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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Committee Positions

A score, giving five points for each full committee leadership position and one point for each subcommittee leadership position, for each legislator.

Safe House Seats
most committee positions
#1 11 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#1 11 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#3 10 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#3 10 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#5 7 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#6 6 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#6 6 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#6 6 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#6 6 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#6 6 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#6 6 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#12 5 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#12 5 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#12 5 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#12 5 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#12 5 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#12 5 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#12 5 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#12 5 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#12 5 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#12 5 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#12 5 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#12 5 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#12 5 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#12 5 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#12 5 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#12 5 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#12 5 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#12 5 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#12 5 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#12 5 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#12 5 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#12 5 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#12 5 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#12 5 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#12 5 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#12 5 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#12 5 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#12 5 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#12 5 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#12 5 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#12 5 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#12 5 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#12 5 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#12 5 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#12 5 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#12 5 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#12 5 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#12 5 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#12 5 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#51 2 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#51 2 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#51 2 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#51 2 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#51 2 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#51 2 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#51 2 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#51 2 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#51 2 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#51 2 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#51 2 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#51 2 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#51 2 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#64 1 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#64 1 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#64 1 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#64 1 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#64 1 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#64 1 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#64 1 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#64 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#64 1 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#64 1 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#64 1 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#64 1 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#64 1 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#64 1 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#64 1 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#64 1 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#64 1 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#64 1 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#64 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#64 1 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#64 1 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#64 1 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#64 1 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#64 1 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#64 1 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#64 1 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#64 1 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#64 1 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#64 1 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#64 1 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#64 1 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#64 1 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#64 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#64 1 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#64 1 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#64 1 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#64 1 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#64 1 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#64 1 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#64 1 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#64 1 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#64 1 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#64 1 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#64 1 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#64 1 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#64 1 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#64 1 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#64 1 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#64 1 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#64 1 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#64 1 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#64 1 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#64 1 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#64 1 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#64 1 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#64 1 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#64 1 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#64 1 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#64 1 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#64 1 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#64 1 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#64 1 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#64 1 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#64 1 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#64 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#64 1 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#64 1 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#64 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#64 1 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#64 1 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#64 1 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#64 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#64 1 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#64 1 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#64 1 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#64 1 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#64 1 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#64 1 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#64 1 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#64 1 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#64 1 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#64 1 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#64 1 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#64 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#64 1 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#64 1 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#64 1 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#64 1 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#64 1 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#64 1 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#64 1 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#64 1 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#64 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#64 1 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#64 1 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#64 1 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#64 1 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#64 1 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#64 1 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#64 1 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#64 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#64 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#64 1 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#64 1 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#64 1 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#64 1 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#64 1 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#64 1 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#64 1 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#64 1 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#64 1 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#64 1 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#64 1 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#64 1 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#64 1 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#64 1 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#64 1 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#64 1 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#64 1 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#64 1 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#64 1 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#64 1 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#64 1 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#64 1 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#64 1 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#64 1 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#64 1 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#64 1 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#64 1 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#64 1 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#64 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#64 1 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#64 1 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#64 1 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#64 1 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#64 1 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#64 1 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#64 1 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#64 1 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#64 1 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#64 1 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#64 1 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#64 1 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#64 1 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#64 1 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#64 1 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#64 1 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#64 1 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#64 1 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#64 1 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#64 1 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#246 0 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#246 0 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#246 0 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#246 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#246 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#246 0 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#246 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#246 0 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#246 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#246 0 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#246 0 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#246 0 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#246 0 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#246 0 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#246 0 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#246 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#246 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#246 0 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#246 0 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#246 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#246 0 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#246 0 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#246 0 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#246 0 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#246 0 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#246 0 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#246 0 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#246 0 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#246 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#246 0 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#246 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#246 0 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#246 0 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#246 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#246 0 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#246 0 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#246 0 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#246 0 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#246 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#246 0 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#246 0 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#246 0 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#246 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#246 0 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#246 0 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#246 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#246 0 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#246 0 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#246 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#246 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#246 0 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#246 0 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#246 0 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#246 0 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#246 0 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#246 0 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#246 0 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#246 0 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#246 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#246 0 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#246 0 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#246 0 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#246 0 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#246 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#246 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#246 0 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#246 0 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#246 0 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#246 0 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#246 0 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#246 0 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#246 0 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#246 0 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#246 0 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#246 0 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#246 0 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#246 0 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#246 0 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#246 0 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#246 0 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#246 0 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#246 0 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#246 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#246 0 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#246 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#246 0 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#246 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#246 0 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#246 0 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#246 0 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#246 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#246 0 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#246 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#246 0 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#246 0 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#246 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#246 0 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#246 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#246 0 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#246 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#246 0 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#246 0 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#246 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#246 0 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#246 0 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#246 0 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#246 0 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#246 0 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#246 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#246 0 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#246 0 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#246 0 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#246 0 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#246 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#246 0 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#246 0 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#246 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#246 0 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#246 0 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#246 0 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#246 0 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#246 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#246 0 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#246 0 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#246 0 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.