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H.R. 2431 (105th): International Religious Freedom Act of 1998

Oct 9, 1998 at 9:51 a.m. ET. On Passage of the Bill in the Senate.

This was a vote to pass H.R. 2431 (105th) in the Senate.

The International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–292, as amended by Public Law 106–55, Public Law 106–113, Public Law 107–228, Public Law 108–332, and Public Law 108–458) was passed to promote religious freedom as a foreign policy of the United States, to promote greater religious freedom in countries which engage in or tolerate violations of religious freedom, and to advocate on the behalf of individuals persecuted for their religious beliefs and activities in foreign countries. The Act was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on October 27, 1998. Three cooperative entities have been maintained by this act to monitor religious persecution.

  1. An Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom within the Department of State, who is the highest-ranking US diplomat on international religious freedom, and who is tasked with carrying out the provisions of IRFA: the Annual Report, negotiations with foreign governments to bring about greater religious freedom, and the determination of Countries of Particular Concern (CPC's) under IRFA, which entails further actions.
  2. A bipartisan United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, designed to provide independent policy recommendations and fact-finding, and
  3. A Special Adviser on International Religious Freedom within the National Security Council.

IRFA was introduced on March 26, 1998 by Senator Don Nickles (R-OK), Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) and others, as a far-reaching policy response to the Freedom from Religious Persecution Act of 1997, introduced by Congressman Frank Wolf (R-VA) and Senator Arlen Specter on May 27, 1997 as H.R.1685/S.772, and subsequently reintroduced on September 8, 1997 as H.R. 2431, the Freedom from Religious Persecution Act. H.R. 2431 affected only a handful of countries, with a narrow range of measures; IRFA based its measures on international human rights law and created a structure to address religious freedom issues in depth all over the world. On October 8, 1998, the Senate passed IRFA by a vote of 98-0. IRFA was renumbered as Amendment S. 3789 to H.R.2431, so that the Senate version could be adopted in its entirety as an amendment in the nature of a substitute to H.R.2431, including its title, the "International Religious Freedom Act." IRFA was passed in full by the House on the consent calendar on October 10, 1998.

This summary is from Wikipedia.

Source: Wikipedia


All Votes R D
Yea 100%
Nay 0%
Not Voting

Bill Passed. Simple Majority Required. Source:

The Yea votes represented 100% of the country’s population by apportioning each state’s population to its voting senators.

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