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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Working with the Other Chamber

The House and Senate often work on the same issue simultaneously by introducing companion bills in each chamber. This is the number of bills introduced by each legislator in 2015 that had a companion bill in the other chamber. Working with a sponsor in the other chamber makes a bill more likely to be passed by both the House and Senate.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 10 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#2 9 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#2 9 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#4 8 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#4 8 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#4 8 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#7 7 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#7 7 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#7 7 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#7 7 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12]
#7 7 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#7 7 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#13 6 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#13 6 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#13 6 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#13 6 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#13 6 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#13 6 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#13 6 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#13 6 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#13 6 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#13 6 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#13 6 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#13 6 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#13 6 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#26 5 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#26 5 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#26 5 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#26 5 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#26 5 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#26 5 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#26 5 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#26 5 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#26 5 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#26 5 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#36 4 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#36 4 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#36 4 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#36 4 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#36 4 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#36 4 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#36 4 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#36 4 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#36 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#36 4 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#36 4 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#36 4 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#36 4 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#36 4 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#36 4 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#36 4 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#36 4 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#36 4 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#36 4 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#36 4 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#36 4 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#36 4 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#36 4 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#36 4 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#36 4 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#61 3 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#61 3 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#61 3 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#61 3 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#61 3 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#61 3 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#61 3 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#61 3 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#61 3 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#61 3 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#61 3 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#61 3 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#61 3 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#61 3 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#61 3 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#61 3 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#61 3 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#61 3 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#61 3 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#61 3 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#61 3 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#61 3 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#61 3 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#61 3 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#61 3 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#61 3 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#61 3 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#61 3 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#61 3 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#61 3 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#61 3 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#61 3 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#61 3 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#61 3 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#61 3 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#61 3 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#61 3 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#61 3 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#61 3 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#61 3 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#61 3 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#61 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#61 3 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#61 3 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#61 3 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#61 3 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#61 3 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15]
#61 3 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#61 3 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#114 2 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#114 2 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#114 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#114 2 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#114 2 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#114 2 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#114 2 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#114 2 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#114 2 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#114 2 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#114 2 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#114 2 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]
#114 2 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#114 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#114 2 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#114 2 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#114 2 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#114 2 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#114 2 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#114 2 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#114 2 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#114 2 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#114 2 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#114 2 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#114 2 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#114 2 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#114 2 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#114 2 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#114 2 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#114 2 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#114 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#114 2 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#114 2 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#114 2 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#114 2 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#114 2 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#114 2 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#114 2 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#114 2 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#114 2 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#114 2 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#114 2 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#114 2 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#114 2 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#114 2 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#114 2 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#114 2 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#114 2 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#114 2 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#114 2 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#114 2 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#114 2 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#114 2 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#114 2 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#114 2 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#114 2 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#114 2 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#114 2 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#181 1 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#181 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#181 1 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27]
#181 1 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#181 1 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#181 1 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#181 1 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#181 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#181 1 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#181 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#181 1 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#181 1 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#181 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#181 1 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#181 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#181 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#181 1 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#181 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#181 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#181 1 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#181 1 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#181 1 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#181 1 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#181 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#181 1 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#181 1 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#181 1 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#181 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#181 1 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#181 1 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#181 1 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#181 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#181 1 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#181 1 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#181 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#181 1 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#181 1 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#181 1 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#181 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#181 1 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#181 1 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#181 1 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#181 1 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#181 1 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#181 1 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#181 1 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#181 1 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#181 1 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#181 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#181 1 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#181 1 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#181 1 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#181 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#181 1 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#181 1 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#181 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#181 1 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#181 1 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#181 1 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#181 1 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#181 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#181 1 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#181 1 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#181 1 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#181 1 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#181 1 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#181 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#181 1 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#181 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#181 1 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#181 1 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#181 1 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#181 1 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#181 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#181 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#181 1 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#181 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#181 1 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#181 1 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#276 0 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#276 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#276 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#276 0 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#276 0 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#276 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#276 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#276 0 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#276 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#276 0 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#276 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#276 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#276 0 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#276 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#276 0 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#276 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#276 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#276 0 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#276 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#276 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#276 0 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#276 0 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#276 0 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#276 0 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#276 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#276 0 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#276 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#276 0 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#276 0 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#276 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#276 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#276 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#276 0 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#276 0 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#276 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#276 0 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#276 0 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#276 0 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#276 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#276 0 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#276 0 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#276 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#276 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#276 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#276 0 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#276 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#276 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#276 0 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#276 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]
#276 0 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#276 0 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#276 0 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#276 0 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#276 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#276 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#276 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#276 0 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#276 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#276 0 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#276 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#276 0 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#276 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#276 0 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#276 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#276 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#276 0 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#276 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#276 0 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#276 0 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#276 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#276 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#276 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#276 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#276 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#276 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#276 0 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#276 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#276 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#276 0 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#276 0 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#276 0 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#276 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#276 0 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#276 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#276 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#276 0 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#276 0 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#276 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#276 0 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#276 0 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#276 0 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#276 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#276 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#276 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#276 0 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#276 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#276 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#276 0 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
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Companion bills are those that are identified as “identical” by Congress’s Congressional Research Service.

Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.