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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Powerful Cosponsors

The number of bills that each legislator introduced in 2015 that had a cosponsor who was a chair or ranking member of a committee that the bill was referred to. Getting support from committee leaders on relevant committees is a crucial step in moving legislation forward.

Safe House Seats
most often
#1 16 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#2 14 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#3 12 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#3 12 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#3 12 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#6 11 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#6 11 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#8 10 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#8 10 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#8 10 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#8 10 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#12 9 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#12 9 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#14 8 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#14 8 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#14 8 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#14 8 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#14 8 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#19 7 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#19 7 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#19 7 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#19 7 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#19 7 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#19 7 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#19 7 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#19 7 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#27 6 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#27 6 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#27 6 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#27 6 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#27 6 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#27 6 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#27 6 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#27 6 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#27 6 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#27 6 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#37 5 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#37 5 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#37 5 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#37 5 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#37 5 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#37 5 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#37 5 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#37 5 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#37 5 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#37 5 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#37 5 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#37 5 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#37 5 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#37 5 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#37 5 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#37 5 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#37 5 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#37 5 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#37 5 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#58 4 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#58 4 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#58 4 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#58 4 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#58 4 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#58 4 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#58 4 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#58 4 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#58 4 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#58 4 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#58 4 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#58 4 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#58 4 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#58 4 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#58 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#58 4 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#58 4 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#58 4 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#58 4 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#58 4 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#58 4 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#58 4 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#58 4 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#58 4 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#58 4 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#58 4 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#58 4 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#58 4 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#58 4 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#58 4 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#58 4 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#58 4 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#58 4 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#58 4 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#58 4 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#58 4 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#58 4 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#58 4 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#58 4 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#58 4 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#98 3 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#98 3 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#98 3 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#98 3 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#98 3 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#98 3 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#98 3 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#98 3 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#98 3 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#98 3 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#98 3 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#98 3 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#98 3 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#98 3 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#98 3 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#98 3 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#98 3 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#98 3 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#98 3 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#98 3 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#98 3 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#98 3 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#98 3 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#98 3 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#98 3 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#98 3 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#98 3 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#98 3 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#98 3 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#98 3 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#98 3 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#98 3 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#98 3 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#98 3 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#98 3 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#98 3 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#98 3 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#98 3 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#98 3 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#98 3 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#98 3 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#98 3 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#98 3 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#98 3 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#98 3 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#98 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#98 3 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#98 3 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#98 3 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#98 3 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#98 3 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#152 2 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#152 2 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#152 2 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#152 2 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#152 2 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#152 2 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#152 2 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#152 2 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#152 2 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#152 2 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#152 2 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#152 2 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#152 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#152 2 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#152 2 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#152 2 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#152 2 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#152 2 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#152 2 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#152 2 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#152 2 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#152 2 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#152 2 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#152 2 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#152 2 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#152 2 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#152 2 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#152 2 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#152 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#152 2 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#152 2 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#152 2 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#152 2 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#152 2 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#152 2 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#152 2 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#152 2 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#152 2 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#152 2 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#152 2 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#152 2 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#152 2 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#152 2 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#152 2 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#152 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#152 2 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#152 2 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#152 2 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#152 2 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#152 2 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#152 2 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#152 2 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#152 2 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#152 2 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#152 2 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#152 2 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#152 2 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#152 2 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#152 2 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#152 2 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#152 2 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#152 2 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#152 2 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#222 1 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#222 1 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#222 1 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#222 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#222 1 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#222 1 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#222 1 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#222 1 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#222 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#222 1 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#222 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#222 1 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#222 1 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#222 1 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#222 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#222 1 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#222 1 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#222 1 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#222 1 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#222 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#222 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#222 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#222 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#222 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#222 1 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#222 1 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#222 1 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#222 1 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#222 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#222 1 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#222 1 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#222 1 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#222 1 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#222 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#222 1 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#222 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#222 1 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#222 1 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#222 1 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#222 1 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#222 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#222 1 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#222 1 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#222 1 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#222 1 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#222 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#222 1 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#222 1 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#222 1 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#222 1 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#222 1 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#222 1 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#222 1 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#222 1 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#222 1 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#222 1 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#222 1 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#222 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#222 1 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#222 1 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#222 1 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#222 1 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#222 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#222 1 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#222 1 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#222 1 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#222 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#222 1 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#222 1 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#222 1 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#222 1 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#222 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#222 1 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#222 1 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#222 1 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#222 1 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#222 1 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#222 1 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#222 1 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#222 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#222 1 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#309 0 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#309 0 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#309 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#309 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#309 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#309 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#309 0 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#309 0 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#309 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#309 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#309 0 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#309 0 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#309 0 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#309 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#309 0 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#309 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#309 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#309 0 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#309 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#309 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#309 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#309 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#309 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#309 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#309 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#309 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#309 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#309 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#309 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#309 0 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#309 0 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#309 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#309 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#309 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#309 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#309 0 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#309 0 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#309 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#309 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#309 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#309 0 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#309 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#309 0 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#309 0 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#309 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#309 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#309 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#309 0 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#309 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#309 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#309 0 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#309 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#309 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#309 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#309 0 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#309 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#309 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#309 0 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#309 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#309 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#309 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#309 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#309 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#309 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#309 0 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#309 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#309 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#309 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#309 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#309 0 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#309 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.