Metzenbaum is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the Senate in 1994 positioned according to our liberal–conservative ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).
The chart is based on the bills Metzenbaum sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 25, 1989 to Dec 1, 1994. See full analysis methodology.
Metzenbaum was the primary sponsor of 42 bills that were enacted. The most recent include:
- S. 1312 (103rd): Pension Annuitants Protection Act of 1994
- S. 664 (103rd): A bill making a technical amendment of the Clayton Act.
- S. 3279 (102nd): A bill to extend the authorization of use of official mail in the location and recovery of missing children, and for other purposes.
- S. 1577 (102nd): Alzheimer’s Disease Research, Training, and Education Amendments of 1992
- S. 749 (102nd): A bill to rename and expand the boundaries of the Mound City Group National Monument in Ohio.
- S. 1532 (102nd): Abandoned Infants Assistance Act Amendments of 1991
- S. 367 (102nd): Nontraditional Employment for Women Act
Does 42 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.
We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).
Metzenbaum sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:
Government Operations and Politics (18%) Crime and Law Enforcement (15%) Labor and Employment (14%) Commerce (14%) Finance and Financial Sector (14%) Health (10%) Law (9%) Transportation and Public Works (7%)
Some of Metzenbaum’s most recently sponsored bills include...
- S. 2531 (103rd): Pension Bill of Rights Act of 1994
- S. 2504 (103rd): Contingent Workforce Equity Act
- S. 2380 (103rd): Baseball Fans Protection Act of 1994
- S.Res. 247 (103rd): A resolution condemning the recent acts of international terrorism committed against Jewish ...
- S. 2306 (103rd): Securities Fraud Fairness Act
- S. 2297 (103rd): International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994
- S.Con.Res. 69 (103rd): A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of the Congress that any legislation ...
From Jan 1974 to Dec 1994, Metzenbaum missed 376 of 7,832 roll call votes, which is 4.8%. This is on par with the median of 3.4% among the lifetime records of senators serving in Dec 1994. The chart below reports missed votes over time.
We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses and major life events.
|Time Period||Votes Eligible||Missed Votes||Percent||Percentile|
The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:
- unitedstates/congress-legislators, a community project gathering congressional information
- The House and Senate websites, for committee membership and voting records
- United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1990 by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole.
- Martis’s “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress”, via Keith Poole’s roll call votes data set, for political party affiliation for Members of Congress from 1789 through about year 2000
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress for the photo
- GovInfo.gov, for sponsored bills