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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Bills Introduced

The number of bills each legislator introduced in 2015.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 65 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#10 32 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#10 32 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#10 32 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#120 13 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#120 13 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#120 13 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#120 13 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#120 13 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#120 13 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#120 13 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#120 13 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#120 13 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#120 13 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#120 13 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#120 13 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#120 13 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#120 13 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#120 13 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#120 13 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#120 13 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#120 13 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#120 13 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#120 13 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#13 31 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#14 29 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#140 12 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#140 12 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#140 12 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#140 12 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#140 12 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#140 12 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#140 12 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#140 12 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#140 12 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#140 12 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#140 12 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#140 12 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#140 12 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#140 12 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#140 12 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#140 12 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#140 12 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#140 12 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#140 12 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#15 28 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#15 28 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#15 28 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#15 28 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#162 11 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#162 11 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#162 11 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#162 11 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#162 11 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#162 11 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#162 11 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#162 11 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#162 11 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#162 11 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#162 11 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#162 11 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#162 11 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#162 11 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#162 11 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#162 11 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#178 10 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#178 10 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#178 10 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#178 10 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#178 10 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#178 10 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#178 10 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#178 10 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#178 10 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#178 10 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#178 10 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#178 10 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#178 10 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#178 10 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#178 10 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#178 10 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#178 10 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#178 10 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#178 10 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#178 10 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#178 10 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#178 10 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#178 10 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#178 10 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#178 10 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#178 10 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#178 10 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#178 10 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#178 10 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#19 27 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#19 27 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#19 27 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#2 54 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#207 9 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#207 9 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#207 9 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#207 9 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#207 9 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#207 9 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#207 9 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#207 9 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#207 9 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#207 9 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#207 9 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#207 9 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#207 9 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#207 9 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#207 9 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#207 9 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#207 9 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#207 9 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#207 9 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#207 9 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#207 9 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#207 9 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#207 9 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#207 9 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#22 26 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#22 26 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#22 26 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#22 26 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#22 26 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#234 8 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#234 8 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#234 8 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#234 8 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#234 8 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#234 8 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#234 8 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#234 8 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#234 8 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#234 8 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#234 8 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#234 8 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#234 8 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#234 8 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#234 8 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#234 8 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#234 8 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#234 8 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#234 8 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#234 8 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#254 7 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#254 7 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#254 7 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#254 7 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#254 7 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#254 7 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#254 7 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#254 7 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#254 7 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#254 7 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#254 7 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#254 7 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#254 7 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#254 7 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#254 7 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#254 7 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#254 7 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#254 7 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#254 7 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#254 7 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#254 7 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#254 7 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#254 7 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#254 7 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#254 7 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#254 7 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#254 7 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#27 25 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#27 25 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#27 25 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#281 6 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#281 6 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#281 6 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#281 6 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#281 6 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#281 6 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#281 6 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#281 6 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#281 6 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#281 6 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#281 6 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#281 6 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#281 6 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#281 6 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#281 6 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#281 6 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#281 6 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#281 6 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#281 6 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#281 6 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#281 6 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#281 6 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#281 6 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#281 6 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#281 6 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#3 46 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#30 24 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#30 24 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#30 24 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#30 24 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#306 5 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#306 5 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#306 5 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#306 5 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#306 5 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#306 5 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#306 5 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#306 5 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#306 5 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#306 5 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#306 5 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#306 5 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#306 5 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#306 5 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#306 5 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#306 5 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#306 5 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#306 5 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#306 5 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#306 5 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#306 5 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#306 5 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#306 5 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#306 5 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#306 5 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#306 5 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#306 5 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#333 4 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#333 4 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#333 4 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#333 4 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#333 4 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#333 4 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#333 4 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#333 4 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#333 4 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#333 4 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#333 4 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#333 4 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#333 4 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#333 4 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#333 4 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#333 4 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#333 4 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#333 4 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#333 4 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#333 4 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#333 4 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#333 4 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#333 4 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#34 23 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#34 23 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#34 23 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#356 3 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#356 3 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#356 3 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#356 3 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#356 3 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#356 3 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#356 3 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#356 3 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#356 3 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#356 3 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#356 3 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#356 3 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#356 3 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#369 2 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#369 2 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#369 2 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#369 2 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#369 2 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#369 2 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#369 2 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#369 2 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#369 2 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#37 22 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#37 22 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#37 22 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#37 22 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#378 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#378 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#378 1 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#378 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#378 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#378 1 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#384 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#384 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#4 43 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#41 21 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#41 21 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#41 21 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#41 21 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#41 21 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#46 20 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#46 20 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#46 20 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#46 20 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#46 20 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#46 20 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#46 20 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#46 20 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#46 20 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#5 39 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#55 19 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#55 19 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#55 19 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#55 19 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#55 19 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#55 19 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#6 38 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#6 38 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#61 18 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#61 18 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#61 18 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#61 18 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#65 17 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#65 17 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#65 17 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#65 17 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#65 17 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#65 17 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#65 17 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#65 17 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#65 17 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#74 16 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#74 16 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#74 16 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#74 16 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#74 16 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#74 16 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#74 16 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#74 16 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#74 16 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#74 16 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#8 34 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#84 15 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#84 15 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#84 15 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#84 15 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#84 15 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#84 15 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#84 15 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#84 15 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#84 15 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#84 15 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#84 15 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#84 15 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#84 15 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#84 15 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#84 15 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#9 33 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#99 14 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#99 14 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#99 14 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#99 14 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#99 14 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#99 14 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#99 14 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#99 14 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#99 14 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#99 14 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#99 14 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#99 14 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#99 14 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#99 14 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#99 14 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#99 14 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#99 14 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#99 14 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#99 14 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#99 14 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#99 14 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.