hearing shall be of record and shall be subject to section 554 of title 5, United States Code. Upon receiving the report of such investigation, the President shall make findings of fact as to the effect of such administration or enforcement on employment and on the alleged discharge, layoff, or discrimination and shall make such recommendations as he deems appropriate. Such report, findings, and recommendations shall be available to the public. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require or authorize the President or any State to modify or withdraw any action, standard, limitation, or any other requirement of this Act. USES OF FUND 42 use 9611. SEC. 111. (a) The President shall use the money in the Fund for the following purposes:
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2789 (1) payment of governmental response costs incurred pursuant to section 104 of this title, including costs incurred pursuant to the Intervention on the High Seas Act; 33 USC 1471 (2) payment of any claim for necessary response costs incurred ^° ® by any other person as a result of carrying out the national contingency plan established under section 311(c) of the Clean Water Act and amended by section 105 of this title: Provided, 33 USC 1321. however, That such costs must be approved under said plan and certified by the responsible Federal official; (3) payment of any claim authorized by subsection Qoi) of this section and finally decided pursuant to section 112 of this title, including those costs set out in subsection 112(c)(3) of this title; and (4) payment of costs specified under subsection (c) of this section. The President shall not pay for any administrative costs or expenses out of the Fund unless such costs and expenses are reasonably necessary for and incidental to the implementation of this title. (b) Claims asserted and compensable but unsatisfied under provi- sions of section 311 of the Clean Water Act, which are modified by section 304 of this Act may be asserted against the Fund under this Post, p. 2809. title; and other claims resulting from a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance from a vessel or a facility may be asserted against the Fund under this title for injury to, or destruction or loss of, natural resources, including cost for damage assessment: Pro- vided, however. That any such claim may be asserted only by the President, as trustee, for natural resources over which the United States has sovereign rights, or natural resources within the territory or the fishery conservation zone of the United States to the extent they are managed or protected by the United States, or by any State for natural resources within the boundary of that State belonging to, managed by, controlled by, or appertaining to the State. (c) IJses of the Fund under subsection (a) of this section include— (1) the costs of assessing both short-term and long-term injury to, destruction of, or loss of any natural resources resulting from a release of a hazardous substance; (2) the costs of Federal or State efforts in the restoration, rehabilitation, or replacement or acquiring the equivalent of any natural resources injured, destroyed, or lost as a result of a release of a hazardous substance; (3) subject to such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, the costs of a program to identify, investigate, and take enforcement and abatement action against releases of hazardous substances; (4) the costs of epidemiologic studies, development and mainte- nance of a registry of persons exposed to hazardous substances to allow long-term health effect studies, and diagnostic services not otherwise available to determine whether persons in populations exposed to hazardous substances in connection with a release or a suspected release are suffering from long-latency diseases; (5) subject to such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, the costs of providing equipment and similar overhead, related to the purposes of this Act and section 311 of the Clean Water Act, and needed to supplement equipment and services available through contractors or other non-Federal entities, and of establishing and maintaining damage assessment capability, for any Federal agency involved in strike forces, emergency task 79-194 O—81—pt. 3 10 : QL3
94 STAT. 2790 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 forces, or other response teams under the national contingency plan; and (6) subject to such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, the costs of a program to protect the health and safety of employees involved in response to hazardous substance releases. Such program shall be developed jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Admin- istration, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and shall include, but not be limited to, measures for identifying and assessing hazards to which persons engaged in removal, remedy, or other response to hazardous substances may be exposed, methods to protect workers from such hazards, and necessary regulatory and enforcement measures to assure ade- quate protection of such employees. (d)(1) No money in the Fund may be used under subsection (c) (1) and (2) of this section, nor for the payment of any claim under subsection (b) of this section, where the injury, destruction, or loss of natural resources and the release of a hazardous substance from which such damages resulted have occurred wholly before the enact- ment of this Act. (2) No money in the Fund may be used for the payment of any claim under subsection (b) of this section where such expenses are associated with injury or loss resulting from long-term exposure to ambient concentrations of air pollutants from multiple or diffuse sources. (e)(1) Claims against or presented to the Fund shall not be valid or paid in excess of the total money in the Fund at any one time. Such claims become valid only when additional money is collected, appro- priated, or otherwise added to the Fund. Should the total claims outstanding at any time exceed the current balance of the Fund, the President shall pay such claims, to the extent authorized under this section, in full in the order in which they were finally determined. (2) In any fiscal year, 85 percent of the money credited to the Fund under title II of this Act shall be available only for the purposes specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (3) No money in the Fund shall be available for remedial action, other than actions specified in subsection (c) of this section, with respect to federally owned facilities. (4) Paragraphs (1) and (4) of subsection (a) of this section shall in the aggregate be subject to such amounts as are provided in appropri- ation Acts. Regulations. (f) The President is authorized to promulgate regulations designa- ting one or more Federal officials who may obligate money in the Fund in accordance with this section or portions thereof. The Presi- dent is also authorized to delegate authority to obligate money in the Fund or to settle claims to officials of a State operating under a contract or cooperative agreement with the Federal Government pursuant to section 104(d) of this title. (g) The President shall provide for the promulgation of rules and regulations with respect to the notice to be provided to potential injured parties by an owner and operator of any vessel, or facility from which a hazardous substance has been released. Such rules and regulations shall consider the scope and form of the notice which would be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this title. Upon promulgation of such rules and regulations, the owner and operator of any vessel or facility from which a hazardous substance has been released shall provide notice in accordance with such rules and regulations. With respect to releases from public vessels, the Presi- dent shall provide such notification as is appropriate to potential
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2791 injured parties. Until the promulgation of such rules and regulations, the owner and operator of any vessel or facility from which a hazardous substance has been releeised shall provide reasonable notice to potential injured parties by publication in local newspapers serving the affected area. (hXD In accordance with regulations promulgated under section 301(c) of this Act, damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources resulting from a release of a hazardous substance, for the purposes of this Act and section 311(f) (4) and (5) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, shall be assessed by Federal officials ^^ USC 1321. designated by the President under the national contingency plan published under section 105 of the Act, and such officials shall act for the President as trustee under this section and section 311(f)(5) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (2) Any determination or assessment of damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources for the purposes of this Act and section 311(f) (4) and (5) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act shall have the force and effect of a rebuttable presumption on behalf of any claimant (including a trustee under section 107 of this Act or a Federal agency) in any judicial or adjudicatory administra- tive proceeding under this Act or section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (i) Except in a situation requiring action to avoid an irreversible loss of natural resources or to prevent or reduce any continuing danger to natural resources or similar need for emergency action, funds may not be used under this Act for the restoration, rehabilita- tion, or replacement or acquisition of the equivalent of any natural resources until a plan for the use of such funds for such purposes has been developed and adopted by affected Federal agencies and the Governor or Governors of any State having sustained damage to natural resources within its borders, belonging to, managed by or appertaining to such State, after adequate public notice and opportu- nity for hearing and consideration of all public comment. (j) The President shall use the money in the Post-closure Liability Fund for any of the purposes specified in subsection (a) of this section with respect to a hazardous waste disposal facility for which liability has transferred to such fund under section 107(k) of this Act, and, in addition, for payment of any claim or appropriate request for costs of response, damages, or other compensation for injury or loss under section 107 of this Act or any other State or Federal law, resulting from a release of a hazardous substance from such a facility. (k) The Inspector General of each department or agency to which responsibility to obligate money in the Fund is delegated shall Report to provide an audit review team to audit all payments, obligations, Congress. reimbursements, or other uses of the Fund, to assure that the Fund is being properly administered and that claims are being appropriately and expeditiously considered. Each such Inspector General shall submit to the Congress an interim report one year after the establish- ment of the Fund and a final report two years after the establishment of the Fund. Each such Inspector General shall thereafter provide such auditing of the Fund as is appropriate. Each Federal agency shall cooperate with the Inspector General in carrying out this subsection. (1) To the extent that the provisions of this Act permit, a foreign claimant may assert a claim to the same extent that a United States claimant may assert a claim if—
94 STAT. 2792 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (1) the release of a hazardous substance occurred (A) in the navigable waters or (B) in or on the territorial sea or adjacent shoreline of a foreign country of which the claimant is a resident; (2) the claimant is not otherwise compensated for his loss; (3) the hgizardous substance was released from a facility or from a vessel located adjacent to or within the navigable waters or was discharged in connection with activities conducted under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.) or the Deepwater Port Act of 1974, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1501 etseq.); and (4) recovery is authorized by a treaty or an executive agree- ment between the United States and foreign country involved, or if the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General and other appropriate officials, certifies that such coun- try provides a comparable remedy for United States claimants. CLAIMS PROCEDURE 42 use 9612. SEC. 112. (a) All claims which may be asserted against the Fund pursuant to section 111 of this title shall be presented in the first instance to the owner, operator, or guarantor of the vessel or facility from which a hazardous substance has been released, if known to the claimant, and to any other person known to the claimant who may be liable under section 107 of this title. In any case where the claim has not been satisfied within sixty days of presentation in accordance with this subsection, the claimant may elect to commence an action in court against such owner, operator, guarantor, or other person or to present the claim to the Fund for payment. (b)(1) The President shall prescribe appropriate forms and proce- dures for claims filed hereunder, which shall include a provision requiring the claimant to make a sworn verification of the claim to the best of his knowledge. Any person who knowingly gives or causes to be given any false information as a part of any such claim shall, upon conviction, be fined up to $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. (2)(A) Upon receipt of any claim, the President shall as soon as practicable inform any known affected parties of the claim and shall attempt to promote and arrange a settlement between the claimant and any person who may be liable. If the claimant and alleged liable party or parties can agree upon a settlement, it shall be final and binding upon the parties thereto, who will be deemed to have waived all recourse against the Fund. (B) Where a liable party is unknown or cannot be determined, the claimant and the President shall attempt to arrange settlement of any claim against the Fund. The President is authorized to award and make payment of such a settlement, subject to such proof and procedures as he may promulgate by regulation, (C) Except as provided in subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, the President shall use the facilities and services of private insurance and claims adjusting organizations or State agencies in implementing this subsection and may contract to pay compensation for those facilities and services. Any contract made under the provisions of this paragraph may be made without regard to the provisions of section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5), upon a showing by the President that advertising is not reasonably practica- ble. When the services of a State agency are used hereunder, no payment may be made on a claim asserted on behalf of that State or
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2793 any of its agencies or subdivisions unless the payment has been approved by the President. (D) To the extent necessitated by extraordinary circumstances, where the services of such private organizations or State agencies are inadequate, the President may use Federal personnel to implement this subsection. (3) If no settlement is reached within forty-five days of filing of a claim through negotiation pursuant to this section, the President may, if he is satisfied that the information developed during the processing of the claim warrants it, make and pay an award of the claim. If the claimant is dissatisfied with the award, he may appeal it in the manner provided for in subparagraph (G) of paragraph (4) of this subsection. If the President declines to make an award, he shall submit the claim for decision to a member of the Board of Arbitrators established pursuant to paragraph (4). (4)(A) Within ninety days of the enactment of this Act, the Presi- dent shall establish a Board of Arbitrators to implement this subsec- tion. The Board shall consist of as many members as the President may determine will be necessary to implement this subsection expeditiously, and he may increase or decrease the size of the Board at any time in his discretion in order to enable it to respond to the demands of such implementation. Each member of the Board shall be selected through utilization of the procedures of the American Arbitration Association: Provided, however, That no regular employee of the President or any of the Federal departments, administra- tions, or agencies to whom he delegated responsibilities under this Act shall act as a member of the Board. (B) Hearings conducted hereunder shall be public and shall be held in such place as may be agreed upon by the parties thereto, or, in the absence of such agreement, in such place as the President deter- mines, in his discretion, will be most convenient for the parties thereto. (C) Hearings before a member of the Board shall be informal, and the rules of evidence prevailing in judicial proceedings need not be required. Each member of the Board shall have the power to adminis- ter oaths and to subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, records, and other evidence relative or pertinent to the issues presented to him for decision. Testimony may be taken by interrogatory or deposition. Each person appearing before a member of the Board shall have the right to counsel. Subpenas shall be issued and enforced in accordance with procedures in subsection (d) of section 555 of title 5, United States Code, and rules promulgated by the President. If a person fails or refuses to obey a subpena, the President may invoke the aid of the district court of the United States where the person is found, resides, or transacts business in requiring the attendance and testimony of the person and the production by him of books, papers, documents, or any tangible things. (D) In any proceeding before a member of the Board, the claimant shall bear the burden of proving his claim. Should a member of the Board determine that further investigations, monitoring, surveys, testing, or other information gathering would be useful and neces- sary in deciding the claim, he may request the President in writing to undertake such activities pursuant to section 104(b) of this title. The President shall dispose of such a request in his sole discretion, taking into account various competing demands and the availability of the technical and financial capacity to conduct such studies, monitoring, and investigations. Should the President decide to undertake the
94 STAT. 2794 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 requested actions, all time requirements for the processing and deciding of claims hereunder shall be suspended until the President reports the results thereof to the member of the Board. (E) All costs and expenses approved by the President attributable to the employment of any member of the Board shall be payable from the Fund, including fees and mileage expenses for witnesses sum- moned by such members on the same basis and to the same extent as if such witnesses were summoned before a district court of the United States. (F) All decisions rendered by members of the Board shall be in writing, with notification to all appropriate parties, and shall be rendered within ninety days of submission of a claim to a member, unless all the parties to the claim agree in writing to an extension or unless the President extends the time limit pursuant to subpara- graph (I) of this subsection. (G) All decisions rendered by members of the Board shall be final, and any party to the proceeding may appeal such a decision within thirty days of notification of the award or decision. Any such appeal shall be made to the Federal district court for the district where the arbitral hearing took place. In any such appeal, the award or decision of the member of the Board shall be considered binding and conclu- sive, and shall not be overturned except for arbitrary or capricious abuse of the member's discretion: Provided, however. That no such award or decision shall be admissible as evidence of any issue of fact or law in any proceeding brought under any other provision of this Act or under any other provision of law. Nor shall any prearbitral settlement reached pursuant to subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section be admissible as evidence in any such proceeding. (H) Within twenty days of the expiration of the appeal period for any arbitral award or decision, or within twenty days of the final judicial determination of any appeal taken pursuant to this subsec- tion, the President shall pay any such award from the Fund. The President shall determine the method, terms, and time of payment. (1) If at any time the President determines that, because of a large number of claims arising from any incident or set of incidents, it is in the best interests of the parties concerned, he may extend the time for prearbitral negotiation or for rendering an arbitral decision pursuant to this subsection by a period not to exceed sixty days. He may also group such claims for submission to a member of the Board of Arbitrators. (c)(1) Payment of any claim by the Fund under this section shall be subject to the United States Government acquiring by subrogation the rights of the claimant to recover those costs of removal or damages for which it has compensated the claimant from the person responsible or liable for such release. (2) Any person, including the Fund, who pays compensation pursu- ant to this Act to any claimant for damages or costs resulting from a release of a hazardous substance shall be subrogated to all rights, claims, and causes of action for such damages and costs of removal that the claimant has under this Act or any other law. (3) Upon request of the President, the Attorney General shall commence an action on behalf of the Fund to recover any compensa- tion paid by the Fund to any claimant pursuant to this title, and, without regard to any limitation of liability, all interest, administra- tive and adjudicative costs, and attorney's fees incurred by the Fund by reason of the claim. Such an action may be commenced against any owner, operator, or guarantor, or against any other person who is
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2795 liable, pursuant to any law, to the compensated claimant or to the Fund, for the damages or costs for which compensation was paid. (d) No claim may be presented, nor may an action be commenced for damages under this title, unless that claim is presented or action commenced within three years from the date of the discovery of the loss or the date of enactment of this Act, whichever is later: Provided, however. That the time limitations contained herein shall not begin to run against a minor until he reaches eighteen years of age or a legal representative is duly appointed for him, nor against an incompetent person until his incompetency ends or a legal repre- sentative is duly appointed for him. (e) Regardless of any State statutory or common law to the contrary, no person who asserts a claim against the Fund pursuant to this title shall be deemed or held to have waived any other claim not covered or assertable against the Fund under this title arising from the same incident, transaction, or set of circumstances, nor to have split a cause of action. Further, no person asserting a claim against the Fund pursuant to this title shall as a result of any determination of a question of fact or law made in connection with that claim be deemed or held to be collaterally estopped from raising such question in connection with any other claim not covered or assertable against the Fund under this title arising from the same incident, transaction, or set of circumstances. LITIGATION, JURISDICTION AND VENUE SEC. 113. (a) Review of any regulation promulgated under this Act 42 use 9613. may be had upon application by any interested person only in the Circuit Court of Appeals of the United States for the District of Columbia. Any such application shall be made within ninety days from the date of promulgation of such regulations. Any matter with respect to which review could have been obtained under this subsec- tion shall not be subject to judicial review in any civil or criminal proceeding for enforcement or to obtain damages or recovery of response costs. (b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, the United States district courts shall have exclusive original jurisdiction over all controversies arising under this Act, without regard to the citizenship of the parties or the amount in controversy. Venue shall lie in any district in which the release or damages occurred, or in which the defendant resides, may be found, or has his principal office. For the purposes of this section, the Fund shall reside in the District of Columbia. (c) The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to any controversy or other matter resulting from the assess- ment of collection of any tax, as provided by title II of this Act, or to the review of any regulation promulgated under the Internal Reve- nue Code of 1954. 26 use l et seq. (d) No provision of this Act shall be deemed or held to moot any litigation concerning any release of any hazardous substance, or any damages associated therewith, commenced prior to enactment of this Act. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER LAW SEC. 114. (a) Nothing in this Act shall be construed or interpreted as 42 use 9614. preempting any State from imposing any additional liability or
94 STAT. 2796 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 requirements with respect to the release of hazardous substances within such State. ft)) Any person who receives compensation for removal costs or damages or claims pursuant to this Act shall be precluded from recovering compensation for the same removal costs or damages or claims pursuant to any other State or Federal law. Any person who receives compensation for removal costs or damages or claims pursu- ant to any other Federal or State law shall be precluded from receiving compensation for the same removal costs or damages or claims as provided in this Act. (c) Except as provided in this Act, no person may be required to contribute to any fund, the purpose of which is to pay compensation for claims for any costs of response or damages or claims which may be compensated under this title. Nothing in this section shall pre- clude any State from using general revenues for such a fund, or from imposing a tax or fee upon any person or upon any substance in order to finance the purchase or prepositioning of hazardous substance response equipment or other preparations for the response to a release of hazardous substances which affects such State. (d) Except as provided in this title, no owner or operator of a vessel or facility who establishes and maintains evidence of financial responsibility in accordance with this title shall be required under any State or local law, rule, or regulation to establish or maintain any other evidence of financial responsibility in connection with liability for the release of a hazardous substance from such vessel or facility. Evidence of compliance with the financial responsibility require- ments of this title shall be accepted by a State in lieu of any other requirement of financial responsibility imposed by such State in connection with liability for the release of a hazardous substance from such vessel or facility. AUTHORITY TO DELEGATE, ISSUE REGULATIONS 42 u s e 9615. SEC. 115. The President is authorized to delegate and assign any duties or powers imposed upon or assigned to him and to promulgate any regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this title. Hazardous Substance TITLE II—HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE Response Revenue Act of RESPONSE REVENUE ACT OF 1980 1980. 26 u s e 1 note. SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE; AMENDMENT OF 1954 CODE. (a) SHORT TITLE.—This title may be cited as the "Hazardous Substance Response Revenue Act of 1980". 26 u s e 1 et seq. (b) AMENDMENT OF 1954 CODE.—Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this title an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2797 Subtitle A^Imposition of Taxes on Petroleum and Certain Chemicals SEC. 211. IMPOSITION OF TAXES. (a) GENERAL RULE.—Subtitle D (relating to miscellaneous excise taxes) is amended by inserting after chapter 37 the following new chapter: "CHAPTER 38—ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES "SUBCHAPTER A. Tax on petroleum. "SUBCHAPTER B. Tax on certain chemicals. "Subchapter A—Tax on Petroleum "Sec. 4611. Imposition of tax. "Sec. 4612. Definitions and special rules. "SEC. 4611. IMPOSITION OF TAX. 26 USC 4611. "(a) GENERAL RULE.—There is hereby imposed a tax of 0.79 cent a barrel on— "(1) crude oil received at a United States refinery, and "(2) petroleum products entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing. "(b) TAX ON CERTAIN USES AND EXPORTATION.— "(1) IN GENERAL.—If— "(A) any domestic crude oil is used in or exported from the United States, and "(B) before such use or exportation, no tax was imposed on such crude oil under subsection (a), then a tax of 0.79 cent a barrel is hereby imposed on such crude oil. "(2) EXCEPTION FOR USE ON PREMISES WHERE PRODUCED.—Para- graph (1) shall not apply to any use of crude oil for extracting oil or natural gas on the premises where such crude oil was produced. "(c) PERSONS LIABLE FOR TAX.— "(1) CRUDE OIL RECEIVED AT REFINERY.—The tax imposed by subsection (a)(1) shall be paid by the operator of the United States refinery. "(2) IMPORTED PETROLEUM PRODUCT.—The tax imposed by sub- section (a)(2) shall be paid by the person entering the product for consumption, use, or warehousing. "(3) TAX ON CERTAIN USES OR EXPORTS.—The tax imposed by subsection (b) shall be paid by the person using or exporting the crude oil, as the case may be. "(d) TERMINATION.—The taxes imposed by this section shall not apply after September 30,1985, except that if on September 30,1983, or September 30,1984— "(1) the unobligated balance in the Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund as of such date exceeds $900,000,000, and "(2) the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, determines that such unobligated balance will exceed $500,00(),000 on September 30 of the following year if no tax is imposed under section 4611 or 4661 Post, p. 2798. during the calendar year following the date referred to above.
94 STAT. 2798 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 then no tax shall be imposed by this section during the first calendar year beginning after the date referred to in paragraph (1). 26 u s e 4612. "SEC. 4612. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES. "(a) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this subchapter— "(1) CRUDE OIL.—The term 'crude oil' includes crude oil conden- sates and natural gasoline. "(2) DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL.—The term 'domestic crude oil' means any crude oil produced from a well located in the United States. "(3) PETROLEUM PRODUCT.—The term 'petroleum product' in- cludes crude oil. "(4) UNITED STATES.— "(A) IN GENERAL.—The term 'United States' means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any possession of the United States, the Com- monwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. "(B) UNITED STATES INCLUDES CONTINENTAL SHELF AREAS.— 26 use 638. The principles of section 638 shall apply for purposes of the term 'United States'. "(C) UNITED STATES INCLUDES FOREIGN TRADE ZONES.—The term 'United States' includes any foreign trade zone of the United States. "(5) UNITED STATES REFINERY.—The term 'United States refin- ery' means any facility in the United States at which crude oil is refined. "(6) REFINERIES WHICH PRODUCE NATURAL GASOUNE.—In the case of any United States refinery which produces natural gasoline from natural gas, the gasoline so produced shall be treated as received at such refinery at the time so produced. "(7) PREMISES.—The term 'premises' has the same meaning as when used for purposes of determining gross income from the property under section 613. "(8) BARREL.—The term 'barrel' means 42 United States gallons. "(9) FRACTIONAL PART OF BARREL.—In the case of a fraction of a barrel, the tax imposed by section 4611 shall be the same fraction of the amount of such tax imposed on a whole barrel. "(b) ONLY 1 TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO ANY PRODUCT.—NO tax Ante, p. 2797. shall be imposed by section 4611 with respect to any petroleum product if the person who would be liable for such tax establishes that a prior tax imposed by such section has been imposed with respect to such product. "(c) DISPOSITION OF REVENUES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS.—The provisions of subsections (a)(3) and (b)(3) of section 7652 shall not apply to any tax imposed by section 4611. "Subchapter B—Tax on Certain Chemicals "Sec. 4661. Imposition of tax. "Sec. 4662. Definitions and specieil rules. 26 u s e 4661. "SEC. 4661. IMPOSITION OF TAX. "(a) GENERAL RULE.—There is hereby imposed a tax on any taxable chemical sold by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof. "(b) AMOUNT OF TAX.—The amount of the tax imposed by subsec- tion (a) shall be determined in accordance with the following table:
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2799 The tax is the following "In the case of: amount per ton Acetylene $4.87 Benzene 4.87 Butane 4.87 Butylene 4.87 Butadiene 4.87 Ethylene 4.87 Methane 3.44 Naphthalene 4.87 Propylene 4.87 Toluene 4.87 Xylene 4.87 Ammonia 2.64 Antimony 4.45 Antimony trioxide 3.75 Arsenic 4.45 Arsenic trioxide 3.41 Barium sulfide 2.30 Bromine 4.45 Cadmium 4.45 Chlorine 2.70 Chromium 4.45 Chromite 1.52 Potassium dichromate 1.69 Sodium dichromate 1.87 Cobalt 4.45 Cupric sulfate 1.87 Cupric oxide 3.59 Cuprous oxide 3.97 Hydrochloric acid 0.29 Hydrogen fluoride 4.23 Lead oxide 4.14 Mercury 4.45 Nickel 4.45 Phosphorus 4.45 Stannous chloride 2.85 Stannic chloride 2.12 Zinc chloride 2.22 Zinc sulfate 1.90 Potassium hydroxide 0.22 Sodium hydroxide 0.28 Sulfuric acid 0.26 Nitric acid 0.24 "(c) TERMINATION.—No tax shall be imposed under this section during any period during which no tax is imposed under section 4611(a). Ante, p. 2797. "SEC. 4662. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES. 26 USC 4662. "(a) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this subchapter— "(1) TAXABLE CHEMICAL.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the term 'taxable chemical' means any substance— "(A) which is listed in the table under section 4661(b), and Ante, p. 2798. "(B) which is manufactured or produced in the United States or entered into the United States for consumption, use, or warehousing. "(2) UNITED STATES.—The term 'United States' has the mean- ing given such term by section 4612(a)(4). Ante, p. 2798. "(3) IMPORTER.—The term 'importer' means the person enter- ing the taxable chemical for consumption, use, or warehousing. "(4) TON.—The term 'ton' means 2,000 pounds. In the case of any taxable chemical which is a gas, the term 'ton' means the amount of such gas in cubic feet which is the equivalent of 2,000 pounds on a molecular weight basis.
94 STAT. 2800 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 "(5) FRACTIONAL PART OF TON.—In the case of a fraction of a Ante, p. 2798. ton, the tax imposed by section 4661 shall be the same fraction of the amount of such tax imposed on a whole ton. "(b) EXCEPTIONS; OTHER SPECIAL RULES.—For purposes of this subchapter— "(1) METHANE OR BUTANE USED AS A FUEL.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, methane or butane shall be treated as a taxable chemical only if it is used otherwise than as a fuel (and, for purposes of section 4661(a), the person so using it shall be treated as the manufacturer thereof). "(2) SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF FERTILIZER.— "(A) IN GENERAL.—In the case of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ammonia, or methane used to produce ammonia which is a qualified substance, no tax shall be imposed under section 4661(a). "(B) QUALIFIED SUBSTANCE.—For purposes of this section, the term 'qualified substance' means any substance— "(i) used in a qualified use by the manufacturer, producer, or importer, "(ii) sold for use by the purchaser in a qualified use, or "(iii) sold for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for use by such second purchaser in a quali- fied use. "(C) QUALIFIED USE.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'qualified use' means any use in the manufacture or production of a fertilizer. "(3) SULFURIC ACID PRODUCED AS A BYPRODUCT OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL.—In the case of sulfuric acid produced solely as a byproduct of and on the same site as air pollution control equipment, no tax shall be imposed under section 4661. "(4) SUBSTANCES DERIVED FROM COAL.—For purposes of this subchapter, the term 'taxable chemical' shall not include any substance to the extent derived from coal. "(c) USE BY MANUFACTURER, ETC., CONSIDERED SALE.—If any person manufactures, produces, or imports a taxable chemical and uses such chemical, then such person shall be liable for tax under section 4661 in the same manner as if such chemical were sold by such person. "(d) REFUND OR CREDIT FOR CERTAIN USES.— "(1) IN GENERAL.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secre- tary, if— "(A) a tax under section 4661 was paid with respect to any taxable chemical, and "(B) such chemical was used by any person in the manu- facture or production of any other substance the sale of which by such person would be taxable under such section, then an amount equal to the tax so paid shall be allowed as a credit or refund (without interest) to such person in the same manner as if it were an overpayment of tax imposed by such section. In any case to which this paragraph applies, the amount of any such credit or refund shall not exceed the amount of tax imposed by such section on the other substance manufactured or produced. "(2) USE AS FERTILIZER.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if— "(A) a tax under section 4661 was paid with respect to nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ammonia, or methane used to make ammonia without regard to subsection (b)(2), and
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2801 "(B) any person uses such substance, or sells such sub- stance for use, as a qualified substance, then an amount equal to the excess of the tax so paid over the tax determined with regard to subsection (b)(2) shall be allowed as a credit or refund (without interest) to such person in the same manner as if it were an overpayment of tax imposed by this section, "(e) DISPOSITION OF REVENUES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS.—The provisions of subsections (a)(3) and (b)(3) of section 7652 shall not apply to any tax imposed by section 4661.". 26 use 7652. (b) CLERICAL AMENDMENT.—The table of chapters for subtitle D is ^"^^' P ^^^^• amended by inserting after the item relating to chapter 37 the following new item: "CHAPTER 38. Environmental taxes.". (c) EFFECTIVE DATE.—The amendments made by this section shall 26 use 4611 take effect on April 1,1981. note. Subtitle B—Establishment of Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund SEC. 221. ESTABLISHMENT OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE TRUST 42 USC 9631. FUND. (a) CREATION OF TRUST FUND.—There is established in the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the "Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund" (hereinafter in this subtitle re- ferred to as the "Response Trust Fund"), consisting of such amounts as may be appropriated or transferred to such Trust Fund as provided in this section. (b) TRANSFERS TO RESPONSE TRUST FUND.— (1) AMOUNTS EQUIVALENT TO CERTAIN TAXES, ETC.—There are hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to the Response Trust Fund amounts determined by the Secretary of the Treasury (hereinafter in this subtitle referred to as the "Secretary") to be equivalent to— (A) the amounts received in the Treasury under section 4611 or 4661 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, Ante, pp. 2797, (B) the amounts recovered on behalf of the Response Trust ^^^^ Fund under this Act, (C) all moneys recovered or collected under section 311(bX6XB) of the Clean Water Act, 33 use i32i. (D) penalties assessed under title I of this Act, and (E) punitive damages under section 107(cX8) of this Act, (2) AUTHORIZATION FOR APPROPRIATIONS.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Emergency Response Trust Fund for fiscal year— (A) 1981, $44,000,000, (B) 1982, $44,000,000, (C) 1983, $44,000,000, (D) 1984, $44,000,000, and (E) 1985, $44,000,000, plus an amount equal to so much of the aggregate amount authorized to be appropriated under subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) as has not been appropri- ated before October 1,1984. (3) TRANSFER OF FUNDS.—There shall be transferred to the Response Trust Fund—
94 STAT. 2802 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (A) one-half of the unobligated balance remaining before the date of the enactment of this Act under the Fund in 33 use 1321. section 311 of the Clean Water Act, and (B) the amounts appropriated under section 5040)) of the Clean Water Act during any fiscal year. (c) EXPENDITURES FROM RESPONSE TRUST FUND.— (1) I N GENERAL.—Amounts in the Response Trust Fund shall be available in connection with releases or threats of releases of h£izardous substances into the environment only for purposes of making expenditures which are described in section 111 (other than subsection (j) thereof) of this Act, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, including— (A) response costs, (B) claims asserted and compensable but unsatisfied under section 311 of the Clean Water Act, (C) claims for injury to, or destruction or loss of, natural resources, and (D) related costs described in section 111(c) of this Act. (2) LIMITATIONS ON EXPENDITURES.—At least 85 percent of the amounts appropriated to the Response Trust Fund under subsec- tion (b) (1)(A) and (2) shall be reserved— (A) for the purposes specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of section 111(a) of this Act, and (B) for the repayment of advances made under section 223(c), other than advances subject to the limitation of section 223(c)(2)(C). 42 u s e 9632. SEC. 222. LIABILITY OF UNITED STATES LIMITED TO AMOUNT IN TRUST FUND. (a) GENERAL RULE.—Any claim filed against the Response Trust Fund may be paid only out of such Trust Fund. Nothing in this Act (or in any amendment made by this Act) shall authorize the payment by the United States Government of any additional amount with respect to any such claim out of any source other than the Response Trust Fund. (b) ORDER IN WHICH UNPAID CLAIMS ARE TO B E PAID.—If at any time the Response Trust Fund is unable (by reason of subsection (a) or the limitation of section 221(c)(2)) to pay all of the claims payable out of such Trust Fund at such time, such claims shall, to the extent permitted under subsection (a), be paid in full in the order in which they were finally determined. 42 u s e 9633. SEC. 223. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS. (a) METHOD OF TRANSFER.—The amounts appropriated by section 221(b)(1) shall be transferred at least monthly from the general fund of the Treasury to the Response Trust Fund on the basis of estimates made by the Secretary of the amounts referred to in such section. Proper adjustments shall be made in the amount subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in excess of or less than the amounts required to be transferred. (b) MANAGEMENT OF TRUST FUND.— (1) REPORT.—The Secretary shall be the trustee of the Response Trust Fund, and shall report to the Congress for each fiscal year ending on or after September 30,1981, on the financial condition and the results of the operations of such Trust Fund during such fiscal year and on its expected condition and operations during the next 5 fiscal years. Such report shall be printed as a House
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2803 document of the session of the Congress to which the report is made. (2) INVESTMENT.—It shall be the duty of the Secretary to invest such portion of such Trust Fund as is not, in his judgment, required to meet current withdrawals. Such investments shall be in public debt securities with maturities suitable for the needs of such Trust Fund and bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary, taking into consideration current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities. The income on such investments shall be credited to and form a part of such Trust Fund, (c) AUTHORITY TO BORROW.— (1) IN GENERAL.—There are authorized to be appropriated to Appropriation the Response Trust Fund, as repayable advances, such sums as authorization. may be necessary to carry out the purposes of such Trust Fund. (2) LIMITATIONS ON ADVANCES TO RESPONSE TRUST FUND.— (A) AGGREGATE ADVANCES.—The maximum aggregate amount of repayable advances to the Response Trust Fund which is outstanding at any one time shall not exceed an amount which the Secretary estimates will be equal to the sum of the amounts which will be appropriated or trans- ferred to such Trust Fund under paragraph (1)(A) of section 221(b) of this Act for the following 12 months, and (B) ADVANCES FOR PAYMENT OF RESPONSE COSTS.—No amount may be advanced after March 31, 1983, to the Response Trust Fund for the purpose of paying response costs described in section 111(a) (1), (2), or (4), unless such costs are incurred incident to any spill the effects of which the Secretary determines to be catastrophic. (C) ADVANCES FOR OTHER COSTS.—The maximum aggregate amount advanced to the Response Trust Fund which is outstanding at any one time for the purpose of paying costs other than costs described in section 111(a) (1), (2), or (4) shall not exceed one-third of the amount of the estimate made under subparagraph (A). (D) FINAL REPAYMENT.—No advance shall be made to the Response Trust Fund after September 30, 1985, and all advances to such Fund shall be repaid on or before such date. (3) REPAYMENT OF ADVANCES.—Advances made pursuant to this subsection shall be repaid, and interest on such advances shall be paid, to the general fund of the Treasury when the Secretary determines that moneys are available for such pur- poses in the Trust Fund to which the advance was made. Such interest shall be at rates computed in the same manner as provided in subsection (b) and shall be compounded annually. Subtitle C—Post-Closure Tax and Trust Fund SEC. 231. IMPOSITION OF TAX. (a) IN GENERAL.—Chapter 38, as added by section 211, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subchapter: "Subchapter C—Tax on Hazardous Wastes "Sec. 4681. Imposition of tax. "Sec. 4682. Definitions and special rules.
94 STAT. 2804 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 26 u s e 4681. "SEC. 4681. IMPOSITION OF TAX. "(a) GENERAL RULE.—There is hereby imposed a tax on the receipt of hazardous waste at a qualified hazardous waste disposal facility. "(b) AMOUNT OF TAX.—The amount of the tax imposed by subsec- tion (a) shall be equal to $2.13 per dry weight ton of hazardous waste. 26 u s e 4682. "SEC. 4682. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES. "(a) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this subchapter— "(1) HAZARDOUS WASTE.—The term 'hazardous wEiste' means any waste— "(A) having the characteristics identified under section 42 use 6921. 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act (other than waste the regulation of which under such Act has been suspended by Act of Congress on that date), or "(B) subject to the reporting or recordkeeping require- 42 use 6922, ments of sections 3002 and 3004 of such Act, as so in effect. "(2) QUAUFIED HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL PACIUTY.—The term 'qualified hazardous waste disposal facility' means any facility which has received a permit or is accorded interim status 42 use 6925. under section 3005 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. "(b) TAX IMPOSED ON OWNER OR OPERATOR.—The tax imposed by section 4681 shall be imposed on the owner or operator of the qualified hazardous waste disposal facility. "(c) TAX NOT TO APPLY TO CERTAIN WASTES.—The tax imposed by section 4681 shall not apply to any hsizardous waste which will not remain at the qualified hazardous waste disposal facility after the facility is closed. "(d) APPLICABILITY OF SECTION.—The tax imposed by section 4681 shall apply to the receipt of hazardous waste after September 30, 1983, except that if, as of September 30 of any subsequent calendar year, the unobligated balance of the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund exceeds $200,000,000, no teix shall be imposed under such section during the following calendar year.". (b) CONFORMING AMENDMENT.—The table of subchapters for chap- ter 38 is amended by adding a t the end thereof the following new item: "SUBCHAPTER C—Tax on Hazardous Wastes.". 42 u s e 9641. SEC. 232. POST-CLOSURE LIABILITY TRUST FUND. (a) CREATION OF TRUST FUND.—There is established in the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the "Post-closure Liability Trust Fund", consisting of such amounts as may be appro- priated, credited, or transferred to such Trust Fund. (b) EXPENDITURES FROM POST-CLOSURE LIABILITY TRUST FUND.— Amounts in the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund shall be available only for the purposes described in sections 107(k) and lll(j) of this Act (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act). (c) ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.—The provisions of sections 222 and 223 of this Act shall apply with respect to the Trust Fund established under this section, except that the amount of any repay- able advances outstanding at any one time shall not exceed $200,000,000.
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2805 TITLE III—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS REPORTS AND STUDIES SEC. 301. (a)(1) The President shall submit to the Congress, within 42 use 9651. four years after enactment of this Act, a comprehensive report on experience with the implementation of this Act, including, but not limited to— (A) the extent to which the Act and Fund are effective in enabling Government to respond to and mitigate the effects of releases of hazardous substances; (B) a summary of past receipts and disbursements from the Fund; (C) a projection of any future funding needs remaining after the expiration of authority to collect taxes, and of the threat to public health, welfare, and the environment posed by the projected releases which create any such needs; (D) the record and experience of the Fund in recovering Fund disbursements from liable parties; (E) the record of State participation in the system of response, liability, and compensation established by this Act; (F) the impact of the taxes imposed by title II of this Act on the Nation's balance of trade with other countries; (G) an assessment of the feasibility and desirability of a schedule of taxes which would take into account one or more of the following: the likelihood of a release of a hazardous sub- stance, the degree of hazard and risk of harm to public health, welfare, and the environment resulting from any such release, incentives to proper handling, recycling, incineration, and neu- tralization of hazardous wastes, and disincentives to improper or illegal handling or disposal of hazardous materials, administra- tive and reporting burdens on Government and industry, and the extent to which the tax burden falls on the substances and parties which create the problems addressed by this Act. In preparing the report, the President shall consult with appropri- ate Federal, State, and local agencies, affected industries and claimants, and such other interested parties as he may find useful. Based upon the analyses and consultation required by this subsection, the President shall also include in the report any recommendations for legislative changes he may deem necessary for the better effectuation of the purposes of this Act, including but not limited to recommendations concerning authorization levels, taxes. State participation, liability and liability limits, and financial responsibility provisions for the Response Trust Fund and the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund; (H) an exemption from or an increase in the substances or the amount of taxes imposed by section 4661 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 for copper, lead, and zinc oxide, and for feedstocks Ante, p. 2798. when used in the manufacture and production of fertilizers, based upon the expenditure experience of the Response Trust Fund; (I) the economic impact of taxing coal-derived substances and recycled metals. (2) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) shall submit to the Congress (i) within four years after enactment of this Act, a report identifying additional wastes designated by rule as hazardous after the effective date of this Act and pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid '^ 79-194 O—81—pt. 3 11 : QL3
94 STAT. 2806 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 42 u s e 6921. Waste Disposal Act and recommendations on appropriate tax rates for such wastes for the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund. The report shall, in addition, recommend a tax rate, considering the quantity and potential danger to human health and the environment posed by the disposal of any wastes which the Administrator, pursuant to subsection 3001(b)(2)(B) and subsection 3001(b)(3)(A) of the Solid Ante, p. 2336. Waste Disposal Act of 1980, has determined should be subject to regulation under subtitle C of such Act, (ii) within three years after enactment of this Act, a report on the necessity for and the adequacy of the revenue raised, in relation to estimated future requirements, of the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund. (b) The President shall conduct a study to determine (1) whether adequate private insurance protection is available on reasonable terms and conditions to the owners and operators of vessels and Ante, p. 2781. facilities subject to liability under section 107 of this Act, and (2) whether the market for such insurance is sufficiently competitive to assure purchasers of features such as a reasonable range of deducti- bles, coinsurance provisions, and exclusions. The President shall submit the results of his study, together with his recommendations, within two years of the date of enactment of this Act, and shall submit an interim report on his study within one year of the date of enactment of this Act. Regulations. (c)(1) The President, acting through Federal officials designated by the National Contingency Plan published under section 105 of this Ante, p. 2779. Act, shall study and, not later than two years after the enactment of this Act, shall promulgate regulations for the assessment of damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources resulting from a release of oil or a hazardous substance for the purposes of this Act and section 311(f) (4) and (5) of the Federal Water Pollution 33 u s e 1321. Control Act. (2) Such regulations shall specify (A) standard procedures for simplified assessments requiring minimal field observation, includ- ing establishing measures of damages based on units of discharge or release or units of affected area, and (B) alternative protocols for conducting assessments in individual cases to determine the type and extent of short- and long-term injury, destruction, or loss. Such regulations shall identify the best available procedures to determine such damages, including both direct and indirect injury, destruction, or loss and shall take into consideration factors including, but not limited to, replacement value, use value, and ability of the ecosystem or resource to recover. Review and (3) Such regulations shall be reviewed and revised as appropriate revision. every two years. (d) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, in consultation with other Federal agencies and appropriate representatives of State and local governments and nongovernmen- tal agencies, conduct a study and report to the Congress within two years of the date of enactment of this Act on the issues, alternatives, and policy considerations involved in the selection of locations for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This study shall include— (A) an assessment of current and projected treatment, storage, and disposal capacity needs and shortfalls for hazardous waste by management category on a State-by-State basis; (B) an evaluation of the appropriateness of a regional approach to siting and designing hazardous waste management facilities and the identification of hazardous waste management regions,
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2807 interstate or intrastate, or both, with similar hazardous waste management needs; ^ (C) solicitation and analysis of proposals for the construction and operation of hazardous waste management facilities by nongovernmental entities, except that no proposal solicited under terms of this subsection shall be analyzed if it involves cost to the United States Government or fails to comply with the requirements of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act and 42 use 6921. other applicable provisions of law; (D) recommendations on the appropriate balance between public and private sector involvement in the siting, design, and operation of new hazardous waste management facilities; (E) documentation of the major reasons for public opposition to new hazardous waste management facilities; and (F) an evaluation of the various options for overcoming obsta- cles to siting new facilities, including needed legislation for implementing the most suitable option or options. (e)(1) In order to determine the adequacy of existing common law and statutory remedies in providing legal redress for harm to man and the environment caused by the release of hazardous substances into the environment, there shall be submitted to the Congress a study within twelve months of enactment of this Act. (2) This study shall be conducted with the assistance of the American Bar Association, the American Law Institute, the Associ- ation of American Trial Lawyers, and the National Association of State Attorneys General with the President of each entity selecting three members from each organization to conduct the study. The study chairman and one reporter shall be elected from among the twelve members of the study group. (3) As part of their review of the adequacy of existing common law and statutory remedies, the study group shall evaluate the following: (A) the nature, adequacy, and availability of existing remedies under present law in compensating for harm to man from the release of hazardous substances; (B) the nature of barriers to recovery (particularly with respect to burdens of going forward and of proof and relevancy) and the role such barriers play in the legal system; (C) the scope of the evidentiary burdens placed on the plaintiff in proving harm from the release of hazardous substances, particularly in light of the scientific uncertainty over causation with respect to— (i) carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens, and (ii) the human health effects of exposure to low doses of hazardous substances over long periods of time; (D) the nature and adequacy of existing remedies under pres- ent law in providing compensation for damages to natural resources from the release of hazardous substances; (E) the scope of liability under existing law and the conse- quences, particularly with respect to obtaining insurance, of any changes in such liability; (F) barriers to recovery posed by existing statutes of limita- tions. (4) The report shall be submitted to the Congress with appropriate recommendations. Such recommendations shall explicitly address— (A) the need for revisions in existing statutory or common law, and
94 STAT. 2808 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (B) whether such revisions should take the form of Federal statutes or the development of a model code which is recom- mended for adoption by the States. (5) The Fund shall pay administrative expenses incurred for the study. No expenses shall be available to pay compensation, except expenses on a per diem basis for the one reporter, but in no case shall the total expenses of the study exceed $300,000. (f) The President, acting through the Administrator of the Environ- mental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Transportation, the Administrator of the Occupational Safety and Health Administra- tion, and the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health shall study and, not later than two years after the enactment of this Act, shall modify the national contingency plan to provide for the protection of the health and safety of employees involved in response actions. EFFECTIVE DATES, SAVINGS PROVISION 42 use 9652. ggc. 302. (a) Unless otherwise provided, all provisions of this Act shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act. Ot>) Any regulation issued pursuant to any provisions of section 311 33 use 1321. of the Clean Water Act which is repealed or superseded by this Act and which is in effect on the date immediately preceding the effective date of this Act shall be deemed to be a regulation issued pursuant to the authority of this Act and shall remain in full force and effect unless or imtil superseded by new regulations issued thereunder. (c) Any regulation— (1) respecting financial responsibility, (2) issued pursuant to any provision of law repealed or super- seded by this Act, and (3) in effect on the date immediately preceding the effective date of this Act shall be deemed to be a regulation issued pursuant to the authority of this Act and shall remain in full force and effect unless or until superseded by new regulations issued thereunder. (d) Nothing in this Act shall affect or modify in any way the obligations or liabilities of any person under other Federal or State law, including common law, with respect to releases of hazardous substances or other pollutants or contaminants. The provisions of this Act shall not be considered, interpreted, or construed in any way as reflecting a determination, in part or whole, of policy regarding the inapplicability of strict liability, or strict liability doctrines, to activities relating to hazardous substances, pollutants, or contami- nants or other such activities. EXPIRA.TION, SUNSET PROVISION 42 use 9653. SEC. 303. Unless reauthorized by the Congress, the authority to collect taxes conferred by this Act shall terminate on September 30, 1985, or when the sum of the amounts received in the Treasury under section 4611 and under 4661 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 total $1,380,000,000, whichever occurs first. The Secretary of the Treasury shall estimate when this level of $1,380,000,000 will be reached and shall by regulation, provide procedures for the termina- tion of the tax authorized by this Act and imposed under sections Ante, pp. 2797, 4611 and 4661 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. 2798.
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2809 CONFORMING AMENDMENTS SEC. 304. (a) Subsection (b) of section 504 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act is hereby repealed. 33 u s e 1364. Ot)) One-half of the unobligated balance remaining before the date of 42 use 9654. the enactment of this Act under subsection (k) of section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and all sums appropriated ^^ use 1321. under section 5040t)) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act shall be transferred to the Fund established under title II of this Act. (c) In any case in which any provision of section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act is determined to be in conflict with any provisions of this Act, the provisions of this Act shall apply. LEGISLATIVE VETO SEC. 305. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, simulta- 42 use 9655. neously with promulgation or repromulgation of any rule or regula- tion under authority of title I of this Act, the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality promulgating such rule or regulation shall transmit a copy thereof to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Except as provided in subsec- tion (b) of this section, the rule or regulation shall not become effective, if— (1) within ninety calendar days of continuous session of Con- gress after the date of promulgation, both Houses of Congress adopt a concurrent resolution, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That Congress disapproves the rule or regulation promulgated by the dealing with the matter of , which rule or regulation was transmit- ted to Congress on .", the blank spaces therein being appropriately filled; or (2) within sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation, one House of Congress adopts such a concurrent resolution and transmits such resolution to the other House, and such resolution is not disapproved by such other House within thirty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after such transmittal. Ot)) If, at the end of sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation of a rule or regulation, no committee of either House of Congress has reported or been dis- charged from further consideration of a concurrent resolution disap- proving the rule or regulation and neither House has adopted such a resolution, the rule or regulation may go into effect immediately. If, within such sixty calendar days, such a committee has reported or been discharged from further consideration of such a resolution, or either House has adopted such a resolution, the rule or regulation may go into effect not sooner than ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress after such rule is prescribed unless disapproved as provided in subsection (a) of this section. (c) For purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section— (1) continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment of Congress sine die; and (2) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of thirty, sixty, and ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress.
94 STAT. 2810 PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 (d) Congressional inaction on, or rejection of, a resolution of disapproval shall not be deemed an expression of approval of such rule or regulation. TRANSPORTATION 42 u s e 9656. SEC. 306. (a) Each hazardous substance which is listed or designated Ante, p. 2767. as provided in section 101(14) of this Act shall, within ninety days after the date of enactment of this Act or at the time of such listing or designation, whichever is later, be listed as a hazardous material 49 u s e 1801 under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. note. Qa) A common or contract carrier shall be liable under other law in Ante, p. 2781. lieu of section 107 of this Act for damages or remedial action resulting from the release of a hazardous substance during the course of transportation which commenced prior to the effective date of the listing of such substance as a hazardous material under the Hazard- ous Materials Transportation Act, or for substances listed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, prior to the effective date of such listing: Provided, however, That this subsection shall not apply where such a carrier can demonstrate that he did not have actual Imowledge of the identity or nature of the substance released. (c) Section 11901 of title 49, United States Code, is amended by— (1) redesignating subsection (h) as subsection (i); (2) by inserting "and subsection (h)" after "subsection (g)" in subsection (i)(2) as so redesignated by paragraph (1) of this subsection; and (3) by inserting the following new subsection (h): "(h) A person subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under 49 u s e 10521. subchapter II of chapter 105 of this title, or an officer, agent, or employee of that person, and who is required to comply with section 10921 of this title but does not so comply with respect to the transportation of hazardous wastes as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (but not including any waste the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal Act has been suspended by Congress) shall, in any action brought by the Commission, be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $20,000 for each violation.". ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR SOLID WASTE SEC. 307. (a) Section 2001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act is 42 u s e 6911. amended by striking out "a Deputy Assistant" and inserting in lieu thereof "an Assistant". 42 u s e 6911a. (b) The Assistant Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency appointed to head the Office of Solid Waste shall be in addition to the five Assistant Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency provided for in section 1(d) of Reorganization Plan 5 u s e app; 42 Numbered 3 of 1970 and the additional Assistant Administrator u s e 4321 note. provided by the Toxic Substances Control Act, shall be appointed by 15 u s e 2601 note. the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the rate provided for Level IV of the Executive Schedule pay rates under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code. Effective date. (c) The amendment made by subsection (a) shall become effective 42 u s e 6911 ninety days after the date of the enactment of this Act. note.
PUBLIC LAW 96-510—DEC. 11, 1980 94 STAT. 2811 SEPARABIUTY SEC. 308. If any provision of this Act, or the application of any 42 use 9657. provision of this Act to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances and the remainder of this Act shall not be affected thereby. Approved December 11, 1980. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY: HOUSE REPORTS: No. 96-1016, pt. I (Comm. on Interstate and Foreign Commerce) and Pt. II (Comm. on Ways and Means). SENATE REPORT No. 96-848 accompanying S. 1480 (Comm. on Environment and Public Works). CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 126 (1980): Sept. 18, 19, 23, considered and passed House. Nov. 24, considered and passed Senate, amended, in lieu of S. 1480. Dec. 3, House concurred in Senate amendments. WEEKLY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS, Vol. 16, No. 50: Dec. 11, Presidential statement.