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2015 Report Cards: Safe House Seats

These special year-end statistics dissect the legislative records of Members of Congress during the 2015 legislative year (Jan 6, 2015-Dec 31, 2015), looking at Members who served at the end of that period. This page was last updated on Jan 9, 2016.

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Government Transparency

GovTrack looked at whether legislators supported any of the government transparency, accountability, and effectiveness bills that we identified in 2015. We gave a score to each legislator based on one point for cosponsoring and three points for sponsoring any of these bills.

Safe House Seats
most often
#1 9 Rep. Elijah Cummings [D-MD7]
#13 5 Rep. Alan Lowenthal [D-CA47]
#13 5 Rep. Bill Posey [R-FL8]
#13 5 Rep. James “Jim” McGovern [D-MA2]
#13 5 Rep. Juan Vargas [D-CA51]
#13 5 Rep. Peter Welch [D-VT0]
#146 1 Commish. Pedro Pierluisi [D-PR0, 2009-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Albio Sires [D-NJ8]
#146 1 Rep. André Carson [D-IN7]
#146 1 Rep. Ann Wagner [R-MO2]
#146 1 Rep. Bill Johnson [R-OH6]
#146 1 Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27, 2011-2018]
#146 1 Rep. Bradley Byrne [R-AL1]
#146 1 Rep. Brian Higgins [D-NY26]
#146 1 Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Darin LaHood [R-IL18]
#146 1 Rep. David Rouzer [R-NC7]
#146 1 Rep. Debbie Dingell [D-MI12]
#146 1 Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz [D-FL23]
#146 1 Rep. Dennis Ross [R-FL15]
#146 1 Rep. Donald Beyer [D-VA8]
#146 1 Rep. Doug Collins [R-GA9]
#146 1 Rep. Doug LaMalfa [R-CA1]
#146 1 Rep. Eddie Johnson [D-TX30]
#146 1 Rep. Edward “Scott” Rigell [R-VA2, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Emanuel Cleaver [D-MO5]
#146 1 Rep. Gene Green [D-TX29]
#146 1 Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]
#146 1 Rep. Grace Meng [D-NY6]
#146 1 Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]
#146 1 Rep. James Sensenbrenner [R-WI5]
#146 1 Rep. Janice Hahn [D-CA44, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Jeb Hensarling [R-TX5]
#146 1 Rep. Jeff Duncan [R-SC3]
#146 1 Rep. Jeff Miller [R-FL1, 2001-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1, 2013-2018]
#146 1 Rep. Joaquin Castro [D-TX20]
#146 1 Rep. Jody Hice [R-GA10]
#146 1 Rep. Joe Courtney [D-CT2]
#146 1 Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]
#146 1 Rep. John Garamendi [D-CA3]
#146 1 Rep. John Moolenaar [R-MI4]
#146 1 Rep. John Ratcliffe [R-TX4]
#146 1 Rep. Joseph Kennedy [D-MA4]
#146 1 Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]
#146 1 Rep. Justin Amash [R-MI3]
#146 1 Rep. Katherine Clark [D-MA5]
#146 1 Rep. Keith Rothfus [R-PA12]
#146 1 Rep. Ken Buck [R-CO4]
#146 1 Rep. Kurt Schrader [D-OR5]
#146 1 Rep. Lamar Smith [R-TX21]
#146 1 Rep. Larry Bucshon [R-IN8]
#146 1 Rep. Linda Sánchez [D-CA38]
#146 1 Rep. Lloyd Doggett [D-TX35]
#146 1 Rep. Lois Frankel [D-FL21]
#146 1 Rep. Louie Gohmert [R-TX1]
#146 1 Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard [D-CA40]
#146 1 Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Takai [D-HI1, 2015-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Mark Walker [R-NC6]
#146 1 Rep. Matt Salmon [R-AZ5, 2013-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Mike Kelly [R-PA3]
#146 1 Rep. Norma Torres [D-CA35]
#146 1 Rep. Paul Ryan [R-WI1]
#146 1 Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]
#146 1 Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]
#146 1 Rep. Ralph Abraham [R-LA5]
#146 1 Rep. Raúl Labrador [R-ID1]
#146 1 Rep. Reid Ribble [R-WI8, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Rick Allen [R-GA12]
#146 1 Rep. Robert Hurt [R-VA5, 2011-2016]
#146 1 Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]
#146 1 Rep. Sander Levin [D-MI9]
#146 1 Rep. Sanford Bishop [D-GA2]
#146 1 Rep. Scott Perry [R-PA4]
#146 1 Rep. Scott Tipton [R-CO3]
#146 1 Rep. Stacey Plaskett [D-VI0]
#146 1 Rep. Stevan “Steve” Pearce [R-NM2]
#146 1 Rep. Steven Palazzo [R-MS4]
#146 1 Rep. Ted Yoho [R-FL3]
#146 1 Rep. Terri Sewell [D-AL7]
#146 1 Rep. Timothy Walz [D-MN1]
#146 1 Rep. Tom Emmer [R-MN6]
#146 1 Rep. Tom Rice [R-SC7]
#146 1 Rep. Tony Cárdenas [D-CA29]
#18 4 Rep. Barry Loudermilk [R-GA11]
#18 4 Rep. Buddy Carter [R-GA1]
#18 4 Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]
#18 4 Rep. David “Dave” Brat [R-VA7]
#18 4 Rep. Donna Edwards [D-MD4, 2008-2016]
#18 4 Rep. Eric Swalwell [D-CA15]
#18 4 Rep. Gerald Connolly [D-VA11]
#18 4 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries [D-NY8]
#18 4 Rep. John Yarmuth [D-KY3]
#18 4 Rep. John “Jimmy” Duncan [R-TN2]
#18 4 Rep. Julia Brownley [D-CA26]
#18 4 Rep. Marcia Fudge [D-OH11]
#18 4 Rep. Paul Gosar [R-AZ4]
#18 4 Rep. Ron Kind [D-WI3]
#18 4 Rep. Steve Cohen [D-TN9]
#18 4 Rep. Ted Lieu [D-CA33]
#18 4 Rep. Zoe Lofgren [D-CA19]
#2 8 Rep. David Price [D-NC4]
#2 8 Rep. Eleanor Norton [D-DC0]
#2 8 Rep. Theodore Deutch [D-FL22]
#228 0 Rep. Adam Kinzinger [R-IL16]
#228 0 Rep. Adrian Smith [R-NE3]
#228 0 Rep. Ander Crenshaw [R-FL4, 2001-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Andy Harris [R-MD1]
#228 0 Rep. Aumua Amata [R-AS0]
#228 0 Rep. Austin Scott [R-GA8]
#228 0 Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Flores [R-TX17]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Huizenga [R-MI2]
#228 0 Rep. Bill Shuster [R-PA9]
#228 0 Rep. Bob Gibbs [R-OH7]
#228 0 Rep. Bob Goodlatte [R-VA6]
#228 0 Rep. Brad Wenstrup [R-OH2]
#228 0 Rep. Brett Guthrie [R-KY2]
#228 0 Rep. Bruce Westerman [R-AR4]
#228 0 Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers [R-WA5]
#228 0 Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Charles Boustany [R-LA3, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Charles Dent [R-PA15, 2005-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Charles “Chuck” Fleischmann [R-TN3]
#228 0 Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]
#228 0 Rep. Chris Stewart [R-UT2]
#228 0 Rep. Christopher “Chris” Smith [R-NJ4]
#228 0 Rep. Curtis “Curt” Clawson [R-FL19, 2014-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Cynthia Lummis [R-WY0, 2009-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Dan Newhouse [R-WA4]
#228 0 Rep. Dana Rohrabacher [R-CA48]
#228 0 Rep. Daniel Donovan [R-NY11]
#228 0 Rep. Dave Trott [R-MI11]
#228 0 Rep. David Joyce [R-OH14]
#228 0 Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]
#228 0 Rep. David Reichert [R-WA8]
#228 0 Rep. David Schweikert [R-AZ6]
#228 0 Rep. David Scott [D-GA13]
#228 0 Rep. David “Phil” Roe [R-TN1]
#228 0 Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]
#228 0 Rep. Diane Black [R-TN6]
#228 0 Rep. Dina Titus [D-NV1]
#228 0 Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]
#228 0 Rep. Doug Lamborn [R-CO5]
#228 0 Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]
#228 0 Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Edward “Ed” Royce [R-CA39]
#228 0 Rep. Erik Paulsen [R-MN3]
#228 0 Rep. Evan Jenkins [R-WV3]
#228 0 Rep. Filemon Vela [D-TX34]
#228 0 Rep. Frank LoBiondo [R-NJ2]
#228 0 Rep. Frank Lucas [R-OK3]
#228 0 Rep. Fred Upton [R-MI6]
#228 0 Rep. French Hill [R-AR2]
#228 0 Rep. Garland “Andy” Barr [R-KY6]
#228 0 Rep. Garret Graves [R-LA6]
#228 0 Rep. Gary Palmer [R-AL6]
#228 0 Rep. George Holding [R-NC2]
#228 0 Rep. Glenn Grothman [R-WI6]
#228 0 Rep. Glenn Thompson [R-PA5]
#228 0 Rep. Greg Walden [R-OR2]
#228 0 Rep. Gregg Harper [R-MS3]
#228 0 Rep. Gregorio Sablan [D-MP0]
#228 0 Rep. Gus Bilirakis [R-FL12]
#228 0 Rep. Harold “Hal” Rogers [R-KY5]
#228 0 Rep. Henry Cuellar [D-TX28]
#228 0 Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen [R-FL27]
#228 0 Rep. Jackie Walorski [R-IN2]
#228 0 Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler [R-WA3]
#228 0 Rep. James Renacci [R-OH16]
#228 0 Rep. Jason Smith [R-MO8]
#228 0 Rep. Jeff Fortenberry [R-NE1]
#228 0 Rep. Jim Jordan [R-OH4]
#228 0 Rep. Joe Barton [R-TX6]
#228 0 Rep. John Carter [R-TX31]
#228 0 Rep. John Culberson [R-TX7]
#228 0 Rep. John Fleming [R-LA4, 2009-2016]
#228 0 Rep. John Shimkus [R-IL15]
#228 0 Rep. Joseph Pitts [R-PA16, 1997-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Kay Granger [R-TX12]
#228 0 Rep. Ken Calvert [R-CA42]
#228 0 Rep. Kenny Marchant [R-TX24]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Brady [R-TX8]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Cramer [R-ND0]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin McCarthy [R-CA23]
#228 0 Rep. Kevin Yoder [R-KS3]
#228 0 Rep. Kristi Noem [R-SD0]
#228 0 Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]
#228 0 Rep. Loretta Sanchez [D-CA46, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Lou Barletta [R-PA11]
#228 0 Rep. Lynn Jenkins [R-KS2]
#228 0 Rep. Lynn Westmoreland [R-GA3, 2007-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Mac Thornberry [R-TX13]
#228 0 Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]
#228 0 Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart [R-FL25]
#228 0 Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]
#228 0 Rep. Marsha Blackburn [R-TN7]
#228 0 Rep. Marshall “Mark” Sanford [R-SC1]
#228 0 Rep. Martha Roby [R-AL2]
#228 0 Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Burgess [R-TX26]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Conaway [R-TX11]
#228 0 Rep. Michael Turner [R-OH10]
#228 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Doyle [D-PA14]
#228 0 Rep. Michael “Mike” Simpson [R-ID2]
#228 0 Rep. Mick Mulvaney [R-SC5, 2011-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Mike Pompeo [R-KS4, 2011-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Mike Rogers [R-AL3]
#228 0 Rep. Mimi Walters [R-CA45]
#228 0 Rep. Mo Brooks [R-AL5]
#228 0 Rep. Morgan Griffith [R-VA9]
#228 0 Rep. Nydia Velázquez [D-NY7]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick McHenry [R-NC10]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7, 2011-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Patrick “Pat” Tiberi [R-OH12, 2001-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Paul Cook [R-CA8]
#228 0 Rep. Peter “Pete” King [R-NY2]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Hultgren [R-IL14]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Neugebauer [R-TX19, 2003-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Randy Weber [R-TX14]
#228 0 Rep. Renee Ellmers [R-NC2, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Hudson [R-NC8]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Neal [D-MA1]
#228 0 Rep. Richard Nugent [R-FL11, 2013-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Rob Bishop [R-UT1]
#228 0 Rep. Rob Woodall [R-GA7]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Latta [R-OH5]
#228 0 Rep. Robert Wittman [R-VA1]
#228 0 Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen [R-NJ11]
#228 0 Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]
#228 0 Rep. Ron DeSantis [R-FL6, 2013-2018]
#228 0 Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Ryan Zinke [R-MT0, 2015-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Sam Johnson [R-TX3]
#228 0 Rep. Sean Duffy [R-WI7]
#228 0 Rep. Stephen Fincher [R-TN8, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Chabot [R-OH1]
#228 0 Rep. Steve King [R-IA4]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Russell [R-OK5]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Scalise [R-LA1]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Stivers [R-OH15]
#228 0 Rep. Steve Womack [R-AR3]
#228 0 Rep. Susan Brooks [R-IN5]
#228 0 Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]
#228 0 Rep. Thomas Massie [R-KY4]
#228 0 Rep. Thomas Rooney [R-FL17]
#228 0 Rep. Tim Huelskamp [R-KS1, 2011-2016]
#228 0 Rep. Tim Murphy [R-PA18, 2003-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Todd Rokita [R-IN4]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Cole [R-OK4]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Graves [R-GA14]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Marino [R-PA10]
#228 0 Rep. Tom McClintock [R-CA4]
#228 0 Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]
#228 0 Rep. Trent Kelly [R-MS1]
#228 0 Rep. Trey Gowdy [R-SC4]
#228 0 Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]
#228 0 Rep. Vicky Hartzler [R-MO4]
#228 0 Rep. Virginia Foxx [R-NC5]
#228 0 Rep. William Keating [D-MA9]
#228 0 Sen. Todd Young [R-IN]
#35 3 Rep. Al Green [D-TX9]
#35 3 Rep. Ann Kuster [D-NH2]
#35 3 Rep. Anna Eshoo [D-CA18]
#35 3 Rep. Barbara Lee [D-CA13]
#35 3 Rep. Bill Pascrell [D-NJ9]
#35 3 Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer [R-MO3]
#35 3 Rep. Brad Sherman [D-CA30]
#35 3 Rep. Brenda Lawrence [D-MI14]
#35 3 Rep. Brendan Boyle [D-PA13]
#35 3 Rep. Daniel Kildee [D-MI5]
#35 3 Rep. Darrell Issa [R-CA49]
#35 3 Rep. David Cicilline [D-RI1]
#35 3 Rep. Denny Heck [D-WA10]
#35 3 Rep. Doris Matsui [D-CA6]
#35 3 Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D-OR3]
#35 3 Rep. Eric “Rick” Crawford [R-AR1]
#35 3 Rep. Grace Napolitano [D-CA32]
#35 3 Rep. Henry “Hank” Johnson [D-GA4]
#35 3 Rep. Jared Huffman [D-CA2]
#35 3 Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]
#35 3 Rep. Jerrold Nadler [D-NY10]
#35 3 Rep. Jim Cooper [D-TN5]
#35 3 Rep. John Larson [D-CT1]
#35 3 Rep. Joyce Beatty [D-OH3]
#35 3 Rep. Keith Ellison [D-MN5]
#35 3 Rep. Mark DeSaulnier [D-CA11]
#35 3 Rep. Mark Takano [D-CA41]
#35 3 Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Mike Thompson [D-CA5]
#35 3 Rep. Nancy Pelosi [D-CA12]
#35 3 Rep. Peter DeFazio [D-OR4]
#35 3 Rep. Raúl Grijalva [D-AZ3]
#35 3 Rep. Ruben Gallego [D-AZ7]
#35 3 Rep. Sam Farr [D-CA20, 2013-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Steny Hoyer [D-MD5]
#35 3 Rep. Steve Israel [D-NY3, 2013-2016]
#35 3 Rep. Susan Davis [D-CA53]
#35 3 Rep. Tulsi Gabbard [D-HI2]
#35 3 Sen. Tammy Duckworth [D-IL]
#5 7 Rep. Mike Quigley [D-IL5]
#5 7 Rep. Walter Jones [R-NC3]
#5 7 Sen. Chris Van Hollen [D-MD]
#74 2 Rep. A. Dutch Ruppersberger [D-MD2]
#74 2 Rep. Adam Schiff [D-CA28]
#74 2 Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA9]
#74 2 Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]
#74 2 Rep. Alma Adams [D-NC12]
#74 2 Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]
#74 2 Rep. Betty McCollum [D-MN4]
#74 2 Rep. Bill Foster [D-IL11]
#74 2 Rep. Billy Long [R-MO7]
#74 2 Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]
#74 2 Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman [D-NJ12]
#74 2 Rep. Brian Babin [R-TX36]
#74 2 Rep. Carolyn Maloney [D-NY12]
#74 2 Rep. Cedric Richmond [D-LA2]
#74 2 Rep. Chellie Pingree [D-ME1]
#74 2 Rep. Cheri Bustos [D-IL17]
#74 2 Rep. Daniel Lipinski [D-IL3]
#74 2 Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]
#74 2 Rep. David Loebsack [D-IA2]
#74 2 Rep. Derek Kilmer [D-WA6]
#74 2 Rep. Diana DeGette [D-CO1]
#74 2 Rep. Donald Norcross [D-NJ1]
#74 2 Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10]
#74 2 Rep. Ed Perlmutter [D-CO7]
#74 2 Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]
#74 2 Rep. Frank Pallone [D-NJ6]
#74 2 Rep. Frederica Wilson [D-FL24]
#74 2 Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]
#74 2 Rep. Jackie Speier [D-CA14]
#74 2 Rep. James Himes [D-CT4]
#74 2 Rep. James “Jim” Clyburn [D-SC6]
#74 2 Rep. James “Jim” Langevin [D-RI2]
#74 2 Rep. Janice “Jan” Schakowsky [D-IL9]
#74 2 Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA9]
#74 2 Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]
#74 2 Rep. John Carney [D-DE0, 2011-2016]
#74 2 Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. John Lewis [D-GA5]
#74 2 Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]
#74 2 Rep. José Serrano [D-NY15]
#74 2 Rep. Karen Bass [D-CA37]
#74 2 Rep. Kathleen Rice [D-NY4]
#74 2 Rep. Kathy Castor [D-FL14]
#74 2 Rep. Luke Messer [R-IN6]
#74 2 Rep. Marc Veasey [D-TX33]
#74 2 Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]
#74 2 Rep. Mark Amodei [R-NV2]
#74 2 Rep. Mark Pocan [D-WI2]
#74 2 Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]
#74 2 Rep. Matthew Cartwright [D-PA17]
#74 2 Rep. Michael McCaul [R-TX10]
#74 2 Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]
#74 2 Rep. Niki Tsongas [D-MA3]
#74 2 Rep. Nita Lowey [D-NY17]
#74 2 Rep. Paul Tonko [D-NY20]
#74 2 Rep. Pete Olson [R-TX22]
#74 2 Rep. Pete Sessions [R-TX32]
#74 2 Rep. Rick Larsen [D-WA2]
#74 2 Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]
#74 2 Rep. Robert “Bobby” Scott [D-VA3]
#74 2 Rep. Robin Kelly [D-IL2]
#74 2 Rep. Rosa DeLauro [D-CT3]
#74 2 Rep. Scott DesJarlais [R-TN4]
#74 2 Rep. Seth Moulton [D-MA6]
#74 2 Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]
#74 2 Rep. Stephen Lynch [D-MA8]
#74 2 Rep. Suzan DelBene [D-WA1]
#74 2 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D-OR1]
#74 2 Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]
#74 2 Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. Xavier Becerra [D-CA34, 2013-2017]
#74 2 Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]
#8 6 Rep. Beto O’Rourke [D-TX16]
#8 6 Rep. Jason Chaffetz [R-UT3, 2009-2017]
#8 6 Rep. John Sarbanes [D-MD3]
#8 6 Rep. Lacy Clay [D-MO1]
#8 6 Rep. Michael Capuano [D-MA7]
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Additional Notes

The Speaker’s Votes: Missed votes are not computed for the Speaker of the House. According to current House rules, the Speaker of the House is not required to vote in “ordinary legislative proceedings.” In practice this means the Speaker of the House rarely votes but is not considered absent.

Leadership/Ideology: The leadership and ideology scores are not displayed for Members of Congress who introduced fewer than 10 bills, or, for ideology, for Members of Congress that have a low leadership score, as there is usually not enough data in these cases to compute reliable leadership and ideology statistics.

Missing Bills: We exclude bills from some statistics where the sponsor’s original intent is not in the final bill because the bill’s text was replaced in whole with unrelated provisions (i.e. it became a vehicle for passage of unrelated provisions).

Ranking Members (RkMembs): The chair of a committee is always selected from the political party that holds the most seats in the chamber, called the “majority party”. The “ranking member” (sometimes “RkMembs”) is the title given to the senior-most member of the committee not in the majority party.

Freshmen/Sophomores: Freshmen and sophomores are Members of Congress whose first term (in the same chamber at the end of 2015) was the 114th Congress (freshmen) or 113th (sophomores). Members of Congress who took office within the last few months of a Congress are considered freshmen in the next Congress as well.