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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Powerful Cosponsors

The number of bills that each legislator introduced in 2015 that had a cosponsor who was a chair or ranking member of a committee that the bill was referred to. Getting support from committee leaders on relevant committees is a crucial step in moving legislation forward.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 16 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#2 14 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#3 12 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13]
#3 12 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#3 12 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#6 11 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#6 11 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#8 10 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#8 10 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#8 10 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#8 10 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#12 9 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#12 9 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#14 8 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#14 8 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#14 8 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#14 8 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#14 8 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#19 7 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#19 7 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#19 7 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#19 7 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#19 7 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#19 7 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#19 7 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#19 7 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#27 6 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#27 6 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#27 6 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#27 6 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#27 6 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#27 6 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#27 6 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#27 6 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#27 6 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#27 6 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#37 5 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#37 5 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#37 5 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#37 5 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#37 5 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#37 5 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#37 5 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#37 5 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#37 5 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15]
#37 5 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#37 5 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#37 5 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#37 5 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#37 5 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#37 5 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#37 5 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#37 5 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#58 4 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#58 4 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#58 4 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#58 4 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#58 4 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#58 4 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#58 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#58 4 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#58 4 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#58 4 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#58 4 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#58 4 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#58 4 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27]
#58 4 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#58 4 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#58 4 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#58 4 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#58 4 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#58 4 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#58 4 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#58 4 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#58 4 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#58 4 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#58 4 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#58 4 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#58 4 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#58 4 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#58 4 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#58 4 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#58 4 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#58 4 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#58 4 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#58 4 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#58 4 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#58 4 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#58 4 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#58 4 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#58 4 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#58 4 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#58 4 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12]
#98 3 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#98 3 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#98 3 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#98 3 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#98 3 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#98 3 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#98 3 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#98 3 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#98 3 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#98 3 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#98 3 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#98 3 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#98 3 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#98 3 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#98 3 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8]
#98 3 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#98 3 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#98 3 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#98 3 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#98 3 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#98 3 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#98 3 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#98 3 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#98 3 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#98 3 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#98 3 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#98 3 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#98 3 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#98 3 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#98 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#98 3 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#98 3 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#98 3 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#98 3 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#98 3 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#98 3 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#98 3 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#98 3 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#98 3 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#98 3 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#98 3 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#98 3 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#98 3 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#98 3 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#98 3 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#98 3 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#98 3 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#98 3 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#98 3 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#98 3 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#152 2 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#152 2 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#152 2 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#152 2 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#152 2 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#152 2 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#152 2 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#152 2 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#152 2 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#152 2 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]
#152 2 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#152 2 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#152 2 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#152 2 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#152 2 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#152 2 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#152 2 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#152 2 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#152 2 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#152 2 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#152 2 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#152 2 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#152 2 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#152 2 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#152 2 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#152 2 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#152 2 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#152 2 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#152 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#152 2 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#152 2 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#152 2 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#152 2 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#152 2 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#152 2 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#152 2 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#152 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#152 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#152 2 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#152 2 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#152 2 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#152 2 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#152 2 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#152 2 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#152 2 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#152 2 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#152 2 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#152 2 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#152 2 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#152 2 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#152 2 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#152 2 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#152 2 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]
#152 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#152 2 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#152 2 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#152 2 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#152 2 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#152 2 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#152 2 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#152 2 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#152 2 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#222 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#222 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#222 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#222 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#222 1 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#222 1 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#222 1 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#222 1 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#222 1 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#222 1 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#222 1 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#222 1 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#222 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#222 1 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#222 1 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#222 1 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#222 1 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#222 1 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#222 1 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#222 1 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#222 1 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#222 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#222 1 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#222 1 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#222 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#222 1 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#222 1 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#222 1 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#222 1 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#222 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#222 1 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#222 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#222 1 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#222 1 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#222 1 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#222 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#222 1 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#222 1 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#222 1 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#222 1 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#222 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#222 1 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18]
#222 1 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#222 1 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#222 1 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#222 1 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#222 1 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#222 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#222 1 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#222 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#222 1 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#222 1 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#222 1 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#222 1 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#222 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#222 1 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#222 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#222 1 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#222 1 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#222 1 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#222 1 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#222 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#222 1 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#222 1 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#222 1 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#222 1 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#222 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#222 1 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#222 1 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#222 1 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#222 1 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#222 1 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#222 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#222 1 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#222 1 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#222 1 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#222 1 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#222 1 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#222 1 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#222 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#309 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#309 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#309 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#309 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#309 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#309 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#309 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#309 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#309 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#309 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#309 0 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#309 0 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#309 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#309 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#309 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#309 0 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#309 0 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#309 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#309 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#309 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#309 0 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#309 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#309 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#309 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#309 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#309 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#309 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#309 0 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#309 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#309 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#309 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#309 0 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#309 0 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#309 0 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#309 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#309 0 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#309 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#309 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#309 0 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#309 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#309 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#309 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#309 0 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#309 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#309 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#309 0 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#309 0 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#309 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#309 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#309 0 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#309 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#309 0 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#309 0 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#309 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#309 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#309 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#309 0 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#309 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#309 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#309 0 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#309 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#309 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#309 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#309 0 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#309 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#309 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#309 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#309 0 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#309 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#309 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.