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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Bills Introduced

The number of bills each legislator introduced in 2015.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 65 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#2 54 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#3 46 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#4 43 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#5 39 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#6 38 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#6 38 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#8 34 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#9 33 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#10 32 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#10 32 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#10 32 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#13 31 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#14 29 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#15 28 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#15 28 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#15 28 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#15 28 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#19 27 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#19 27 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#19 27 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#22 26 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#22 26 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#22 26 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#22 26 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#22 26 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#27 25 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#27 25 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#27 25 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#30 24 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#30 24 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#30 24 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#30 24 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#34 23 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#34 23 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#34 23 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#37 22 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#37 22 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#37 22 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#37 22 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#41 21 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#41 21 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#41 21 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#41 21 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#41 21 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#46 20 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#46 20 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#46 20 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#46 20 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#46 20 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#46 20 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#46 20 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#46 20 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#46 20 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#55 19 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#55 19 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#55 19 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#55 19 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#55 19 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#55 19 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#61 18 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#61 18 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#61 18 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#61 18 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#65 17 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#65 17 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#65 17 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#65 17 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#65 17 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#65 17 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#65 17 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#65 17 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#65 17 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#74 16 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#74 16 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#74 16 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#74 16 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#74 16 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#74 16 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#74 16 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#74 16 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#74 16 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#74 16 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#84 15 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#84 15 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#84 15 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#84 15 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#84 15 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#84 15 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#84 15 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#84 15 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#84 15 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#84 15 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#84 15 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#84 15 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#84 15 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#84 15 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#84 15 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#99 14 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#99 14 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#99 14 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#99 14 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#99 14 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#99 14 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#99 14 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#99 14 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#99 14 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#99 14 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#99 14 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#99 14 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#99 14 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#99 14 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#99 14 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#99 14 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#99 14 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#99 14 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#99 14 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#99 14 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#99 14 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#120 13 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#120 13 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#120 13 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#120 13 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#120 13 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#120 13 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#120 13 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#120 13 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#120 13 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#120 13 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#120 13 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#120 13 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#120 13 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#120 13 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#120 13 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#120 13 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#120 13 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#120 13 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#120 13 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#120 13 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#140 12 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#140 12 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#140 12 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#140 12 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#140 12 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#140 12 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#140 12 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#140 12 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#140 12 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#140 12 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#140 12 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#140 12 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#140 12 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#140 12 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#140 12 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#140 12 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#140 12 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15]
#140 12 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#162 11 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#162 11 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#162 11 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#162 11 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#162 11 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#162 11 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#162 11 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#162 11 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#162 11 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#162 11 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#162 11 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#162 11 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#162 11 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#162 11 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#162 11 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#162 11 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#178 10 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#178 10 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#178 10 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#178 10 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#178 10 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#178 10 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#178 10 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#178 10 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#178 10 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#178 10 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#178 10 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#178 10 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#178 10 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#178 10 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#178 10 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#178 10 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#178 10 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#178 10 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#178 10 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#178 10 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#178 10 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#178 10 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#178 10 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#178 10 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#178 10 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#178 10 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#178 10 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#178 10 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#178 10 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#207 9 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#207 9 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#207 9 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#207 9 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#207 9 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#207 9 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#207 9 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#207 9 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#207 9 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#207 9 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#207 9 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#207 9 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#207 9 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#207 9 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#207 9 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#207 9 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#207 9 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#207 9 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#207 9 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#207 9 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#207 9 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#207 9 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#207 9 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#207 9 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#234 8 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]
#234 8 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#234 8 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#234 8 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#234 8 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#234 8 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#234 8 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#234 8 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#234 8 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#234 8 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#234 8 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#234 8 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#234 8 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#234 8 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#234 8 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#234 8 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#234 8 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#234 8 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#234 8 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#234 8 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#254 7 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#254 7 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#254 7 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#254 7 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#254 7 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#254 7 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#254 7 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#254 7 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#254 7 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#254 7 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#254 7 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]
#254 7 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#254 7 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#254 7 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#254 7 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#254 7 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#254 7 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#254 7 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#254 7 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#254 7 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#254 7 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#254 7 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#254 7 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#254 7 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#254 7 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#254 7 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#254 7 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#281 6 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#281 6 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#281 6 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#281 6 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#281 6 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#281 6 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#281 6 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#281 6 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#281 6 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#281 6 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#281 6 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#281 6 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#281 6 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#281 6 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#281 6 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#281 6 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#281 6 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#281 6 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#281 6 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#281 6 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#281 6 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#281 6 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#281 6 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#281 6 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#281 6 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#306 5 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#306 5 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#306 5 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#306 5 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#306 5 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#306 5 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#306 5 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#306 5 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#306 5 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#306 5 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#306 5 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#306 5 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#306 5 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#306 5 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#306 5 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#306 5 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#306 5 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#306 5 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#306 5 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#306 5 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#306 5 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#306 5 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#306 5 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#306 5 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#306 5 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#306 5 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#306 5 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#333 4 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#333 4 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#333 4 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#333 4 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#333 4 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#333 4 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#333 4 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#333 4 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#333 4 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#333 4 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#333 4 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#333 4 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#333 4 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#333 4 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#333 4 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#333 4 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#333 4 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#333 4 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#333 4 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#333 4 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#333 4 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#333 4 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#333 4 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#356 3 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#356 3 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#356 3 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#356 3 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#356 3 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#356 3 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#356 3 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#356 3 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#356 3 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#356 3 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#356 3 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#356 3 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#356 3 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#369 2 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#369 2 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#369 2 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#369 2 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#369 2 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#369 2 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#369 2 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#369 2 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#369 2 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#378 1 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#378 1 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#378 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#378 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#378 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#378 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#384 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#384 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.