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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Laws Enacted

The number of bills each legislator introduced that became law in 2015. Keep in mind that it takes a law to repeal a law. Very few bills ever become law.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 5 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#2 3 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#2 3 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#2 3 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#5 2 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#5 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#5 2 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#5 2 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#5 2 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#5 2 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#5 2 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#12 1 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#12 1 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#12 1 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#12 1 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#12 1 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#12 1 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#12 1 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#12 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#12 1 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#12 1 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15]
#12 1 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#12 1 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#12 1 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#12 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#12 1 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#12 1 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#12 1 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#12 1 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#12 1 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#12 1 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#12 1 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#12 1 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#12 1 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#12 1 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#12 1 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#12 1 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#12 1 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#12 1 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#12 1 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#12 1 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#12 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#12 1 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#12 1 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#12 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#12 1 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#12 1 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#12 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#12 1 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#12 1 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#12 1 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#12 1 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#12 1 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]
#12 1 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#12 1 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#12 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#12 1 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#12 1 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#12 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#12 1 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#12 1 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#12 1 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#12 1 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#12 1 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#12 1 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#12 1 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#12 1 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#12 1 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#12 1 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#12 1 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#71 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#71 0 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#71 0 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#71 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#71 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#71 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#71 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#71 0 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#71 0 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#71 0 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#71 0 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#71 0 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#71 0 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#71 0 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#71 0 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#71 0 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#71 0 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#71 0 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#71 0 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12]
#71 0 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#71 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#71 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#71 0 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#71 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#71 0 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#71 0 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#71 0 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#71 0 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#71 0 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#71 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#71 0 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#71 0 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#71 0 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#71 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#71 0 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#71 0 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#71 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#71 0 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#71 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#71 0 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#71 0 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#71 0 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#71 0 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#71 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#71 0 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#71 0 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#71 0 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#71 0 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#71 0 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#71 0 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#71 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#71 0 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#71 0 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#71 0 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#71 0 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#71 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#71 0 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#71 0 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#71 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#71 0 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#71 0 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#71 0 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#71 0 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#71 0 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#71 0 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#71 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#71 0 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#71 0 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#71 0 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#71 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#71 0 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#71 0 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#71 0 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#71 0 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#71 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#71 0 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#71 0 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#71 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#71 0 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#71 0 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#71 0 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#71 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#71 0 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#71 0 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#71 0 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#71 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#71 0 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#71 0 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#71 0 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#71 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#71 0 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#71 0 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#71 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#71 0 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#71 0 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#71 0 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#71 0 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#71 0 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#71 0 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#71 0 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#71 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#71 0 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#71 0 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#71 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#71 0 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#71 0 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#71 0 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#71 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#71 0 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#71 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#71 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#71 0 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#71 0 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#71 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#71 0 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#71 0 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#71 0 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#71 0 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#71 0 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#71 0 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#71 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#71 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#71 0 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#71 0 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#71 0 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#71 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#71 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#71 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#71 0 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#71 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#71 0 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]
#71 0 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#71 0 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#71 0 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#71 0 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#71 0 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#71 0 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#71 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#71 0 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#71 0 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#71 0 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#71 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#71 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#71 0 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#71 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#71 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#71 0 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#71 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#71 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#71 0 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#71 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#71 0 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#71 0 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#71 0 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#71 0 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#71 0 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#71 0 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#71 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#71 0 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#71 0 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#71 0 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#71 0 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#71 0 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#71 0 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#71 0 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#71 0 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#71 0 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#71 0 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#71 0 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#71 0 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#71 0 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#71 0 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#71 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#71 0 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#71 0 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#71 0 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#71 0 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#71 0 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#71 0 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#71 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#71 0 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#71 0 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#71 0 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#71 0 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#71 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#71 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#71 0 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#71 0 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#71 0 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#71 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#71 0 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#71 0 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#71 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#71 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#71 0 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#71 0 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#71 0 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#71 0 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#71 0 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#71 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#71 0 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#71 0 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#71 0 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#71 0 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#71 0 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#71 0 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#71 0 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#71 0 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#71 0 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#71 0 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#71 0 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#71 0 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#71 0 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#71 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#71 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#71 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#71 0 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#71 0 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#71 0 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#71 0 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#71 0 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#71 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#71 0 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#71 0 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#71 0 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#71 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#71 0 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#71 0 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#71 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#71 0 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#71 0 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#71 0 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#71 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#71 0 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#71 0 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#71 0 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#71 0 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#71 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#71 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#71 0 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#71 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#71 0 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#71 0 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#71 0 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#71 0 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#71 0 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#71 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#71 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#71 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#71 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#71 0 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#71 0 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#71 0 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#71 0 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#71 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#71 0 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#71 0 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#71 0 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#71 0 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#71 0 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#71 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#71 0 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#71 0 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#71 0 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#71 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#71 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#71 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#71 0 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27]
#71 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#71 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#71 0 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#71 0 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#71 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#71 0 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
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A bill or joint resolution is considered enacted if it or an exactly identical bill to it is enacted as law. We only consider bills that the legislator was the primary sponsor of. While a legislator may lay claim to authoring other bills that became law, such as through incorporation into larger bills, these cases are difficult for us to track quantitatively.

Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.