skip to main content

2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

Page Icon

 

Government Transparency

GovTrack looked at whether legislators supported any of the government transparency, accountability, and effectiveness bills that we identified in 2015. We gave a score to each legislator based on one point for cosponsoring and three points for sponsoring any of these bills.

Safe House Seats
most often
#1 9 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#2 8 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#2 8 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#2 8 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#5 7 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#5 7 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#5 7 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#8 6 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#8 6 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#8 6 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#8 6 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#8 6 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
#13 5 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#13 5 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#13 5 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#13 5 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#13 5 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#18 4 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#18 4 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#18 4 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#18 4 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#18 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#18 4 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#18 4 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#18 4 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#18 4 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#18 4 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#18 4 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#18 4 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#18 4 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#18 4 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#18 4 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#18 4 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#18 4 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#35 3 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#35 3 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#35 3 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#35 3 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#35 3 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#35 3 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#35 3 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#35 3 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#35 3 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#35 3 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#35 3 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#35 3 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#35 3 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#35 3 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#35 3 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#35 3 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#35 3 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#35 3 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#35 3 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#35 3 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#35 3 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#35 3 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#35 3 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#35 3 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#35 3 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#35 3 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#35 3 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#35 3 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#35 3 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#35 3 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#35 3 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#35 3 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#35 3 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#35 3 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#35 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#35 3 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#74 2 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#74 2 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#74 2 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#74 2 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#74 2 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#74 2 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#74 2 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#74 2 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#74 2 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#74 2 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#74 2 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#74 2 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#74 2 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#74 2 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#74 2 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#74 2 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#74 2 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#74 2 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#74 2 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#74 2 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#74 2 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#74 2 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#74 2 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#74 2 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#74 2 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#74 2 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#74 2 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#74 2 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#74 2 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#74 2 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#74 2 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#74 2 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#74 2 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#74 2 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#74 2 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#74 2 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#74 2 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#74 2 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#74 2 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#74 2 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#74 2 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#74 2 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#74 2 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#74 2 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#74 2 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#74 2 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#74 2 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#74 2 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#74 2 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#74 2 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#74 2 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#74 2 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#74 2 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#74 2 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#74 2 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#74 2 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#74 2 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#74 2 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#74 2 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#74 2 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#74 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#74 2 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#74 2 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#74 2 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#74 2 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#74 2 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#74 2 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#74 2 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#74 2 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#146 1 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#146 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#146 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#146 1 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#146 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#146 1 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#146 1 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#146 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#146 1 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#146 1 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#146 1 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#146 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#146 1 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#146 1 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#146 1 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#146 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#146 1 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#146 1 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#146 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#146 1 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#146 1 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#146 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#146 1 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#146 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#146 1 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#146 1 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#146 1 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#146 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#146 1 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#146 1 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#146 1 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#146 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#146 1 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#146 1 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#146 1 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#146 1 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#146 1 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#146 1 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#146 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#146 1 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#146 1 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#146 1 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#146 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#146 1 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#146 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#146 1 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#146 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#146 1 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#146 1 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#146 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#146 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#146 1 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#146 1 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#146 1 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#146 1 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#146 1 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#146 1 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#146 1 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#146 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#146 1 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#146 1 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#146 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#146 1 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#146 1 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#146 1 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#146 1 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#146 1 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#146 1 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#146 1 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#228 0 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#228 0 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#228 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#228 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#228 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#228 0 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#228 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#228 0 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#228 0 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#228 0 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#228 0 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#228 0 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#228 0 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#228 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#228 0 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#228 0 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6]
#228 0 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#228 0 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#228 0 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#228 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#228 0 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#228 0 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#228 0 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#228 0 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#228 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#228 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#228 0 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#228 0 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#228 0 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#228 0 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#228 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#228 0 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#228 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#228 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#228 0 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#228 0 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#228 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#228 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#228 0 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#228 0 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#228 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#228 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#228 0 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#228 0 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#228 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#228 0 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#228 0 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#228 0 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#228 0 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#228 0 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#228 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#228 0 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#228 0 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#228 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#228 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#228 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#228 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#228 0 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#228 0 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#228 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#228 0 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#228 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#228 0 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#228 0 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#228 0 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#228 0 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#228 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#228 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#228 0 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#228 0 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#228 0 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#228 0 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#228 0 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#228 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#228 0 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#228 0 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#228 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#228 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#228 0 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#228 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#228 0 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#228 0 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#228 0 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#228 0 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#228 0 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#228 0 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#228 0 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#228 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#228 0 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#228 0 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#228 0 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#228 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#228 0 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#228 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#228 0 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#228 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#228 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#228 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#228 0 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#228 0 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#228 0 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#228 0 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#228 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#228 0 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#228 0 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#228 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#228 0 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#228 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
Export to CSV...

Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.