Penny was the representative for Minnesota’s 1st congressional district and was a Democrat. He served from 1983 to 1994.
Penny is shown as a purple triangle ▲ in our ideology-leadership chart below. Each dot was a member of the House of Representatives in 1994 positioned according to our liberal–conservative ideology score (left to right) and our leadership score (leaders are toward the top).
The chart is based on the bills Penny sponsored and cosponsored from Jan 3, 1989 to Nov 29, 1994. See full analysis methodology.
Penny was the primary sponsor of 3 bills that were enacted:
- H.R. 5402 (102nd): To amend the Food Security Act of 1985 to remove certain easement requirements under the conservation reserve program, and for other purposes.
- H.R. 180 (102nd): Veterans Education and Employment Programs bill
- H.R. 3744 (101st): Entitled, “The Minnesota Family Investment Plan”.
Does 3 not sound like a lot? Very few bills are ever enacted — most legislators sponsor only a handful that are signed into law. But there are other legislative activities that we don’t track that are also important, including offering amendments, committee work and oversight of the other branches, and constituent services.
We consider a bill enacted if one of the following is true: a) it is enacted itself, b) it has a companion bill in the other chamber (as identified by Congress) which was enacted, or c) if at least about half of its provisions were incorporated into bills that were enacted (as determined by an automated text analysis, applicable beginning with bills in the 110th Congress).
Penny sponsored bills primarily in these issue areas:
Armed Forces and National Security (20%) Education (17%) Labor and Employment (12%) Health (12%) International Affairs (12%) Government Operations and Politics (10%) Agriculture and Food (9%) Social Welfare (8%)
Some of Penny’s most recently sponsored bills include...
- H.R. 5234 (103rd): Food for Trade Act of 1994
- H.R. 5171 (103rd): To amend the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 to ...
- H.R. 5065 (103rd): Beginning Farmer Technical Corrections Act of 1994
- H.R. 4617 (103rd): Freedom Support Amendment Act of 1994
- H.R. 4373 (103rd): Social Security COLA Limitation Act of 1994
- H.R. 4372 (103rd): Social Security Eligibility Act of 1994
- H.R. 4374 (103rd): Social Security Access to Information Act of 1994
From Jan 1983 to Nov 1994, Penny missed 45 of 5,693 roll call votes, which is 0.8%. This is better than the median of 3.4% among the lifetime records of representatives serving in Nov 1994. The chart below reports missed votes over time.
We don’t track why legislators miss votes, but it’s often due to medical absenses and major life events.
|Time Period||Votes Eligible||Missed Votes||Percent||Percentile|
The information on this page is originally sourced from a variety of materials, including:
- unitedstates/congress-legislators, a community project gathering congressional information
- The House and Senate websites, for committee membership and voting records
- United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1990 by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole.
- Martis’s “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress”, via Keith Poole’s roll call votes data set, for political party affiliation for Members of Congress from 1789 through about year 2000
- GovInfo.gov, for sponsored bills