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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Committee Positions

A score, giving five points for each full committee leadership position and one point for each subcommittee leadership position, for each legislator.

Safe House Seats
most committee positions
#1 11 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#1 11 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#12 5 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#12 5 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#12 5 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#12 5 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#12 5 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#12 5 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#12 5 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#12 5 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#12 5 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#12 5 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#12 5 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#12 5 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#12 5 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#12 5 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#12 5 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#12 5 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#12 5 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#12 5 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#12 5 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#12 5 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#12 5 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#12 5 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#12 5 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#12 5 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#12 5 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#12 5 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#12 5 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#12 5 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#12 5 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#12 5 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#12 5 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#12 5 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#12 5 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#12 5 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#12 5 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#12 5 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#12 5 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#12 5 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#12 5 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#246 0 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#246 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#246 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#246 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#246 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#246 0 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#246 0 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#246 0 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#246 0 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#246 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#246 0 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#246 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#246 0 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#246 0 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#246 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#246 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#246 0 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#246 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#246 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#246 0 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#246 0 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#246 0 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#246 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#246 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#246 0 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#246 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#246 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#246 0 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#246 0 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#246 0 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#246 0 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#246 0 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#246 0 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#246 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#246 0 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#246 0 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#246 0 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#246 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#246 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#246 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#246 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#246 0 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#246 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#246 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#246 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#246 0 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#246 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#246 0 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#246 0 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#246 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#246 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#246 0 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#246 0 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#246 0 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#246 0 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#246 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#246 0 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#246 0 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#246 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#246 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#246 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#246 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#246 0 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#246 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#246 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#246 0 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#246 0 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#246 0 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#246 0 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#246 0 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#246 0 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#246 0 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#246 0 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#246 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#246 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#246 0 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#246 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#246 0 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#246 0 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#246 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#246 0 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#246 0 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#246 0 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#246 0 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#246 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#246 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#246 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#246 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#246 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#246 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#246 0 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#246 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#246 0 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#246 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#246 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#246 0 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#246 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#246 0 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#246 0 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#246 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#246 0 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#246 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#246 0 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#246 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#246 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#246 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#246 0 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#246 0 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#246 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#246 0 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#246 0 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#246 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#246 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#246 0 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#246 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#246 0 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#246 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#246 0 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#246 0 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#246 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#246 0 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#3 10 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#3 10 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#5 7 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#51 2 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#51 2 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#51 2 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#51 2 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#51 2 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#51 2 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#51 2 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#51 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#51 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#51 2 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#51 2 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#51 2 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#51 2 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#6 6 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#6 6 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#6 6 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#6 6 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#6 6 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#6 6 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#64 1 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#64 1 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#64 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#64 1 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#64 1 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#64 1 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#64 1 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#64 1 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#64 1 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#64 1 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#64 1 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#64 1 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#64 1 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#64 1 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#64 1 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#64 1 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#64 1 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#64 1 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#64 1 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#64 1 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#64 1 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#64 1 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#64 1 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#64 1 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#64 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#64 1 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#64 1 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#64 1 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#64 1 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#64 1 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#64 1 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#64 1 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#64 1 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#64 1 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#64 1 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#64 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#64 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#64 1 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#64 1 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#64 1 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#64 1 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#64 1 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#64 1 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#64 1 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#64 1 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#64 1 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#64 1 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#64 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#64 1 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#64 1 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#64 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#64 1 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#64 1 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#64 1 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#64 1 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#64 1 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#64 1 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#64 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#64 1 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#64 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#64 1 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#64 1 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#64 1 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#64 1 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#64 1 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#64 1 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#64 1 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#64 1 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#64 1 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#64 1 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#64 1 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#64 1 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#64 1 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#64 1 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#64 1 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#64 1 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#64 1 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#64 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#64 1 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#64 1 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#64 1 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#64 1 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#64 1 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#64 1 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#64 1 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#64 1 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#64 1 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#64 1 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#64 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#64 1 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#64 1 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#64 1 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#64 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#64 1 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#64 1 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#64 1 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#64 1 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#64 1 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#64 1 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#64 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#64 1 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#64 1 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#64 1 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#64 1 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#64 1 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#64 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#64 1 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#64 1 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#64 1 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#64 1 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#64 1 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#64 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#64 1 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#64 1 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#64 1 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#64 1 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#64 1 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#64 1 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#64 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#64 1 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#64 1 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#64 1 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#64 1 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#64 1 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#64 1 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#64 1 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#64 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#64 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#64 1 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#64 1 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#64 1 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#64 1 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#64 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#64 1 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#64 1 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#64 1 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#64 1 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#64 1 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#64 1 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#64 1 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#64 1 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#64 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#64 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#64 1 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#64 1 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#64 1 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#64 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#64 1 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#64 1 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.