Hruska is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the Senate in 1976 positioned according to our ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).
The chart is based on the bills Hruska sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 3, 1973 to Oct 1, 1976. See full analysis methodology.
Hruska was the primary sponsor of 7 bills that were enacted:
- S. 2212 (94th): Crime Control Act
- S. 331 (94th): A bill to redesignate November 11 of each year as Veterans Day and to make such day a legal public holiday.
- S. 251 (93rd): An Act for the relief of Frank P. Muto, Alphonso A. Muto, Arthur E. Scott, F. Clyde Wilkinson, Arthur D. O’Neill, Joseph H. Avery, Junior, Joshua Cosden, ...
- S. 663 (93rd): To improve judicial machinery by amending title 28, United States Code, with respect to judicial review of decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and for other purposes.
- S. 3052 (93rd): A bill to amend the Act of October 13, 1972.
- S.J.Res. 219 (93rd): A joint resolution to authorize the President to proclaim the period of September 15, 1974, through October 15, 1974, as “Johnny Horizon ‘76 Clean Up America Month”.
- S. 969 (93rd): A bill relating to the constitutional rights of Indians.
Does 7 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.
We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).
Hruska sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:
Crime and Law Enforcement (28%) Law (23%) Private Legislation (18%) Government Operations and Politics (11%) International Affairs (7%) Native Americans (4%) Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues (4%) Foreign Trade and International Finance (4%)
Some of Hruska’s most recently sponsored bills include...
- S. 3871 (94th): United States Customs Court Act
- S. 3803 (94th): Consumer Communications Reform Act
- S. 3646 (94th): Act for the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons
- S. 3640 (94th): A bill to authorize construction of the modified project for Papillion Creek ...
- S. 3645 (94th): A bill to amend section 511(d) of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention ...
- S. 3553 (94th): Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
- S. 3490 (94th): A bill for the relief of Gaspar Louis Sayoc.
From Dec 1954 to Oct 1976, Hruska missed 865 of 7,079 roll call votes, which is 12.2%. This is on par with the median of 13.0% among the lifetime records of senators serving in Oct 1976. The chart below reports missed votes over time.
We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses and major life events.
|Time Period||Votes Eligible||Missed Votes||Percent||Percentile|
The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:
- unitedstates/congress-legislators, a community project gathering congressional information
- United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1990 by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole.
- Martis’s “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress”, via Keith Poole’s roll call votes data set, for political party affiliation for Members of Congress from 1789 through about year 2000
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress for the photo
- GovInfo.gov, for sponsored bills