Tower is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the Senate in 1984 positioned according to our liberal–conservative ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).
The chart is based on the bills Tower sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 15, 1979 to Oct 12, 1984. See full analysis methodology.
Tower was the primary sponsor of 11 bills that were enacted. The most recent include:
- S. 2449 (98th): A bill for the relief of the Sisters of Mercy of the Union, Province of St. Louis, Missouri.
- S.J.Res. 321 (98th): A joint resolution to designate the week of October 14, 1984 through October 21, 1984 as “National Housing Week”.
- S. 1894 (98th): A bill to designate the Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine as the “Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine”, and for other ...
- S. 675 (98th): Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1984
- S.J.Res. 98 (98th): A joint resolution to designate October 2 through October 9, 1983, as “National Housing Week”.
- S. 2248 (97th): Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1983
- S. 2706 (97th): A bill to amend title 28, United States Code, to modify the bar membership requirements for United States magistrates.
Does 11 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.
We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).
Tower sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:
Armed Forces and National Security (20%) Private Legislation (18%) Government Operations and Politics (15%) Economics and Public Finance (12%) Education (12%) Taxation (9%) Immigration (8%) Housing and Community Development (6%)
Some of Tower’s most recently sponsored bills include...
- S. 3077 (98th): A bill to exempt any activity involving the harvesting of penaeid shrimp ...
- S.J.Res. 321 (98th): A joint resolution to designate the week of October 14, 1984 through ...
- S.Res. 394 (98th): An original resolution waiving section 402(a) of the Conressional Budget Act of ...
- S. 2723 (98th): Omnibus Defense Authorization Act, 1985
- S.Res. 360 (98th): A resolution to amend Rule XV of the Standing Rules of the ...
- S. 2498 (98th): A bill to amend section 1034(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of ...
- S. 2449 (98th): A bill for the relief of the Sisters of Mercy of the ...
From Jun 1961 to Oct 1984, Tower missed 1,861 of 9,887 roll call votes, which is 18.8%. This is much worse than the median of 6.9% among the lifetime records of senators serving in Oct 1984. The chart below reports missed votes over time.
We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses and major life events.
|Time Period||Votes Eligible||Missed Votes||Percent||Percentile|
The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:
- unitedstates/congress-legislators, a community project gathering congressional information
- United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1990 by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole.
- Martis’s “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress”, via Keith Poole’s roll call votes data set, for political party affiliation for Members of Congress from 1789 through about year 2000
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress for the photo
- GovInfo.gov, for sponsored bills