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Rep. James Howard

Former Representative for New Jersey’s 3rd District

Howard was the representative for New Jersey’s 3rd congressional district and was a Democrat. He served from 1965 to 1988.

Photo of Rep. James Howard [D-NJ3, 1965-1988]


Ideology–Leadership Chart

Howard is shown as a purple triangle in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the House of Representatives in 1988 positioned according to our ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).

The chart is based on the bills Howard sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 3, 1983 to Oct 22, 1988. See full analysis methodology.

Enacted Legislation

Howard was the primary sponsor of 37 bills that were enacted. The most recent include:

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Does 37 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.

We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).

Bills Sponsored

Issue Areas

Howard sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:

Economics and Public Finance (26%) Government Operations and Politics (26%) Transportation and Public Works (19%) Environmental Protection (12%) Water Resources Development (5%) Taxation (4%) Education (4%) Arts, Culture, Religion (3%)

Recently Introduced Bills

Howard recently introduced the following legislation:

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Most legislation has no activity after being introduced.

Voting Record

Missed Votes

From Jan 1965 to Mar 1988, Howard missed 1,129 of 10,270 roll call votes, which is 11.0%. This is much worse than the median of 5.5% among the lifetime records of representatives serving in Mar 1988. The chart below reports missed votes over time.

We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses, major life events, and running for higher office.

Show the numbers...

Primary Sources

The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including: