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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Bills Out of Committee

The number of bills that each legislator introduced in 2015 that got a committee vote sending it to the floor for further consideration. Most bills and resolutions languish in committee without any action.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 12 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#1 12 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#3 11 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#4 10 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#5 9 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#5 9 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#7 8 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#7 8 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#7 8 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#10 7 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#10 7 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#10 7 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#10 7 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#10 7 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#10 7 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#16 6 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#16 6 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#18 5 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12]
#18 5 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#18 5 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#18 5 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#18 5 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#18 5 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#18 5 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#25 4 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#25 4 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#25 4 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#25 4 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#25 4 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#25 4 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#25 4 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#32 3 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#32 3 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#32 3 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#32 3 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#32 3 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#32 3 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#32 3 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#32 3 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#32 3 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#32 3 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#32 3 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#32 3 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#32 3 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#32 3 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#32 3 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#32 3 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#48 2 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#48 2 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#48 2 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#48 2 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#48 2 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#48 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#48 2 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#48 2 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#48 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#48 2 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#48 2 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#48 2 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#48 2 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#48 2 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#48 2 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#48 2 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#48 2 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#48 2 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#48 2 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#48 2 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#48 2 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#48 2 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#48 2 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#48 2 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#48 2 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#48 2 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#48 2 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#48 2 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#48 2 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#48 2 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]
#48 2 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#48 2 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#48 2 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#48 2 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#48 2 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#48 2 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8]
#48 2 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#48 2 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#48 2 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#48 2 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#48 2 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#48 2 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27]
#90 1 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#90 1 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#90 1 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#90 1 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#90 1 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#90 1 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#90 1 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#90 1 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#90 1 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#90 1 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#90 1 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#90 1 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#90 1 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#90 1 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#90 1 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#90 1 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#90 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#90 1 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#90 1 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#90 1 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#90 1 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#90 1 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#90 1 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#90 1 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#90 1 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#90 1 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15]
#90 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#90 1 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#90 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#90 1 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#90 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#90 1 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#90 1 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#90 1 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#90 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#90 1 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#90 1 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#90 1 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#90 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#90 1 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#90 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#90 1 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#90 1 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#90 1 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#90 1 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#90 1 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#90 1 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#90 1 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#90 1 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#90 1 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#90 1 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#90 1 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#90 1 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#90 1 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#90 1 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#90 1 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#90 1 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#90 1 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#90 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#90 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#90 1 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#90 1 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#90 1 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#90 1 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#90 1 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#90 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#90 1 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]
#90 1 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#90 1 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#90 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#90 1 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#90 1 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#90 1 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#90 1 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#90 1 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#90 1 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#90 1 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#90 1 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#90 1 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#90 1 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#90 1 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#90 1 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#90 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#90 1 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#90 1 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#90 1 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#90 1 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#90 1 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#90 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#90 1 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#90 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#90 1 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#90 1 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#90 1 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#90 1 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#90 1 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#90 1 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#90 1 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#90 1 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#90 1 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#90 1 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#90 1 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#90 1 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#90 1 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#90 1 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#90 1 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#90 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#90 1 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#90 1 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#90 1 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#90 1 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#90 1 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#90 1 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#90 1 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#90 1 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#90 1 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#90 1 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#213 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#213 0 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#213 0 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#213 0 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#213 0 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#213 0 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#213 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#213 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#213 0 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#213 0 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18]
#213 0 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#213 0 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#213 0 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#213 0 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#213 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#213 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#213 0 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#213 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#213 0 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#213 0 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#213 0 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#213 0 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#213 0 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#213 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#213 0 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#213 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#213 0 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13]
#213 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#213 0 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#213 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#213 0 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#213 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#213 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#213 0 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#213 0 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#213 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#213 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#213 0 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#213 0 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#213 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#213 0 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#213 0 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#213 0 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#213 0 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#213 0 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#213 0 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#213 0 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#213 0 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#213 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#213 0 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#213 0 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#213 0 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#213 0 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#213 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#213 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#213 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#213 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#213 0 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#213 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#213 0 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#213 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#213 0 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#213 0 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#213 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#213 0 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#213 0 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#213 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#213 0 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#213 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#213 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#213 0 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#213 0 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#213 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#213 0 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#213 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#213 0 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#213 0 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#213 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#213 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#213 0 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#213 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#213 0 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#213 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#213 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#213 0 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#213 0 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#213 0 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#213 0 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#213 0 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#213 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#213 0 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#213 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#213 0 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#213 0 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#213 0 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#213 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#213 0 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#213 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#213 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#213 0 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#213 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#213 0 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#213 0 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#213 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#213 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#213 0 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#213 0 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#213 0 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#213 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#213 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#213 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#213 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#213 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#213 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#213 0 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#213 0 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#213 0 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#213 0 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#213 0 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#213 0 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#213 0 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#213 0 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#213 0 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#213 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#213 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#213 0 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#213 0 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#213 0 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#213 0 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#213 0 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#213 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#213 0 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#213 0 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#213 0 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#213 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#213 0 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#213 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#213 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#213 0 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#213 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#213 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#213 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#213 0 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#213 0 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#213 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#213 0 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#213 0 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#213 0 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#213 0 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#213 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#213 0 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#213 0 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#213 0 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#213 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#213 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#213 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#213 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#213 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.