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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Working with the Other Chamber

The House and Senate often work on the same issue simultaneously by introducing companion bills in each chamber. This is the number of bills introduced by each legislator in 2015 that had a companion bill in the other chamber. Working with a sponsor in the other chamber makes a bill more likely to be passed by both the House and Senate.

Safe House Seats
most bills
#1 10 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#2 9 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#2 9 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#4 8 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#4 8 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#4 8 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#7 7 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#7 7 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#7 7 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#7 7 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#7 7 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#7 7 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#13 6 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#13 6 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#13 6 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#13 6 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#13 6 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#13 6 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#13 6 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#13 6 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#13 6 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#13 6 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#13 6 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#13 6 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#13 6 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#26 5 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#26 5 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#26 5 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#26 5 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#26 5 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#26 5 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#26 5 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#26 5 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#26 5 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#26 5 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#36 4 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#36 4 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#36 4 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#36 4 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#36 4 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#36 4 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#36 4 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#36 4 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#36 4 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#36 4 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#36 4 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#36 4 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#36 4 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#36 4 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#36 4 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#36 4 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#36 4 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#36 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#36 4 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#36 4 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#36 4 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#36 4 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#36 4 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#36 4 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#36 4 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#61 3 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#61 3 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#61 3 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#61 3 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#61 3 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#61 3 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#61 3 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#61 3 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#61 3 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#61 3 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#61 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#61 3 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#61 3 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#61 3 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#61 3 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#61 3 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#61 3 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#61 3 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#61 3 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#61 3 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#61 3 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#61 3 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#61 3 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#61 3 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#61 3 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#61 3 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#61 3 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#61 3 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#61 3 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#61 3 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#61 3 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#61 3 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#61 3 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#61 3 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#61 3 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#61 3 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#61 3 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#61 3 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#61 3 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#61 3 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#61 3 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#61 3 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#61 3 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#61 3 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#61 3 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#61 3 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#61 3 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#61 3 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#61 3 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#61 3 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#114 2 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#114 2 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#114 2 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#114 2 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#114 2 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#114 2 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#114 2 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#114 2 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#114 2 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#114 2 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#114 2 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#114 2 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#114 2 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#114 2 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#114 2 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#114 2 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#114 2 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#114 2 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#114 2 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#114 2 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#114 2 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#114 2 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#114 2 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#114 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#114 2 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#114 2 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#114 2 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#114 2 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#114 2 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#114 2 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#114 2 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#114 2 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#114 2 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#114 2 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#114 2 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#114 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#114 2 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#114 2 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#114 2 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#114 2 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#114 2 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#114 2 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#114 2 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#114 2 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#114 2 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#114 2 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#114 2 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#114 2 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#114 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#114 2 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#114 2 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#114 2 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#114 2 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#114 2 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#114 2 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#114 2 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#114 2 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#114 2 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#114 2 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#181 1 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#181 1 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#181 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#181 1 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#181 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#181 1 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#181 1 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#181 1 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#181 1 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#181 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#181 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#181 1 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#181 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#181 1 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#181 1 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#181 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#181 1 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#181 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#181 1 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#181 1 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#181 1 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#181 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#181 1 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#181 1 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#181 1 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#181 1 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#181 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#181 1 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#181 1 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#181 1 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#181 1 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#181 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#181 1 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#181 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#181 1 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#181 1 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#181 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#181 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#181 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#181 1 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#181 1 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#181 1 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#181 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#181 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#181 1 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#181 1 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#181 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#181 1 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#181 1 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#181 1 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#181 1 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#181 1 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#181 1 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#181 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#181 1 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#181 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#181 1 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#181 1 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#181 1 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#181 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#181 1 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#181 1 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#181 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#181 1 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#181 1 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#181 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#181 1 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#181 1 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#181 1 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#181 1 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#181 1 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#181 1 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#181 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#181 1 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#181 1 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#181 1 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#181 1 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#181 1 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#181 1 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#181 1 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#181 1 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#181 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#181 1 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#276 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#276 0 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#276 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#276 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#276 0 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#276 0 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#276 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#276 0 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#276 0 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#276 0 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#276 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#276 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#276 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#276 0 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#276 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#276 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#276 0 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#276 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#276 0 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#276 0 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#276 0 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#276 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#276 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#276 0 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#276 0 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#276 0 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#276 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#276 0 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#276 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#276 0 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#276 0 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#276 0 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#276 0 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#276 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#276 0 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#276 0 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#276 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#276 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#276 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#276 0 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#276 0 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#276 0 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#276 0 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#276 0 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#276 0 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#276 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#276 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#276 0 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#276 0 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#276 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#276 0 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#276 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#276 0 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#276 0 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#276 0 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#276 0 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#276 0 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#276 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#276 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#276 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#276 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#276 0 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#276 0 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#276 0 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#276 0 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#276 0 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#276 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#276 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#276 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#276 0 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#276 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#276 0 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#276 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#276 0 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#276 0 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#276 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#276 0 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#276 0 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#276 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#276 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#276 0 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#276 0 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#276 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#276 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#276 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#276 0 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#276 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#276 0 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#276 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#276 0 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#276 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#276 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#276 0 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#276 0 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#276 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#276 0 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#276 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#276 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#276 0 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#276 0 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
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Companion bills are those that are identified as “identical” by Congress’s Congressional Research Service.

Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.