Gramm is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the Senate in 2002 positioned according to our liberal–conservative ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).
The chart is based on the bills Gramm sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 7, 1997 to Nov 20, 2002. See full analysis methodology.
Gramm was the primary sponsor of 6 bills that were enacted:
- S. 900 (106th): Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
- S. 559 (106th): A bill to designate the Federal building located at 300 East 8th Street in Austin, Texas, as the “J.J. “Jake” Pickle Federal Building”.
- S. 1260 (105th): Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998
- S. 1675 (104th): Pam Lychner Sexual Offender Tracking and Identification Act of 1996
- S. 2008 (103rd): A bill to designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 100 East Houston Street in Marshall, Texas, as the “Sam B. Hall, Jr. Federal ...
- S. 80 (103rd): Big Thicket National Preserve Addition Act of 1993
Does 6 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.
We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).
Gramm sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:
Economics and Public Finance (17%) Government Operations and Politics (17%) Taxation (11%) Foreign Trade and International Finance (11%) International Affairs (11%) Law (11%) Labor and Employment (11%) Commerce (10%)
Some of Gramm’s most recently sponsored bills include...
- S. 4 (107th): A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to treat ...
- S. 5 (107th): Social Security Preservation Act
- S. 3150 (107th): Turkey Free Trade Agreement Act
- S. 3151 (107th): Afghanistan Free Trade Agreement Act
- S.Res. 319 (107th): A resolution recognizing the accomplishments of Professor Milton Friedman.
- S. 2794 (107th): Homeland Security Act of 2002
- S. 1751 (107th): Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2001
From Jan 1985 to Nov 2002, Gramm missed 298 of 6,287 roll call votes, which is 4.7%. This is much worse than the median of 1.8% among the lifetime records of senators serving in Nov 2002. The chart below reports missed votes over time.
We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses and major life events.
|Time Period||Votes Eligible||Missed Votes||Percent||Percentile|
The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:
- unitedstates/congress-legislators, a community project gathering congressional information
- The House and Senate websites, for committee membership and voting records
- United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1990 by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole.
- Martis’s “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress”, via Keith Poole’s roll call votes data set, for political party affiliation for Members of Congress from 1789 through about year 2000
- Congressional Pictorial Directory for the photo
- GovInfo.gov, for sponsored bills