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Congressional Misconduct Database

This page lists 372 instances of misconduct and alleged misconduct by Members of the United States Congress from 1789 to the present and is updated as new information becomes available.

The investigations, settlements, and resignations listed on this page do not imply guilt in the absence of a conviction, guilty plea, etc. We include investigations even if the Member of Congress is exonerated because the investigation and exoneration are themselves important events. Conversely, investigations that end without a guilty determination do not imply innocence.

What’s Included On This Page

We have included:

  • All letters of reproval, censures, and expulsions from Congress from 1789 to the present.
  • All investigations by the House Office of Congressional Ethics (OCE), the House Committee on Ethics (HCE), and the Senate Select Committee on Ethics (SSCE), and other investigations by a body of Congress that involved alleged personal misconduct from 1789 to the present, including all investigations by the Senate on whether to allow a senator-elect to be seated when it stemmed from allegations of personal misconduct.
  • As many monetary settlements that we are aware of, e.g. those administered by Congress’s Office of Compliance regarding sexual harassment claims, but many settlements are not known to the public.
  • Resignations that we believe to be likely relevant to an allegation of misconduct, because Members of Congress often resign to head-off a Congressional investigation.
  • Law enforcement investigations, convictions, and pleas that we are aware of, except in cases where all of the following three conditions hold: the investigation resulted in exoneration, it was not conducted by Congress, and was not related to the Member of Congress’s official duties.

Are They Guilty

Investigations, settlements, and resignations do not imply guilt. Some investigations are motivated by politics or a personal grudge, settlements are often used when it would be less costly than defending a law suit, and Members of Congress often resign when they are likely to lose re-election (regardless of why). We include investigations even if the Member of Congress is exonerated because the investigation and exoneration are themselves important events that it is a part of our mission to chronicle.

Conversely, an investigation that ends without a guilty determination does not imply innocence --- Congress polices itself in many cases and Members of Congress are reluctant to punish their peers.

Not all misconduct is treated equally, and the types of misconduct that have consequences have changed drastically over time. You won’t see sexual harassment before the 1980s, but you will see overt racism, enforcement of sodomy law, and murder.

Further Reading

For more background on how disciplinary actions work in Congress, see these reports by the Congressional Research Service:

Sources

This database is sourced from a variety of materials, including contemporary news reports, as well as:

Our raw data for this page is available for reuse on GitHub.

filter: bribery & corruption other crimes ethics violation sexual harassment & abuse campaign & elections expulsion censure reprimand resignation exclusion settlement conviction in court pleaded in court

Rep. Robert Brady [D-PA1]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

Brady faced an allegation of leading a criminal conspiracy to hide a $90,000 payment made to persuade a 2012 primary opponent to drop out of the race. On Nov. 1, 2017, the Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a search warrant for email.

Rep. Patrick Meehan [R-PA7]

sexual harassment & abuse

While serving on the House Committee on Ethics, Meehan used taxpayer funds to settle a 2017 sexual harassment complaint privately, heading off an investigation. He was subsequently removed from the House Committee on Ethics.

Rep. Ruben Kihuen [D-NV4]

sexual harassment & abuse

On Dec. 15, 2017, the House Committee on Ethics announced that it had begun an investigation into allegations of sexual harassment by Kihuen.

Rep. Trent Franks [R-AZ8, 2013-2017]

sexual harassment & abuse resignation

In 2017, Franks resigned due to reports that he had asked staff members to carry his surrogate child and had offered one staffer $5 million dollars to impregnate her via intercourse.

Sen. Alan “Al” Franken [D-MN, 2009-2017]

sexual harassment & abuse resignation

On December 7, 2017, Senator Franken announced his resignation which was effective January 2, 2018 due to allegations of sexual harassment. Select Committee on Ethics began investigating Senator Franken on November 30, 2017.

Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]

ethics violation sexual harassment & abuse resignation

On December 5, 2017, Conyers resigned from office at the start of an investigation for sexual harassment, age discrimination, and improper use of official resources for personal purposes.

Sen. Robert “Bob” Menéndez [D-NJ]

bribery & corruption

Menendez is being investigated for unspecified misconduct in 2012, presumably including the corruption and bribery charges for which he faced a trial that resulted in a mistrial. Select Committee on Ethics reopened its investigation now that Senator Menendez's corruption and bribery case has ended in a mistrial.

Rep. Anthony Weiner [D-NY9, 1999-2011]

other crimes sexual harassment & abuse resignation pleaded in court

Weiner faced an allegation of sending sexually explicit texts to women who were not his wife. On Jun. 21, 2011, he resigned. On Sep. 21, 2016, a newspaper article claimed Weiner had sent explicit text messages to a 15 year old girl and computers were seized as part of the investigation into the incident. On Oct. 28, 2016, the Director of the FBI, James Comey, publicly reopened his investigation into presidential candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton because the computer seized as part of the Weiner investigation contained some emails that might have been relevant to a prior investigation into Clinton. On May. 19, 2017, surrendered to the FBI and pleaded guilty to a single charge of transferring obscene materials to a minor. On Nov. 6, 2017, he was sentenced to 21 months in prison.

Rep. William Jefferson [D-LA2, 1991-2008]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

In 2009 Jefferson was convicted of bribery. In 2012, he was sentenced to 13 years in prison. In 2017, 7 of the 10 indictments were dismissed and he was released from prison.

Rep. Chris Collins [R-NY27]

ethics violation

In 2017 Collins was investigated for sharing material nonpublic information in the purchase of Innate stock, may have used his status to purchase discounted stock and in 2013 may have directed an NIH employee to meet with Innate staff to discuss a clinical trial. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]

ethics violation

In 2017 Gutierrez was investigated for having been arrested during a protest outside of the White House. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no action as the fine has been paid. On November 28, 2017, Representative Gutierrez announced he would not seek reelection to Congress.

Rep. Madeleine Bordallo [D-GU0]

ethics violation

In 2017 Bardallo was investigated for receiving profit from a foreign government; excess gifts; use of official funds for personal travel; and using congressional staff for personal services. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. John Conyers [D-MI13, 2013-2017]

ethics violation

In 2017 Conyers was investigated for compensating staff for work in 2016 not commensurate with pay with House of Representatives funds. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Ben Luján [D-NM3]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2017 Lujan was investigated for requesting that his congressional campaign committee issue communications, including requests for donations, using images of him in a “sit-in” demonstration in the House. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that no action was needed.

Rep. Roger Williams [R-TX25]

ethics violation

In 2017 Williams was investigated for improperly taking official action in 2015 on a matter in which he had a personal financial interest. The House Committee on Ethics concluded the Williams Amendment could have affected Representative Williams’ personal financial interests, however the totality of the circumstances surrounding Representative Williams’ actions did not create a reasonable inference of improper conduct.

Rep. Greg Gianforte [R-MT0]

other crimes pleaded in court

In 2017 Gianforte pleaded guilty to assaulting a reporter in 2017 the night before he was elected to Congress.

Rep. Devin Nunes [R-CA22]

ethics violation

In 2017 Nunes was investigated for unauthorized disclosures of classified information. The investigation is closed as of 12/07/2017.

Rep. Duncan Hunter [R-CA50]

other crimes campaign & elections

In 2016 Hunter was investigated for converting funds from his congressional campaign committee for personal use. The House Committee on Ethics deferred to the Department of Justice.

Rep. Dennis “Denny” Hastert [R-IL14, 1987-2007]

sexual harassment & abuse pleaded in court

In 2016 Hastert pleaded guilty to child molestation, 10 years after leaving Congress. In 2006, Hastert declined to run for office again. He was indicted in 2015, served 13 months in prison and was released in 2017.

Rep. Marlin Stutzman [R-IN3, 2010-2016]

campaign & elections

In 2016 Stutzman was investigated for using campaign funds for a 2015 family trip which included some campaign activity. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review; however after Stutzman's loss in the 2016 election, the investigation was ended.

Rep. Alan Grayson [D-FL9, 2013-2016]

ethics violation

In 2015 Grayson was investigated for numerous alleged violations, the majority of which relate to his leadership and ownership of a hedge fund and law firms, omissions from his annual financial disclosure forms, and the use of official resources for unofficial purposes. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review; however due to a loss in the 2016 election, the investigation was ended.

Rep. Michael “Mike” Honda [D-CA17, 2013-2016]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2015 Honda was investigated for using official resources for campaign purposes. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. Honda lost his 2016 election.

Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]

other crimes conviction in court

In 2016 Brown was convicted for a range of mail violations, wire fraud, defrauding the IRS and related charges. The House Committee on Ethics deferred to the Department of Justice. In 2016, Brown lost in the primary and in 2017 she was convicted of the charges against her. In December 2017, she was sentenced to five years in prison.

Rep. David McKinley [R-WV1]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2016 McKinley received a letter of reproval for remaining a named partner in his prior business after being elected to Congress. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that McKinley violated House rules and issued a letter of reproval.

Rep. Mark Meadows [R-NC11]

ethics violation

In 2016 Meadows was investigated for retaining an employee through 2015 who did not perform duties after 2014 commensurate with the compensation the employee received. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Ed Whitfield [R-KY1, 1995-2016]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2016 Whitfield received a letter of reproval for permitting his spouse to lobby him and/or his congressional staff from 2011 to 2014. The House Committee on Ethics found the violation occured and that the report would be the reproval.

Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2012 Buchanan was investigated for improperly influencing a witness before the FEC and illegally reimbursing campaign contributors. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that there was insufficient evidence on the allegation of witness tampering, but that the illegal reimbursements did occur, albeit without the representative's knowledge.

Rep. Chaka Fattah [D-PA2, 1995-2016]

bribery & corruption resignation conviction in court

In 2016 Fattah was convicted for conspiracy, racketeering, bribery, fraud, falsification of records, making false statements, and money laundering after a 2015 House investigation had been launched. The House Committee on Ethics ended its investigation when Fattah resigned. Fattah resigned in 2016, two days after being convicted of the charges. He is currently serving a ten year sentence.

Rep. Jared Polis [D-CO2]

ethics violation

In 2015 Polis was investigated for official endorsement of commercial products. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that no action was needed.

Rep. Robert Pittenger [R-NC9]

ethics violation

In 2015 Pittenger was investigated for compensation for his involvement with a fiduciary business, a real estate investment firm known as Pittenger Land Investments, Inc. The House Committee on Ethics deferred to the Department of Justice. In May 2017, the FBI closed the investigation without making any charges.

Rep. Blake Farenthold [R-TX27]

sexual harassment & abuse settlement

In 2015 Farenthold was investigated for sexual harassment on the basis of a 2014 lawsuit filed against him alleging sexual harassment. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review, but to postpone that review until the lawsuit was resolved. The lawsuit was resolved in 2015 with a taxpayer-funded settlement that was revealed in 2017, and the investigation was re-opened. In light of further revelations of inappropriate behavior, Farenthold announced on December, 13, 2017 that he would not seek reelection.

Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham [D-NM1]

ethics violation

In 2015 Grisham was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]

ethics violation

In 2015 Meeks was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Ted Poe [R-TX2]

ethics violation

In 2015 Poe was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Jim Bridenstine [R-OK1]

ethics violation

In 2015 Bridenstine was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Yvette Clarke [D-NY9]

ethics violation

In 2015 Clarke was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Danny Davis [D-IL7]

ethics violation

In 2015 Davis was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee [D-TX18]

ethics violation

In 2015 Lee was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Leonard Lance [R-NJ7]

ethics violation

In 2015 Lance was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities.

Rep. Rubén Hinojosa [D-TX15, 1997-2016]

ethics violation

In 2015 Hinojosa was investigated for travel funded or organized by one or more entities prohibited from providing congressional travel. The House Committee on Ethics concluded implicated House members did not intentionally accept gifts from prohibited entities. Hinojosa did not seek reelection in 2016.

Rep. Aaron Schock [R-IL18, 2009-2015]

other crimes ethics violation campaign & elections resignation

In 2018 Schock will be tried for soliciting campaign contributions in excess of legally allowed amounts. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. In 2015, Schock resigned amid a host of allegations of improper use of campaign funds.

Rep. Paul Broun [R-GA10, 2007-2014]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2014 Broun was investigated for using official resources for campaign purposes. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. Broun lost his 2014 election.

Rep. Michele Bachmann [R-MN6, 2007-2014]

campaign & elections

In 2013 Bachmann was investigated for campaign finance violations. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. Bachmann did not seek reelection in 2014.

Rep. Timothy Bishop [D-NY1, 2003-2014]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2013 Bishop was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for constituent services in 2012. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. Representative Bishop lost the 2014 election.

Rep. Thomas “Tom” Petri [R-WI6, 1979-2014]

ethics violation

In 2014 Petri was investigated for performing official work on behalf of companies in which he had a financial interest from 2008 to 2013. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action. Petri announced in November 2014 he would not seek reelection.

Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]

sexual harassment & abuse

In 2012 Hastings was investigated for sexual harassment and employment retaliation. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that there was insufficient evidence to act further even though the representative admitted to "less than professional behavior".

Rep. Phil Gingrey [R-GA11, 2003-2014]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2012 Gingrey was investigated for 2011 compensation from banks on whose behalf he advocated. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that Gingrey did advocate for banks in which he had a financial interest and issued a letter of reproval. In 2014, Representative Gingrey lost in the primary for one of Georgia's Senate seats.

Rep. Judy Chu [D-CA27]

ethics violation campaign & elections reprimand

In 2014 Chu received a letter of reproval for using House staff to perform campaign activities and then obstructing the investigation. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that the campaign work occured without her knowledge but because Chu attempted to obstruct the investigation, a letter of reproval was issued.

Rep. Michael Grimm [R-NY11, 2013-2014]

other crimes campaign & elections resignation pleaded in court

In 2014 Grimm pleaded guilty to violating federal campaign finance laws by soliciting and accepting prohibited campaign contributions, causing false information to be included in campaign finance reports, and improperly seeking assistance from a foreign national in soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for offering to use his official position to assist that individual in obtaining a green card. This plea came three years after the Office of Congressional Ethics began an investigation of the allegations. Grimm resigned in January 2015 and served seven months in prison.

Rep. Bobby Rush [D-IL1]

campaign & elections

In 2014 Rush was investigated for allowing state and federal campaign committees to accept in-kind contributions. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Gwen Moore [D-WI4]

ethics violation

In 2014 Moore was investigated for an arrest at a 2014 protest in Wisconsin. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that the fines would be paid and no further investigation was required.

Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2014 Young received a letter of reproval for improper travel gifts and failure to disclose them. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Young had improperly accepted travel gifts and issued a letter of reproval.

Rep. Steve Stockman [R-TX36, 2013-2014]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2014 Stockman was investigated for conspiring to accept contributions to his congressional campaign committee from individuals who were employed by his congressional office. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. Stockman lost the 2014 Senate primary and did not win re-election to his House seat.

Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]

ethics violation

In 2013 Gutierrez was investigated for using funds from his Members Representational Allowance from 2003-2013 for an impermissible purpose - to retain an individual to provide services to his congressional office that more closely resemble those provided by an employee or consultant, rather than a contractor. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review. On November 28, 2017, Representative Gutierrez announced he would not seek reelection.

Rep. Robert Rodgers [R-PA28, 1945-1946]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 2013 Rodgers was investigated for using official resources, including staff, for campaign activities, paying a consultant for official services with funds from political committees, and combining official resources and campaign resources in furtherance of a campaign for a House leadership office from 2010 to 2012. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Markwayne Mullin [R-OK2]

ethics violation

In 2013 Mullin was investigated for receiving excess outside earned income, endorsing companies or products as part of outside employment and serving as a board member or officer for outside companies. The House Committee on Ethics recommended further review.

Rep. Robert “Rob” Andrews [D-NJ1, 1990-2014]

campaign & elections resignation

In 2013 Andrews was investigated for improper use of campaign funds for personal use. The House Committee on Ethics established an independent subcommittee. In 2014, Andrews resigned from Congress.

Rep. Trey Radel [R-FL19, 2013-2014]

other crimes resignation pleaded in court

In 2013 Radel pleaded guilty to possession of cocaine. The House Committee on Ethics ended the investigation when Radel resigned. In 2014, Radel was sentenced to probation, which he served.

Rep. Peter Roskam [R-IL6]

ethics violation

In 2013 Roskam was investigated for accepting impermissible travel gifts in 2011. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that there was insufficient evidence to show that the travel was improper.

Rep. William Owens [D-NY21, 2013-2014]

ethics violation

In 2012 Owens was investigated for accepting impermissible travel gifts in 2011. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that the gift was impermissible, but since Owens repaid the funds, the investigation was closed. Owens did not seek reelection in 2014.

Rep. John Tierney [D-MA6, 1997-2014]

ethics violation

In 2013 Tierney was investigated for failing to declare his wife's income of $40,000 to $160,000 from 2007-2010 to Congress and the IRS because Tierney claimed it was actually a gift from his brother-in-law. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that there was insufficient evidence to show that the funds were income and not gifts and that no further action was needed. In 2010, Representative Tierney's wife pleaded guilty to tax evasion also related to her brother's income. In 2014, Representative Tierney was defeated in the Democratic primary.

Rep. Silvestre Reyes [D-TX16, 1997-2012]

campaign & elections

In 2012 Reyes was investigated for improper use of campaign funds for personal use. The House Committee on Ethics published findings. Reyes lost the 2012 election.

Rep. Shelley Berkley [D-NV1, 1999-2012]

ethics violation

In 2012 Berkley was investigated for advocating for programs in which she had a financial interest from 2008-2010. The House Committee on Ethics found that the representative had indeed advocated for some programs in which she had a financial interest. In 2012, Representative Berkley lost reelection.

Rep. Gregory Meeks [D-NY5]

ethics violation

In 2011 Meeks was investigated for failing to disclose a gift in 2007 and receiving a loan on terms not available to the general public in 2010. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the loan allegation, but found the representative unknowingly failed to properly disclose the gifts.

Rep. Tim Ryan [D-OH13]

ethics violation

In 2012 Ryan was investigated for charges of public intoxication in 2012. The House Committee on Ethics concluded no action was required as the charges were dismissed.

Rep. Jesse Jackson [D-IL2, 1995-2012]

campaign & elections resignation pleaded in court

In 2013, Jackson pleaded guilty to misuse of campaign funds after resigning from Congress in 2012. He also said that the 2008 attempt to purchase the former Senate seat of President Obama, for which he was investigated by Congress was done without his knowledge.

Rep. Maxine Waters [D-CA43]

ethics violation

In 2009 Waters was investigated for a conflict of interest with respect to meetings with a bank in which she had a financial interest. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that Representative Waters' chief of state was at fault for creating the appearance of conflict, but Waters was not.

Rep. Vern Buchanan [R-FL16]

ethics violation

In 2011 Buchanan was investigated for failing to report positions he held with outside companies and to report unearned income from 2007 to 2010. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that the representative unknowingly failed to disclose positions in outside companies and unearned income. They were satisfied when the representative amended his forms.

Sen. Thomas Coburn [R-OK, 2005-2014]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2012 Coburn received a qualified admonishment for meeting with a lobbyist before the one year embargo on former Congressional staffers' lobbying expired. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics issued a qualified admonishment because Coburn acknowledged his error and it was only a single meeting. The lobbyist in question was the husband of a Sen. John Ensign staffer with whom Ensign had had an affair. Ensign attempted to placate the husband with a lobbying job and Coburn met with the husband before the lobbying embargo had ended. Coburn retired from the Senate in 2015.

Sen. David Vitter [R-LA, 2005-2016]

ethics violation

In 2012 Vitter was investigated for demanding the issuance Gulf of Mexico deep water permits from the Secretary of the Interior in exchange for dropping his block on a proposed salary increase for the Secretary. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges because there did not appear to be any Senate rule or any law in place prohibiting Vitter's actions. In 2014, Senator Vitter lost the election for Louisiana Governor and did not run again for the Senate.

Rep. Don Young [R-AK0]

campaign & elections

In 2011 Young was investigated for accepting campaign contributions in excess of legal limits. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the allegations, but also changed House rules to prohibit similar contributions in the future .

Rep. Luis Gutiérrez [D-IL4]

ethics violation

In 2011 Gutierrez was investigated for having been arrested during a protest outside of the White House in 2011. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no action as the fine has been paid. On November 28, 2017, Representative Gutierrez announced he would not seek reelection to Congress.

Rep. Jean Schmidt [R-OH2, 2005-2012]

ethics violation

In 2011 Schmidt was investigated for receiving over $500,000 in gifts as legal services without having established a legal services fund as required and for failing to properly disclose the gifts. The House Committee on Ethics found the legal services were impermissble and that the representative was unaware of this, but that the committee would be satisfied if the representative properly disclosed and paid for the services. In 2012, Schmidt lost reelection. When she left office, she had not paid for those services.

Rep. Eric Massa [D-NY29, 2009-2010]

sexual harassment & abuse resignation settlement

In 2010 Massa was investigated for sexual harassment. The House Committee on Ethics reauthorized an investigative subcommittee. On March 8, 2010, Representative Massa resigned. On March 10, the Ethics Committee decided to close the investigation since he resigned. On March 11, the House passed a resolution demanding a resumption of the investigation. At some point after he resigned, the Congressional Office of Compliance settled with Massa's victims for $100,000.

Sen. John Ensign [R-NV, 2001-2011]

ethics violation resignation

In 2011 Ensign was investigated for violating lobbying rules in order to cover up an affair. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics referred the matter to the Department of Justice and the Federal Election Commission. Senator Ensign resigned May 3, 2011. The Department of Justice dropped its case in 2010 as did the FEC. However, the FEC reopened it after the Senate's report in 2011 and levied fines in 2013.

Rep. Joseph “Joe” Crowley [D-NY14]

campaign & elections

In 2010 Crowley was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions from entities affected by legislation then under consideration in 2009. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Tom Price [R-GA6, 2005-2017]

campaign & elections

In 2010 Price was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions from entities affected by legislation then under consideration in 2009. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action. In January 2017, Price left Congress to become Heath and Human Services Secretary. On September 29, 2017, Price resigned due to inappropriate use of private and chartered flights while HHS Secretary.

Rep. John Campbell [R-CA45, 2013-2014]

campaign & elections

In 2010 Campbell was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions from entities affected by legislation then under consideration in 2009. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action. In 2014, Campell announced he would not seek reelection.

Rep. George “G.K.” Butterfield [D-NC1]

ethics violation

In 2010 Butterfield was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Alcee Hastings [D-FL20]

ethics violation

In 2010 Hastings was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Solomon Ortiz [D-TX27, 1983-2010]

ethics violation

In 2010 Ortiz was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action. In 2012, Representative Ortiz lost reelection.

Rep. Joe Wilson [R-SC2]

ethics violation

In 2010 Wilson was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Robert Aderholt [R-AL4]

ethics violation

In 2010 Aderholt was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Eliot Engel [D-NY16]

ethics violation

In 2010 Engel was investigated for keeping the difference between his requested travel per diems and the amount he actually spent. The House Committee on Ethics recommended no further action.

Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]

other crimes ethics violation censure

The House voted to censure Rangel for ethics violations and tax evasion on December 2, 2010 by 333-79. In 2016, Representative Rangel did not seek reelection.

Rep. Laura Richardson [D-CA37, 2007-2012]

ethics violation

In 2009 Richardson was investigated for violating gift and financial disclosure rules with respect to her home, its foreclosure and yard work from 2007 to 2008. The House Committee on Ethics concluded that Representative Richardson did not knowingly receive and/or fail to disclose gifts with respect to her home, its foreclosure or yard work. In 2012, Representative Richardson lost her bid for reelection in 2012.

Rep. Nathan Deal [R-GA9, 2007-2010]

ethics violation resignation

In 2010 Deal was investigated for improper influence over state officials to his financial benefit and failure to accurately disclose his earnings. The House Office of Congressional Ethics recommended further review. Deal subsequently resigned.

Rep. Donna Christensen [D-VI0, 1997-2014]

ethics violation

In 2009 Christensen was investigated for receiving impermissible travel gifts. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Representative Christensen did not knowingly accept impermissble travel gifts. In 2014, Christensen did not seek reelection.

Rep. Carolyn Kilpatrick [D-MI13, 2003-2010]

ethics violation

In 2009 Kilpatrick was investigated for receiving impermissible travel gifts. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Representative Kilpatrick did not knowingly accept impermissble travel gifts. In 2010, Representative Kilpatrick lost the Democratic primary.

Rep. Donald Payne [D-NJ10, 1989-2012]

ethics violation

In 2009 Payne was investigated for receiving impermissible travel gifts. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Representative Payne did not knowingly accept impermissble travel gifts.

Rep. Charles “Charlie” Rangel [D-NY13, 2013-2016]

ethics violation

In 2009 Rangel was investigated for receiving impermissible travel gifts. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Rangel did knowingly accept impermissble travel gifts and ordered him to repay them.

Rep. Bennie Thompson [D-MS2]

ethics violation

In 2009 Thompson was investigated for receiving impermissible travel gifts. The House Committee on Ethics concluded Thompson did not knowingly accept impermissble travel gifts.

Rep. Todd Tiahrt [R-KS4, 1995-2010]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Tiahrt was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges. In 2010, Representative Tiahrt ran for the Senate and lost.

Rep. Peter Visclosky [D-IN1]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Visclosky was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges.

Rep. Norman “Norm” Dicks [D-WA6, 1977-2012]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Dicks was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges. In 2012, Dicks did not seek reelection.

Rep. Marcy Kaptur [D-OH9]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Kaptur was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges.

Rep. James “Jim” Moran [D-VA8, 1991-2014]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Moran was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges. In 2014, Representative Moran announced he would not seek reelection.

Rep. John Murtha [D-PA12, 1973-2010]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Murtha was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges. On February 8, 2010, Representative Murtha died.

Rep. W. Bill Young [R-FL13, 2013-2013]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

In 2009 Young was investigated for soliciting campaign contributions in exchange for legislative outcomes. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges. On October 18, 2013, Representative Young died.

Rep. Fortney “Pete” Stark [D-CA13, 1993-2012]

other crimes

In 2009 Stark was investigated for claiming tax credits for a residence which was not his primary residence. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges as Representative Stark neither sought credits improperly nor did he receive them. In 2012, Representative Stark announced his retirement from Congress.

Sen. Roland Burris [D-IL, 2009-2010]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections reprimand

In 2009 Burris received a qualified admonishment for appearing to agree to a quid pro quo with Rod Blagojevich with respect to Blagojevich's brother's campaign and Burris's senate appointment. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics issued a qualified admonishment because while they did not find evidence of crimes, Burris' own comments were misleading with respect to what he promised in exchange for his senate appointment. Senator Burris served in the Senate only 9 months, with Mark Kirk winning the 2010 election.

Rep. Sam Graves [R-MO6]

ethics violation

In 2009 Graves was investigated for inviting improper hearing witnesses. The House Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges as Representative Graves did not act improperly.

Sen. Kent Conrad [D-ND, 1992-2012]

ethics violation

In 2009 Conrad was investigated for receiving mortgages from Countrywide Financial in violation of Senate gift rules. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics dismssed the charges because the loans were not part of a program specifically benefiting senators. In 2012, Conrad did not run for reelection.

Sen. Christopher Dodd [D-CT, 1981-2010]

ethics violation

In 2009 Dodd was investigated for receiving mortgages from Countrywide Financial in violation of Senate gift rules. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics dismssed the charges because the loans were not part of a program specifically benefiting senators. In 2010, Senator Dodd did not run for reelection.

Rep. Rick Renzi [R-AZ1, 2003-2008]

other crimes conviction in court

In 2013 Renzi was convicted for allegations of personal gain in a land swap deal. The House Committee on Ethics deferred to the Department of Justice. Representative Renzi did not run for reelection in 2008 and in 2013 Renzi was convicted and was sentenced to serve three years in prison.

Sen. David Vitter [R-LA, 2005-2016]

other crimes

In 2008 Vitter was investigated for hiring prostitutes. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics dismissed the charges because the solicitation happened before his Senate term, did not involve public funds and did not result in criminal charges. In 2014, Senator Vitter lost the election for Louisiana Governor and did not run again for the Senate.

Sen. Pete Domenici [R-NM, 1973-2008]

ethics violation reprimand

In 2008 Domenici received a qualified admonishment for attempting to influence a federal investigation. Senate Select Committee on Ethics issued a qualified admonishment because while they found no evidence of wrongdoing, the senator should have known how it would look. In 2007, Senator Domenici announced he would retire from the Senate in 2008 at the end of his term.

Sen. Larry Craig [R-ID, 1991-2008]

campaign & elections reprimand pleaded in court

In 2007 Craig pleaded guilty to using his status to receive special treatment and using campaign funds to pay legal expenses stemming from an arrest and guilty plea on disorderly conduct at the Minneapolis-St. Paul airport. The Senate Select Committee on Ethics admonished the senator on both counts. In 2007, Senator Craig was arrested for lewd conduct, pleaded to disorderly conduct and subsequently attempted to withdraw his guilty plea. He retired at the end of his term in 2008 and as of 2016 has been ordered to personally pay for legal fees incurred that had previously been paid with campaign funds.

Sen. Ted Stevens [R-AK, 1968-2008]

other crimes conviction in court

In 2008 Stevens was convicted of making false statements. Prior to sentencing in 2009, the indictment was dismissed. Stevens lost the 2008 election and died in 2010.

Rep. Mark Foley [R-FL16, 1995-2006]

sexual harassment & abuse

In 2006, Foley faced allegations of sexual abuse of underage Congressional pages. Within one day of the initial news report of his behavior, and in light of Speaker Hastert's plan to expel him if he remained, Foley resigned on Sept. 29, 2006. In 2008, the Florida Department of Law Enforcement closed a criminal investigation of Foley's possible use of government computers to engage in illegal activities such as sexually explicit texting with minors without filing charges due to insufficient evidence.

Rep. Robert “Bob” Ney [R-OH18, 1995-2006]

bribery & corruption resignation pleaded in court

Ney faced an allegation of involvement in the Jack Abramoff influence-peddling investigation. On Aug. 14, 2006, he withdrew from election. On Oct. 3, 2006, he pleaded guilty. On Nov. 3, 2006, he resigned.

Rep. Randall “Duke” Cunningham [R-CA50, 2003-2005]

bribery & corruption resignation pleaded in court

Cunningham faced an allegation of tax evasion, conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud and wire fraud. On Jul. 14, 2005, he announced he would not run for re-election. On Nov. 28, 2005, he pleaded guilty. On Nov. 28, 2005, he resigned.

Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]

ethics violation

On Dec. 28, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated McDermott for improperly disclosing the contents of an intercepted cell-phone conversation to the news media and established investigative subcommittee. On Dec. 8, 2006, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct concluded that McDermott’s conduct was inconsistent with the spirit of the applicable rules..

Rep. Chris Bell [D-TX25, 2003-2004]

ethics violation

On Nov. 18, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Bell for filing a complaint against DeLay which contained innuendo, speculative assertions, or conclusory statements in violation of Committee Rule 15(a)(4) and resolved the matter by a public letter. In 2004, Bell lost in the primary election.

Rep. Karen McCarthy [D-MO5, 1995-2004]

campaign & elections

On Nov. 18, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated McCarthy for conversion of campaign funds to personal use and issued a public statement finding McCarthy to be at fault, but did not pursue further when she resigned. In 2004, McCarthy did not seek reelection after acknowledging that she had untreated alcoholism.

Rep. Thomas “Tom” DeLay [R-TX22, 1985-2006]

campaign & elections conviction in court

On Oct. 6, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated DeLay for solicitation and receipt of campaign contributions in return for legislative assistance, use of corporate political contributions in violation of state law, and improper use of official resources for political purposes. They resolved the first and third allegations by public letter and the second allegation was deferred due to astate grand jury investigation. In 2005, he was convicted of conspiring to influence Texas legislative races via a PAC using illegal corporate contributions. In 2013, his conviction overturned.

Rep. Thomas “Tom” DeLay [R-TX22, 1985-2006]

ethics violation

On Oct. 4, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated DeLay for improperly linking the personal interest of a member with an effort to achieve a legislative goal and issued a report finding DeLay's behavior inappropriate.

Rep. Candice Miller [R-MI10, 2003-2016]

ethics violation

On Oct. 4, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Miller for threatening to retaliate against a member for a particular vote and issued a report finding Miller's behavior inappropriate.

Rep. Nick Smith [R-MI7, 1993-2004]

ethics violation

On Oct. 4, 2004, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Smith for public statements impugning the reputation of the House and failing to cooperate with the investigation. They issued a report finding Smith's behavior inappropriate.

Rep. William “Bill” Janklow [R-SD0, 2003-2004]

other crimes resignation conviction in court

Janklow faced an allegation of, on August 16, 2003, committing vehicular manslaughter. On Dec. 8, 2003, convicted. On Jan. 20, 2004, he resigned.

Sen. Robert Torricelli [D-NJ, 1997-2002]

ethics violation reprimand

On Jul. 30, 2002, the Senate Select Committee on Ethics investigated Torricelli for violating Senate gift rules and creating the appearance of impropriety and admonished him for creating the appearance of impropriety. In 2002, he did not run for reelection.

Rep. James Traficant [D-OH17, 1985-2002]

bribery & corruption expulsion

On Jul. 18, 2002, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Traficant for conspiracy to violate federal bribery and gratuity statutes, receipt of illegal gratuities, obstruction of justice, defrauding the government, racketeering, and tax evasion for which he was convicted. The committee unanimously recommended expulsion. On Jul. 24, 2002, the House of Representatives expelled Trafficant, 420-1.

Rep. Stephen “Steve” Buyer [R-IN4, 2003-2010]

ethics violation

On Aug. 1, 2001, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Buyer for improper use of official resources for political purpose and dismissed the complaint unanimously. A public letter was sent to Buyer.

Rep. Earl Hilliard [D-AL7, 1993-2002]

campaign & elections reprimand

On Jun. 20, 2001, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Hilliard for improper loans made by his campaign committee, improper campaign expenditures, and improper financial disclosure; and issued a unanimously adopted letter of reproval citing serious official misconduct. In 2002, he was defeated in the primary.

Rep. Elmer “Bud” Shuster [R-PA9, 1973-2001]

ethics violation reprimand

On Oct. 4, 2000, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Shuster for a relationship with a lobbyist (former chief of staff) and intervention with federal agencies on behalf of a constituent; and issued a unanimously adopted letter of reproval citing serious official misconduct.

Rep. Corrine Brown [D-FL5, 2013-2016]

ethics violation

On Sep. 21, 2000, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Brown for a gift of lodging for the member provided at premises owned or controlled by an imprisoned foreign national and a gift of an automobile to Brown’s adult daughter in 1997. The committe established an investigative subcommittee on June 9, 1999, the subcommittee recommended no further action and the full commitee accepted the recommendation on Sept. 20, 2000. A press statement was released on Sept. 21, 2000.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

campaign & elections

In 1998, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for violation of laws governing tax-exempt organizations, improper intervention with government agencies, receipt of improper personal benefits from a PAC and violation of campaign finance rules and a member complaint attempting to amend the Second Jones Complaint of Dec. 14, 1995. The committee notified members that the complaint had to be re-filed on Jan. 25, 1996 and it was filed on Jan. 31, 1996. The committee referred the first allegation to an Investigative Subcommittee handling the First Jones Complaint on Aug. 1, 1996 and dismissed second allegation on Sept. 26, 1996, while dismissing the remaining allegations. A letter was released publicly on Oct. 10, 1998.

Rep. Jay Kim [R-CA41, 1993-1998]

campaign & elections pleaded in court

On Oct. 6, 1998, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Kim for accepting illegal corporate and foreign contributions and adopted a six count statement of alleged violations. On Aug. 11, 1997, he pleaded guilty in federal court. On Jun. 2, 1998, he was defeated in the primary.

Rep. Thomas “Tom” DeLay [R-TX22, 1985-2006]

bribery & corruption

In 1997, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated DeLay for improperly linking campaign contributions to official actions and improper political favors for DeLay’s brother, a registered lobbyist, and dismissed complaint. On Nov. 11, 1997, a private letter was sent to DeLay and a press statement released.

Rep. Wes Cooley [R-OR2, 1995-1996]

other crimes conviction in court

Cooley faced an allegation of lying to voters about his military service in official state voter guides. On Mar. 19, 1997, he was convicted, ordered to pay a fine, and placed on two years' probation. On Aug. 7, 1996, he did not run for re-election.

Rep. Nicholas Mavroules [D-MA6, 1979-1992]

ethics violation pleaded in court

Mavroules faced an allegation of accepting illegal gifts and misusing his office for private gain. On Apr. 3, 1993, he pleaded guilty and served 15 months in prison. In 1992, he lost the election.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation reprimand

On Jan. 17, 1997, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for improper use of official resources in preparation of a college course, conflict of interest, and improper use of tax-exempt entities in support of college course. The investigation was expanded to 1) false statements to the Committee on Standards, 2) his relationship with the foundation/course in violation of foundation’s tax-exempt status under Section 501(c)3 of the IRS Code, 3) his use of unofficial resources for official purposes, and 4) his activities and relationship with another foundation. The committee investigated and dismissed the first two allegations (Gingrich made restitution to pay for the use of the official resources). The committee initiated a preliminary inquiry regarding the third allegation and hired a Special Counsel on Dec. 6, 1995. The committee recommended reprimand and reimbursement of $300,000 to the House for investigative expenses, 7-1. A report was filed on Jan. 17, 1997 acting as Select committee on Ethics. On Jan. 21, 1997, the House of Representatives reprimanded Gingrich and directed him to reimburse $300,000, 395-28.

Rep. Barbara-Rose Collins [D-MI15, 1993-1996]

ethics violation campaign & elections

On Jan. 2, 1997, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Rose-Collins for misuse of official resources, campaign resources, and scholarship funds. On Sept. 12, 1996 11-count statement of alleged violation was adopted, but the subcommittee recommended that no further action be taken due to pending loss of jurisdiction since Rose-Collins was defeated in the August primary.

Rep. Richard “Dick” Gephardt [D-MO3, 1977-2004]

ethics violation

On Sep. 28, 1997, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gephardt for inadequate financial disclosure on a series of land sales and financial agreements regarding property purchased and exchanged in North Carolina. The committee dismissed the complaint.

Rep. Jim McDermott [D-WA7, 1989-2016]

ethics violation

On Jul. 24, 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated McDermott for conflict of interest (he participated in committee deliberations involving complaints filed with the substantial assistance of a person affiliated with his political action committee) and violation of committee confidentiality rules. The committee dismissed the complaint.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gringrich for improper use of services of volunteer in congressional office via a complaint known as the Third Miller Complaint. The charges were dismissed on Sep. 19, 1996.

Rep. Gerald Solomon [R-NY22, 1993-1998]

ethics violation

In 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Solomon for a press release and letter sent to a New York state assemblyman which included language that implied possible retaliation for political disagreement. On May. 8, 1996, the complaint was dismissed after Solomon indicated he had not retaliated and had never intended to retaliate.

Rep. David Bonior [D-MI10, 1993-2002]

ethics violation

On May. 9, 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Bonior for improper use of congressional employees with regard to a book published by Bonior in 1984 and improper salary payments to member of staff prior to her marriage to him. On May. 8, 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct dismissed the second complaint. On May. 9, 1996, the committee returned the first complaint because the alleged violations occurred before the third previous Congress.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

On Mar. 29, 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for the improper use of the services of a volunteer in congressional offices and concluded that the volunteer service, which had terminated by the time of the complaint, did not comply with the applicable guidelines.

Sen. Robert Torricelli [D-NJ, 1997-2002]

ethics violation

In 1996, in an accusation made by Zimmer, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Torricelli for using congressional fax machine to send a press release having a political purpose. On Mar. 29, 1996, the committee determined use of the fax machine violated applicable rules on use of official resources and Torricelli reimbursed the use of the fax. On Nov. 5, 1996, Zimmer lost his bid for a New Jersey Senate seat to Torricelli.

Rep. Richard Zimmer [R-NJ12, 1991-1996]

ethics violation

In 1996, based on an accusation made by Torricelli, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Zimmer for using a congressional fax machine for a non-official purpose, specifically to send a press release entitled "Zimmer Wallops Torricelli in N.J. Congressional Softball Tourney" which was alleged to be a personal attack and therefore a violation of usage rules. The complaint was returned on Jan. 5, 1996 for failing to meet standards of committee procedures and subsequently rel-submitted. The complaint was dismissed on March 29, 1996 for lack of merit. On Nov. 5, 1996, Zimmer lost his bid for a New Jersey Senate seat to Torricelli.

Rep. David McIntosh [R-IN2, 1995-2000]

ethics violation

On Mar. 14, 1996, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated McIntosh for distributing at a committee meeting and displaying on the House floor a document attributed to an outside group that was instead created by his staff and allowing subcommittee staff to improperly question a witness regarding their observance of a religious holiday. The committee sent a letter to McIntosh on March 14, 1996 indicating that forging an outside organization's letterhead for staff-created documents was inappropriate as was any questioning of a witness's religious observances. On Mar. 14, 1996, McIntosh apologized and formalized a written policy for his staff regarding harassing, insensitive or discriminatory behavior. The committee voted not to make letter public, 5-4 on March 20, 1996.

Rep. Walter Tucker [D-CA37, 1993-1995]

bribery & corruption other crimes resignation

Tucker faced an allegation of seven counts of extortion and two counts of tax evasion for extorting $30,000 from a local businessman while he was mayor of Compton, CA and failing to report payments on his taxes, for which he was convicted on Dec. 8, 1995. On Dec. 12, 1995, Sensenbrenner announced his intention to bring a resolution of expulsion to the floor of the House of Representatives See Congressional Record. On the same day, Tucker announced his resignation effective Dec. 15, 1995.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for improper statements on House floor for political reasons and using official resource for political purposes. The complaints were dismissed in a public letter on Dec. 6, 1995 and a public report issued on Dec. 12, 1995.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for accepting free cable television coverage of college lectures as improper gifts/solicitation. The complaint was dismissed in a public letter on Dec. 6, 1995 and a public report issued on Dec. 12, 1995.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gingrich for improperly using the services of a volunteer for official purposes in a complaint known as the First Miller Complaint. The committee found violations and sent a public letter to Gingrich and took no further action on Dec. 6, 1995. The committee published its report on Dec. 12, 1995.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1995, Gingrich faced the allegations in “First Jones Complaint” plus improper receipt of book royalties for To Renew America, improper book auction, conflict of interest, improper solicitation, improper use of official resources, and improper intervention with federal authorities. On Dec. 6, 1995, the complaint was dismissed. On Dec. 12, 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct recommended changes regarding book contracts. On Dec. 22, 1995, the House of Representatives adopted the committee resolution on restricting advances from book contracts but not subjecting royalty income to outside earned income limit, 259-128.

Sen. Robert Packwood [R-OR, 1969-1995]

sexual harassment & abuse resignation

On Sep. 5, 1995, the Senate Select Committee on Ethics investigated Packwood for sexual misconduct and abuse of power and recommended expulsion from the Senate. On Sep. 8, 1995, he resigned.

Rep. Charles Wilson [D-TX2, 1973-1996]

campaign & elections

Wilson faced an allegation of improper use of campaign funds and inadequate financial disclosure. On Aug. 25, 1995, the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) transmitted information to the committee on Standards developed during an investigation On Dec. 7, 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct dismissed the complaint and issued a letter released publicly after Wilson admitted his error and paid a $90,000 fine.

Rep. Mel Reynolds [D-IL2, 1993-1995]

ethics violation sexual harassment & abuse resignation conviction in court

On Jun. 28, 1995, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Reynolds for misuse of congressional staff for personal purposes, misuse of official resources, failure to repay personal debts and obstruction of justice. He was later convicted in state court of criminal sexual assault, aggravated sexual abuse, solicitation of child pornography and obstruction of justice on Aug. 22, 1995. On Sep. 1, 1995, he resigned. On Sep. 28, 2017, the U.S. District Court convicted him on four misdemeanor counts alleging he failed to file a federal income tax return for four consecutive years.

Rep. Richard Armey [R-TX26, 1985-2002]

ethics violation

In 1995, Armey faced an allegation of improper use of congressional stationery. On Jun. 2, 1995, Guitierrez filed a complaint on behalf of the Congressional Accountability Project. Armey admitted to the violation and the complaint was dismissed on June 13, 1995. A public letter to Armey and a press statement were released on June 14, 1995.

Rep. Jonas “Martin” Frost [D-TX24, 1979-2004]

ethics violation campaign & elections

In 1994, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Frost for using congressional staff for redistricting work and campaign contributions by congressional staff. On Nov. 29, 1994, the complaint was dismissed and a public letter was released indicating that the committee found a technical violation of campaign regulations. Frost agreed to appropriate reimbursement.

Sen. David Durenberger [R-MN, 1978-1994]

ethics violation pleaded in court

Durenberger faced an allegation of misuse of public funds while in office. On Aug. 22, 1995, he pleaded guilty to five misdemeanor charges of abuse of a Congressional expense account.

Rep. Daniel Rostenkowski [D-IL5, 1993-1994]

bribery & corruption pleaded in court

Rostenkowski faced allegations of mail fraud, wire fraud, witness tampering, concealing a material fact, false statements, embezzlement, and conspiracy, for which he was indicted. On Jun. 30, 1994, member complaint was filed. On Aug. 17, 1994, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct deferred action at request of U.S. Attorney On Nov. 8, 1994, he defeated for reelection. On Apr. 10, 1996, he pleaded guilty to mail fraud. On Dec. 23, 2000, he was pardoned by President Clinton having already served 15 months in prison and two months in a halfway house in addition to paying a $100,000 fine.

Rep. Joseph Kolter [D-PA4, 1983-1992]

other crimes pleaded in court

Kolter faced an allegation of stealing money from the House Post Office. On May. 8, 1996, he pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring with the former House postmaster and others to steal from the office.

Sen. Kay Hutchison [R-TX, 1993-2012]

campaign & elections

Kay Bailey Hutchison faced an allegation of using state employees and time to conduct political and personal business while Texas State Treasurer. On Feb. 12, 1994, acquitted on all charges in state court after prosecuters refused to present their case against Hutchison due to concerns over admissability of evidence.

Rep. Walter Fauntroy [D-DC0, 1971-1990]

other crimes pleaded in court

Fauntroy faced an allegation of stealing from the House Bank. On Mar. 25, 1995, he pleaded guilty to one count of violating the false statements statute regarding a charitable contribution.

Rep. Albert Bustamante [D-TX23, 1985-1992]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Bustamante faced an allegation of racketeering and bribery. On Jul. 22, 1993, he was convicted. In 1992, he lost his bid for re-election.

Rep. Carl Perkins [D-KY7, 1983-1992]

other crimes pleaded in court

Perkins faced an allegation of bank fraud and lying to investigators. On Dec. 13, 1994, he pleaded guilty. In 1992, perkins' district, the Kentucky 7th was eliminated by redistricting and Perkins did not seek re-election in the newly created 5th district in 1992.

Rep. Carroll Hubbard [D-KY1, 1975-1992]

other crimes campaign & elections pleaded in court

Hubbard faced an allegation of obstruction of justice and misappropriation of campaign funds involving the House Bank. On Apr. 6, 1994, he pleaded guilty. In 1992, he lost the election.

Rep. Mary Oakar [D-OH20, 1977-1992]

other crimes pleaded in court

Oakar faced an allegation of lying to the FBI, using the House Bank to convert public money to her own use. On Sep. 30, 1997, she pleaded guitly to two misdemeanors. In 1992, she was not re-elected.

Rep. Royden Dyson [D-MD1, 1981-1990]

ethics violation

On Jan. 31, 1990, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct dismissed allegations against Dyson for misuse of office funds and sex discrimination in hiring, having previously declined to consider the allegations when they were first lodged due to the proximity to election day in 1988.

Rep. Gerald Sikorski [D-MN6, 1983-1992]

ethics violation

In 1990, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Sikorksi for misuse of staff for personal errands and on Jan. 31, 1990 the complaint was dismissed.

Rep. Donald Lukens [R-OH8, 1987-1990]

sexual harassment & abuse resignation

Lukens faced an allegation of contributing to the unruliness of a female minor, e.g. sex with an underage girl on May 26, 1989, for which he was convicted as a misdemeanor; and of improper sexual advances to a Capitol elevator operator on Oct. 17, 1990. On Oct. 4, 1990, he resigned. On Oct. 24, 1990, the preliminary inquiry resolution was amended to include the assertion of additional charges from Oct. 22, 1990. The staff report was published on Oct. 24, 1990.

Sen. David Durenberger [R-MN, 1978-1994]

ethics violation censure

Durenberger faced an allegation of a wide range of financial misconduct. On Jul. 25, 1990, the Senate voted to denounce him, which appears to have been intended as a type of censure which acknowledges no ill intent.

Rep. Patrick Swindall [R-GA4, 1985-1988]

other crimes conviction in court

Swindall faced an allegation of money laundering and lying to the FBI. In 1989, he was convicted. On Feb. 12, 1994, started serving a one year prison sentence in a minimum-security federal prison after remaining free on bond while his appeals were active.

Rep. Barney Frank [D-MA4, 1981-2012]

other crimes ethics violation reprimand

Frank faced an allegation of 1) use of personal residence for prostitution by third parties, 2) improper contacts with probation office on behalf of personal assistant, 3) improper dismissal of assistant’s parking tickets, and 4) sexual activity in the House gymnasium. Frank admitted preparing a memo containing misleading statements that could be perceived as an attempt to use political influence in a judicial matter and arranging improper dismissal of parking tickets for personal assistant. The committee recommended reprimand and restitution of parking tickets, 12-0 on July 20, 1990. On Jul. 26, 1990, he was reprimanded, 408-18.

Rep. Newton Gingrich [R-GA6, 1979-1998]

ethics violation

In 1990, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Gringrich for using book partnership to avoid outside income limits or to obtain impermissible gifts or contributions, improper use of official resources to prepare book, and inadequate financial disclosure. The committee issued a statement on Mar. 8, 1990.

Rep. Gus Savage [D-IL2, 1981-1992]

sexual harassment & abuse

Savage faced an allegation of improper sexual advances toward a female Peace Corps volunteer in March 1989. On Nov. 20, 1989, Savage apologized. On Jan. 31, 1990, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct issued a public report disapproving of his conduct, 12-0.

Rep. Robert Garcia [D-NY18, 1983-1989]

bribery & corruption resignation

In 1989, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Garcia for conspiracy and Travel Act violations (receipt of $170,000 in payments, loans, and a diamond necklace from a defense contractor), for which Garcia and his wife were convicted on Oct. 20, 1989, four counts of bribery and receipt of illegal gratuities, for which he was acquitted. On Jan. 7, 1990, he resigned.

Rep. Jim Bates [D-CA44, 1983-1990]

ethics violation sexual harassment & abuse campaign & elections reprimand

In 1989, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Bates for sexual harassment and improper campaign activity in congressional office. On Oct. 18, 1989, the committee adopted a public letter of reproval. In 1989, he admitted to violations and wrote personal letter of apology.

Rep. James Wright [D-TX12, 1955-1989]

ethics violation campaign & elections resignation

In 1989, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Wright for improper lobbying efforts on behalf of a constituent with whom Wright had an interest in a private gas well, 2) intervention in a matter before the Department of the Interior on behalf of Texas Oil and Gas Company, 3) improper use of campaign funds to pay for publication of a book for which Wright received a 55% royalty (Reflections of a Public Man), 4) improper use of government resources on the book, 5) improper use of a condominium in Fort Worth, TX (free and below market housing from real estate developer George Mallick) and 6) exercise of undue influence with officials of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board on behalf of four Texas businessmen regarding the savings and loan crisis. On Apr. 17, 1989, the committee made the report of Special Outside Counsel public. On Jun. 30, 1989, rep. Wright resigned as Speaker on House floor after having announced his intent to do so in May.

Rep. Mario Biaggi [D-NY19, 1983-1988]

bribery & corruption resignation conviction in court

In 1988, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Biaggi for accepting illegal gratuities, obstruction of justice and violation of the Travel Act on Sept. 22, 1987 because he accepted free vacations in exchange for using influence, for which he was convicted. On Feb. 17, 1988 the committee recommended expulsion, 12-0. On Aug. 5, 1988, he resigned after an additional conviction.

Rep. Charles Rose [D-NC7, 1973-1996]

campaign & elections reprimand

In 1988, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Rose for borrowing campaign funds for personal use and inadequate financial disclosure. On Mar. 23, 1988, the committee adopted a public letter of reproval, 9-3. In 1994, he paid civil fine of $12,500.

Rep. Austin Murphy [D-PA20, 1993-1994]

ethics violation reprimand

In 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Murphy for improper use of official resources and violation of House rules regarding voting and recommended reprimand, 11-0. On Dec. 18, 1987, the House of Representatives reprimanded him, 324-68.

Rep. William Boner [D-TN5, 1979-1988]

other crimes ethics violation campaign & elections resignation

On Feb. 5, 1986, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct began investigating Boner for violations of the gift rule, improper use of campaign funds, conflict of interest, and improper use of official resources and preliminary inquiry authorized. On Apr. 23, 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct deferred at DOJ request. On Sep. 23, 1987, Boner was elected mayor of Nashville. On Oct. 5, 1987, he resigned from Congress. On Dec. 14, 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct staff report was published.

Rep. Richard Stallings [D-ID2, 1985-1992]

campaign & elections reprimand

In 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Stallings for improper use of campaign funds (loan to congressional employee) and on Oct. 15, 1987, adopted a public letter of reproval, 12-0.

Rep. Fernand St. Germain [D-RI1, 1961-1988]

ethics violation

In 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated St. Germain for accepting free flights on corporate aircraft, intervening on behalf of an organization in which he had a financial interest and inadequate financial disclosure and, on Apr. 9, 1987, recommended no sanction.

Rep. Mary Oakar [D-OH20, 1977-1992]

ethics violation

In 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Oakar for purchase of a townhouse with a member of her staff and improper salary disbursements to an employee. An informal staff review of press allegations found improper payments but no fraudulent intent. The committee recommended no sanction and on Jun. 17, 1987, letter released publicly.

Rep. James Weaver [D-OR4, 1975-1986]

campaign & elections

In 1987, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Weaver for borrowing approximately $82,000 in campaign funds for personal use and inadequate financial disclosure of commodity investment transactions and on Sep. 30, 1986 recommended no sanction.

Rep. David “Mac” Sweeney [R-TX14, 1985-1988]

ethics violation campaign & elections

On Sep. 11, 1986, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Sweeney for use of official resources for political purposes and requiring congressional staff to campaign as a condition of continued employment and determined that the campaign activities occurred in the district office with no evidence Sweeney directed or condoned the improper activities.

Rep. Wilbur “Dan” Daniel [D-VA5, 1969-1988]

ethics violation

In 1986, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Daniel for accepting free flights on corporate aircraft (1983-85) and on Feb. 5, 1986 Daniel made restitution and amended the financial disclosure statement.

Rep. Geraldine Ferraro [D-NY9, 1979-1984]

ethics violation

In 1984, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Ferraro for inadequate and improper financial disclosure. The committee found technical violations, but no sanction was recommended and a report was filed on Dec. 4, 1984.

Rep. George Hansen [R-ID2, 1975-1984]

other crimes ethics violation reprimand

In 1984, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Hansen for making false statements and failing to report nearly $334,000 in loans and profits from 1978-81. On Jun. 20, 1984, the committee recommended reprimand, 11-1. On Jul. 31, 1984, the House of Representatives reprimanded Hansen, 354-52. On Nov. 6, 1984, Hansen was defeated in the election by Richard Stallings. In 1985, the conviction was vacated, U.S. v. Hansen, 906 F. Supp. 688 (1995).

Rep. Charles Wilson [D-TX2, 1973-1996]

other crimes

In 1983, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Wilson for using cocaine and marijuana and preliminary inquiry voted; Special Counsel investigated and found no basis for statement of alleged violation. On Nov. 17, 1983, the committee took no further action.

Rep. Ronald Dellums [D-CA9, 1993-1998]

other crimes

In 1983, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Dellums for using cocaine and marijuana and preliminary inquiry voted; Special Counsel investigated and found no basis for statement of alleged violation. On Nov. 17, 1983, the committee took no further action.

Rep. Gerry Studds [D-MA10, 1983-1996]

sexual harassment & abuse censure

On Jul. 14, 1983, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Studds for sexual relationship with 17-year old male House page that occurred 10 years earlier in 1973 and recommended reprimand and filed report, 11-1. On Jul. 20, 1983, the House of Representatives rejected the reprimand recommendation, 289-136; censured Studds instead, 420-3.

Rep. Daniel Crane [R-IL19, 1983-1984]

sexual harassment & abuse censure

On Jul. 14, 1983, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Crane for a sexual relationship with a 17-year old female House page in 1980 and recommended reprimand, 11-1. On Jul. 20, 1983, the House of Representatives rejected the reprimand recommendation, 289-136; censured him instead, 421-3. On Nov. 6, 1984, he was defeated in the election.

Rep. Frederick Richmond [D-NY14, 1975-1982]

other crimes resignation

In 1982, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Richmond for evading federal taxes (pleaded guilty to felony charge), two misdemeanors involving a government contract, and misdemeanor possession of marijuana on Aug. 25, 1982. On May. 12, 1982, the committee deferred its investigation at the request of the Department of Justice. On Aug. 25, 1982, he resigned.

Rep. John Murtha [D-PA12, 1973-2010]

bribery & corruption

In 1981, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Murtha for bribery and conspiracy as part of ABSCAM investigation. On Jul. 28, 1981, the charges were dismissed and the Special Counsel resigned.

Sen. Harrison Williams [D-NJ, 1959-1982]

bribery & corruption resignation conviction in court

Williams faced an allegation of bribery connected with the ABSCAM sting. On May. 1, 1981, he was convicted and the Senate Select Committee on Ethics opened an inquiry. On Sep. 3, 1981, the Senate Select Committee on Ethics filed its report. On Mar. 11, 1982, he resigned to avoid an expulsion vote.

Rep. Jon Hinson [R-MS4, 1979-1982]

other crimes resignation pleaded in court

In 1981, Hinson was arrested for engaging in sexual activity with a member of the same sex, then illegal in Washington, D.C. On Apr. 13, 1981, he resigned. On May. 28, 1981, he pleaded no contest to charges of "attempted oral sodomy" in a House office building restroom.

Rep. Richard Kelly [R-FL5, 1975-1980]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Kelly faced an allegation of bribery and conspiracy in the ABSCAM investigation. On Nov. 4, 1980, he lost the election. On Jan. 26, 1981, he was convicted.

Rep. John Murphy [D-NY17, 1973-1980]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Murphy faced an allegation of taking an unlawful gratuity as part of ABSCAM investigation. On Nov. 4, 1980, he lost the election. On Dec. 3, 1980, he was convicted.

Rep. Raymond Lederer [D-PA3, 1977-1982]

bribery & corruption resignation

On Apr. 28, 1981, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct recommended expulsion, 10-2 for Lederer for bribery, acceptance of an unlawful gratuity, conspiracy and Travel Act violations (convicted) On Apr. 29, 1981, he resigned. On May. 20, 1981, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct filed its report.

Rep. Frank Thompson [D-NJ4, 1955-1980]

bribery & corruption resignation

Thompson faced an allegation of bribery charges in the ABSCAM investigation (convicted). On Nov. 4, 1980, he lost the election. On Dec. 29, 1980, he resigned.

Rep. John Jenrette [D-SC6, 1975-1980]

bribery & corruption resignation

Jenrette faced an allegation of bribery and conspiracy for accepting money in return for promising to use official influence as part of ABSCAM investigation (convicted). On Nov. 4, 1980, he lost the election. On Dec. 10, 1980, he resigned. On Dec. 16, 1980, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct terminated the sanction hearing due to resignation and filed the report.

Rep. Michael “Ozzie” Myers [D-PA1, 1975-1980]

bribery & corruption expulsion

On Sep. 24, 1980, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Myers for bribery, conspiracy and Travel Act violations as part of ABSCAM investigation (convicted) and recommended expulsion, 10-2. On Oct. 2, 1980, the House of Representatives expelled him, 376-30.

Rep. Charles Wilson [D-CA31, 1963-1980]

campaign & elections censure

On Apr. 24, 1980, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Wilson for accepting money from a person with direct interest in legislation; maintaining a person on payroll not performing duties commensurate with pay; personal use of campaign funds and recommended censure and denial of chairmanship, 10-2. On Jun. 3, 1980, Wilson was defeated in the primary. On Jun. 10, 1980, the House of Representatives agreed to an amendment deleting denial of chairmanship from sanction, 261-148; and censured Wilson by voice vote.

Rep. Daniel Flood [D-PA11, 1955-1980]

bribery & corruption resignation pleaded in court

On Dec. 12, 1979, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Flood for using official influence on behalf of private parties and foreign governments in return for unlawful payments and disciplinary hearing deferred due to hospitalization. On Jan. 31, 1980, he resigned. On Feb. 26, 1980, he pleaded guilty to misdemeanor of conspiracy to defraud government. On Mar. 26, 1980, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct filed its report.

Sen. Herman Talmadge [D-GA, 1957-1980]

ethics violation censure

On Oct. 3, 1979, the Senate Select Committee on Ethics investigated Talmadge for financial misconduct and recommended that Talmadge be "denounced" (censured). On Oct. 11, 1979, the Senate censured him. On Nov. 4, 1980, lost the election.

Rep. Charles Diggs [D-MI13, 1955-1980]

ethics violation censure resignation conviction in court

On Jul. 31, 1979, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Diggs, Jr. for mail fraud and false statements (convicted) and recommended censure, 11-0. On Jul. 31, 1979, the House of Representatives censured him, 414-0. On Nov. 7, 1978, he was re-elected after conviction. On Jun. 3, 1980, he resigned after losing the criminal appeal.

Rep. Joshua Eilberg [D-PA4, 1967-1978]

ethics violation

On Sep. 13, 1978, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Eilberg for conflict of interest by helping a hospital receive a federal grant and conducted inquiry. On Oct. 24, 1978, he was indicted. On Nov. 7, 1978, he lost the election.

Rep. Charles Wilson [D-CA31, 1963-1980]

ethics violation reprimand

On Sep. 27, 1978, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Wilson for making a false statement on an answer to a Standards Committee questionnaire regarding the Korean Influence Investigation and recommended reprimand, 8-1. On Oct. 13, 1978, the House of Representatives reprimanded him, 329-41.

Rep. John McFall [D-CA14, 1975-1978]

campaign & elections reprimand resignation

On Oct. 4, 1978, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated McFall for failing to report $3,000 campaign contribution in 1974 and recommended reprimand, 8-2. On Oct. 13, 1978, the House of Representatives reprimanded him by voice vote On Dec. 31, 1978, he resigned.

Rep. Edward Roybal [D-CA25, 1975-1992]

campaign & elections reprimand

On Sep. 27, 1978, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Roybal for failing to report campaign contributions, converting campaign funds to personal use, and making a false statement to the Standards committee and recommended censure. On Oct. 13, 1978, the House of Representatives rejected the censure recommendation, 219-170; but reprimanded him by voice vote.

Rep. Edward Patten [D-NJ15, 1963-1980]

other crimes campaign & elections

On Oct. 4, 1978, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Patten for making political contributions with funds provided by another; conducted an inquiry; and dismissed the charges, 8-0.

Rep. Andrew Hinshaw [R-CA40, 1975-1976]

bribery & corruption

On Sep. 1, 1976, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Hinshaw for state bribery charges for conduct prior to election (convicted) and recommended against expulsion due to lack of jurisdiction for actions committed prior to service in House, 10-2. On Oct. 1, 1976, the House of Representatives expulsion resolution was tabled On Jun. 8, 1976, he lost the primary.

Rep. Wayne Hays [D-OH18, 1949-1976]

ethics violation resignation

On Jun. 2, 1976, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Hayes for retaining an employee on public payroll for immoral purposes (1974-76) after Hays and other members requested an investigation of the press allegations. On Sep. 1, 1976, he resigned prior to hearings.

Rep. Herbert Burke [R-FL12, 1973-1978]

ethics violation pleaded in court

On May 27, 1978, Burke faced an allegation of drunk and disorderly and resisting arrest at the Centerfold Bar in Dania, FL. Burke resisted, he said, because he was only there to stop a drug deal. In 1978, he pleaded guilty and lost his bid for re-election.

Rep. Richard Tonry [D-LA1, 1977-1978]

campaign & elections resignation

Tonry faced an allegation of stuffing ballot boxes and illegal campaign contributions in the primary election. On Feb. 2, 1977, the House Committee on Administration investigated the charges. On May. 5, 1977, he resigned. On Jun. 27, 1977, he was defeated in a special election primary held to fill the vacancy he created with his resignation.

Rep. Robert Sikes [D-FL1, 1963-1978]

ethics violation reprimand

On Jul. 21, 1976, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Sikes for improper financial disclosure [R. 44] and conflict of interest and recommended reprimand, 10-2. On Jul. 29, 1976, the House of Representatives reprimanded him, 381-3. In 1978, he did not seek re-election.

Rep. Michael Harrington [D-MA6, 1969-1978]

ethics violation

In 1975, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Harrington for public disclosure of 1974 executive session testimony by the CIA Director to the House Armed Services Investigations Subcommittee. On Nov. 6, 1975, the committee dismissed the complaint because the information had not been properly classified.

Rep. John Dowdy [D-TX2, 1967-1972]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

On Mar. 12, 1975, the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct investigated Dowdy for conspiracy to violate a bribery statute and an obstruction of justice statute, interstate travel to facilitate bribery and perjury with respect to receipt of $25,000 to hinder a federal investigation of a Maryland company in 1965 (convicted) and unanimously adopted H. Res. 46. On Apr. 16, 1975, the House of Representatives passed H. Res. 46, 360-37 adding clause 10 to the Code of Official Conduct, stating the policy of the House that a member convicted of a serious crime voluntarily refrain from voting. In 1972, he had declined to run for re-election.

Rep. Frank Brasco [D-NY11, 1967-1974]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Brasco faced an allegation of bribery to get a Post Office contract for a Mafia-controlled truck company. On Jul. 19, 1974, he was convicted and did not run for re-election.

Rep. Bertram Podell [D-NY13, 1967-1974]

bribery & corruption pleaded in court

Podell faced an allegation of bribery. In 1974, he was defeated in the election after indictment. On Oct. 1, 1974, he pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest.

Rep. Cornelius Gallagher [D-NJ13, 1959-1972]

other crimes pleaded in court

Gallagher faced an allegation of tax evasion and perjury. In 1972, he was defeated in the primary. On Jun. 15, 1973, he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to two years in prison and a $10,000 fine.

Rep. John Whalley [R-PA12, 1963-1972]

other crimes resignation pleaded in court

Whalley faced an allegation of taking kickbacks from congressional employees for personal use. In 1973, he resigned from Congress and pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and mail fraud.

Sen. Edward “Ted” Kennedy [D-MA, 1962-2009]

other crimes pleaded in court

On July 18, 1969, Kennedy faced an allegation of leaving the scene of an accident after driving a car into the Poucha Pond inlet while his passenger Mary Jo Kopechne drowned. On Jul. 25, 1969, he pleaded guilty and received a suspended sentence.

Rep. Adam Powell [D-NY18, 1963-1970]

other crimes ethics violation

Powell faced an allegation of using committee travel funds for personal travel while Chairman of Education and Labor committee, improperly authorizing clerk hire payments to his wife and contempt of court (failed to comply with four state court orders, including one criminal conviction for contempt). On Feb. 23, 1967, a select Committee appointed by the House recommended censure, $40,000 restitution and reduction of seniority. On Mar. 1, 1967, he was excluded, 307-116. On Apr. 11, 1967, he was reelected to the 90th Congress in a special election to fill the vacancy caused by his exclusion but did not take the seat. On Jan. 3, 1969, he was seated after reelection to the 91st Cong., fined $25,000 and seniority reduced, 254-158. In 1969, the Supreme Court held the exclusion unconstitutional, see (Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486. In 1970, he lost the primary to Charles Rangel.

Rep. Martin McKneally [R-NY27, 1969-1970]

other crimes pleaded in court

McKneally faced an allegation of tax evasion revealed during the last month of the 1970 election. In 1970, he was defeated. On Oct. 19, 1971, he pleaded guilty to one count of failing to report income for tax purposes for the years 1964-1967.

Sen. Daniel Brewster [D-MD, 1963-1968]

bribery & corruption pleaded in court

In 1969, after he lost his re-election campaign for the Senate, Brewster was indicted for bribery while a U.S. Senator. In 1975, he pleaded no contest to a single charge of accepting an illegal gratuity.

Sen. Thomas Dodd [D-CT, 1959-1970]

ethics violation campaign & elections censure

Dodd faced an allegation of personal use of campaign funds and unbecoming conduct in a senator. On Feb. 23, 1966, he made a request for committee investigation. On Apr. 27, 1967, the Senate Select Committee on Standards and Conduct recommended censure. On Jun. 23, 1967, the Senate censured him, 92-5. In 1970, he was not re-elected.

Rep. Frank Boykin [D-AL1, 1935-1962]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Boykin faced an allegation of conspiracy and conflict of interest. In 1962, after reapportionment reduced Alabama's Congressional delegation by one seat in 1962, Alabama held a single statewide election for Congressional Representatives with all of the current Representatives running against each other. The Representative who placed last would get no seat and the rest would be at-large. Boykin placed last. In 1963, he was convicted. In 1964, he was pardoned by President Johnson.

Rep. Thomas Johnson [D-MD1, 1959-1962]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Johnson faced an allegation of accepting an illegal gratuity. In 1962, he was defeated in the election. In 1968, he was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest.

Rep. Thomas Lane [D-MA7, 1941-1962]

other crimes conviction in court

Lane faced an allegation of tax evasion. In 1956, he was convicted and served four months in prison while still in Congress and was re-elected subsequently.

Rep. Ernest Bramblett [R-CA13, 1953-1954]

other crimes conviction in court

Bramblett faced an allegation of engaging in payroll fraud. In 1954, he was convicted and not a candidate for re-election.

Sen. Joseph McCarthy [R-WI, 1947-1957]

ethics violation censure

McCarthy faced an allegation of abuse of a Senate committee. On Nov. 8, 1954, the Select Committee to Study Censure Charges unanimously recommended censure. On Dec. 2, 1954, the Senate censured him, 67-22. On May. 2, 1957, he died before his term would have ended in 1958.

Sen. Joseph McCarthy [R-WI, 1947-1957]

bribery & corruption

McCarthy faced an allegation of corruption. On Aug. 6, 1951, Sen. Benton introduced a resolution calling for an inquiry into McCarthy. The Senate referred the resolution to the Committee on Rules and Administration which passed it to the Subcommittee on Privileges and Elections. On Jan. 2, 1953, the Senate Subcommittee on Privileges and Elections issued a report with no specific recommendations for Senate action and thus the Senate took no action even though the Subcommittee did find evidence of improper behavior by McCarthy. In 1953, having received the Subcommittee's report and files, the Department of Justice announced it had found no evidence of wrongdoing and closed the case.

Rep. Walter Brehm [R-OH11, 1943-1952]

campaign & elections conviction in court

Brehm faced an allegation of illegal campaign contributions. On Apr. 30, 1951, he was convicted and fined $5,000. In 1952, he was not a candidate for re-election.

Rep. John Thomas [R-NJ7, 1937-1950]

other crimes resignation pleaded in court

Thomas faced an allegation of payroll fraud. On Nov. 30, 1949, he pleaded no contest and served nine months in prison. On Jan. 2, 1950, he resigned.

Rep. Andrew May [D-KY7, 1935-1946]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

May faced an allegation of war profiteering by accepting bribes to use his official position to secure munitions contracts during World War Two. In 1946, he was defeated in the election. On Jul. 3, 1947, he was convicted. In 1950, he served nine months in prison. In 1952, he was pardoned by President Truman.

Sen. Theodore Bilbo [D-MS, 1935-1946]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections

Bilbo faced allegations of campaign irregularities, voter intimidation against African-American voters and corruption. In 1946, the Senate established a special committee to investigate election practices in the 1946 MS senate election and separately had the Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program also investigate Bilbo. On Aug. 21, 1947, while fellow white supremacist senators from Southern states filibustered an attempt to expel Bilbo, the discussion was tabled so Bilbo could receive treatment for cancer of the mouth. He died on August 21, 1947 and no formal action was ever taken.

Sen. George Berry [D-TN, 1937-1938]

bribery & corruption

Langer faced an allegation of bribery, receiving kickbacks, collecting fees for fictitious services and converting proceeds from litigation settlements. On Jan. 3, 1941, the Senate referred the allegations to the Committee on Privileges and Elections. On Jan. 29, 1942, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended that Langer was not entitled to his seat due to a lack of moral fitness to be a senator and recommended he be excluded by a majority vote. On Mar. 27, 1942, the Senate rejected the argument that Langer could not be seated which meant an expulsion and a two-thirds majority instead; the exclusion vote failed 30-52.

Rep. John Hoeppel [D-CA12, 1933-1936]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Hoeppel faced an allegation of selling military appointments. In 1936, he was convicted. In 1936, he was an unsuccessful candidate for election.

Sen. Huey Long [D-LA, 1932-1935]

campaign & elections

Already a U.S. Senator since 1930, Long faced allegations of using Louisiana state employees and resources for the U.S. Senate campaign of John Overton versus Edwin Broussard, coercing campaign contributions from and for the same and promising immediate release to prisoners in exchange for supporting Overton at the polls and thus so corrupting the election that the results should be invalidated. On Mar. 4, 1933, the Senate seated John Overton. Between 1932 and 1934, the issue was referred to three different committees. By Jun. 16, 1934, all three committees concluded that no specific action was warranted, partly because many of the contested activities were legal in Louisiana at that time and partly due to a lack of evidence (often resulting from questionable campaign finance recordkeeping practices). Thus, both Long and Overton retained their seats.. On Sep. 1, 1935, Long was assassinated before he could finish his Senate term or complete his campaign to run for president.

Rep. Harry Rowbottom [R-IN1, 1927-1931]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Rowbottom faced an allegation of accepting bribes for appointments to the U.S. Post Office. In 1930, he was an unsuccessful candidate for election. On Apr. 16, 1931, he was convicted.

Sen. Hiram Bingham [R-CT, 1927-1933]

ethics violation censure

Bingham faced an allegation of hiring a lobbyist who was still being paid by a manufacturing organization. On Oct. 17, 1929, Bingham volunteered to testify before the Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary despite not being named in the investigation to defend his former staff member, the lobbyist Charles Eyanson. Bingham said he asked the manufacturer's association to loan him Eyanson, but to keep paying Eyanson. Then Bingham temporarily replaced his principal clerk with Eyanson so that Eyanson could attend closed sessions on tariff proposals. On Oct. 26, 1929, the Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary condemned the arrangement, but did not recommend censure. Over the next few weeks, Bingham attacked the Judiciary subcommittee as having been unfairly partisan. On Nov. 1, 1929, Senate Judiciary Committee Chair Norris introduced a resolution to censure Bingham for his discourteous behavior towards his colleagues. On Nov. 4, 1929, the Senate censured him 54-22, after the censure resolution was modified to indicate that Bingham had no corrupt motives. In 1932, he lost his bid for re-election.

Sen. Frank Smith [R-IL, 1926-1929]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections exclusion

Smith faced an allegation of corrupt campaign practices in both the primary and general election to the Senate that should preclude him from being seated. On May. 19, 1926, Smith's admitted excessive campaign contributions from a utility company he regulated put him under investigation after the primary and during the general election season. Smith won anyway in 1926 and would normally have then been seated in March 1927. On Dec. 7, 1926, Sen. McKinley (also of Illinois) died. On Dec. 9, 1926, a Senate resolution was introduced to preclude the seating of Smith should he be appointed to fill McKinley's slot. On Dec. 16, 1926, the governor of Illinois appointed Smith to McKinley's seat to fill the remainder of his term. On Jan. 19, 1927, Smith presented his credentials for seating in the Senate. On Jan. 20, 1927, the Senate refused to seat Smith and referred the allegations to the Committee on Privileges and Elections. On Jan. 17, 1928, the Committee on Privileges and Elections reported that Smith should not be seated due to campaign corruption On Jan. 28, 1928, the Senate voted 61-23 to exclude Smith. Three weeks later in 1928, Smith resigned, the Illinois governor accepted it, announced a vacancy and named Smith to fill the vacancy. Smith did not claim the seat and then lost in the 1928 primaries.

Sen. Arthur Gould [R-ME, 1926-1931]

bribery & corruption

Gould faced an allegation of bribery more than a decade before his time in office. On Dec. 7, 1926, Sen. Walsh asked for a clear judgment on the Senate's right to exclude members for actions taken long before their election to the Senate and unrelated to the election itself from the Committee on Privileges and Elections. On Mar. 4, 1927, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended the Senate dismiss all charges because 14 year old charges did not and should not affect the legality of his election. Further, because the bribe was made on behalf of a board of directors of a company of which Gould was a member and because Gould swore that he had personally vehemently opposed that bribe, therefore, he, Gould was not personally responsible for the crime that everyone agreed had in fact taken place. The committee further refused to provide a guideline on how prior actions should affect seating of a Senator because each case should be considered on its merits. On Apr. 28, 1928, the Senate reimbursed Gould over $10,000 for his expenses In 1932, Gould declined to run for re-election.

Sen. Sam Bratton [D-NM, 1931-1933]

bribery & corruption

Bratton faced an allegation of election irregularities that changed the outcome of the election. On Apr. 30, 1926, the Committee on Privileges and Elections unanimously found that the accuser had failed to prove corruption or a change in the election outcome and recommended no further action. On Apr. 30, 1926, the Senate adopted the committee report.

Sen. Thomas Schall [R-MN, 1931-1935]

campaign & elections

Schall faced an allegation of campaign misconduct. On Jun. 26, 1926, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended unanimously that Schall retain his seat. On Jun. 16, 1926, the Senate adopted the committee recommendation.

Rep. John Langley [R-KY-1, 1925-1927]

other crimes resignation conviction in court

Langley faced an allegation of violating the National Prohibition Act and in 1924 was convicted. On May. 15, 1924, a special committee deferred action until conclusion of criminal case and appeals. In 1925, he was re-elected. On Nov. 13, 1925, the conviction was affirmed by appeals court. On Dec. 22, 1925, the special committee concluded that House could not expel a member for action prior to election and recommended no action until decision by Supreme Court. In Jan. 1926, the Supreme Court declined to review the case. On Jan. 11, 1926, he resigned.

Rep. Frederick Zihlman [R-MD6, 1927-1931]

bribery & corruption

Zihlman faced an allegation that “certain sums of money were paid to two members of Congress” according to a grand jury report to court in 1924. On May. 15, 1924, a special committee recommended no further action against Zihlman.

Sen. Burton Wheeler [D-MT, 1923-1946]

ethics violation

Wheeler faced an allegation of representing clients in cases in which the U.S. was an interested party (indicted in Montana). On Apr. 9, 1924, Wheeler requested a special committee to investigate the indictment because he contended it was retaliation for his investigations into the Justice Department's failure to prosecute government officials implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal. On May. 14, 1924, the special committee exonerated Wheeler. On May. 23, 1924, the Senate voted to agree with the committee report 56-5. In 1925, wheeler was acquitted in the Montana case.

Sen. Truman Newberry [R-MI, 1919-1922]

bribery & corruption resignation conviction in court

Newberry faced an allegation of election fraud. On Mar. 20, 1920, the Senate convicted him of bribery. On May. 2, 1921, the Supreme Court overturned the Senate conviction. On Jan. 12, 1922, the Senate affirmed his election 46-41. On Nov. 18, 1922, he resigned.

Rep. Thomas Blanton [D-TX17, 1931-1936]

ethics violation censure

Blanton faced an allegation of inserting a document in Congressional Record containing indecent and obscene language on October 22, 1921. On Oct. 27, 1921, he was censured (“resolution of reprimand and censure”), 293-0. On Oct. 28, 1921, apologized.

Sen. Robert La Follette [R-WI, 1923-1925]

other crimes

La Follette faced an allegation of disloyalty to the United States by speaking against U.S. participation in World War I. On Jan. 16, 1919, the Committee on Privileges and Elections majority report recommended dismissing charges. On Jan. 16, 1919, the Senate voted 50-21 to dismiss the charges.

Sen. Truman Newberry [R-MI, 1919-1922]

bribery & corruption campaign & elections conviction in court

Newberry faced an allegation of corrupt election spending. On Mar. 20, 1920, he was found guilty of campaign finance violations. On May. 2, 1921, the Supreme Court struck down the conviction. On Sep. 29, 1921, the Committee on Privileges and Elections exonerated Newberry in the majority report. On Jan. 12, 1922, the Senate condemned Newberry for excessive expenditures, but did not unseat him.

Sen. Howard Sutherland [R-WV, 1917-1923]

campaign & elections

Sutherland faced an allegation of illegal campaign activities. On Jun. 26, 1918, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended Sutherland retain his seat due to a lack of evidence. On Jun. 28, 1918, the Senate adopted the committee's recommendation.

Rep. James McDermott [D-IL4, 1915-1917]

bribery & corruption resignation

McDermott faced an allegation of bribery by National Association of Manufacturers and other groups in June 1913, alleged by newspapers. On Dec. 9, 1913, the Select Committee to Investigate Lobby Charges recommended censure of McDermott and exonerated six other members. On Apr. 24, 1914, the House Committee on the Judiciary recommended a resolution “strongly” condemning the conduct of McDermott. On Jul. 21, 1914, he resigned. On Nov. 3, 1914, he was re-elected.

Sen. Clarence Watson [D-WV, 1911-1913]

bribery & corruption

Watson faced an allegation of bribery to secure a Senate seat. On Feb. 11, 1913, the Committee on Privileges and Elections unanimously recommended no further action. On Feb. 11, 1913, the Senate adopted the recommendation.

Sen. William Chilton [D-WV, 1911-1917]

bribery & corruption

Chilton faced an allegation of bribery to secure a Senate seat. On Feb. 11, 1913, the Committee on Privileges and Elections unanimously recommended no further action. On Feb. 11, 1913, the Senate adopted the recommendation.

Sen. Isaac Stephenson [R-WI, 1907-1915]

bribery & corruption

Stephenson faced an allegation of electoral misconduct, bribery, and corruption. On Jun. 11, 1911, the Committee on Privileges and Elections issued a majority report recommending he retain his seat and the minority report disagreeing. On Mar. 12, 1912, the Senate voted to allow him to keep his seate 40-34.

Sen. William Lorimer [R-IL, 1909-1913]

bribery & corruption exclusion

Lorimer faced an allegation of electoral misconduct, bribery, and corruption of a state legislature in order to secure election to the Senate (this was immediately before the 17th Amendement passed providing for direct election of senators). On Jun. 1, 1910, the Senate referred the issue to the Committee on Privileges and Elections after Lorimer asked for an investigation in light of Chicago Tribune allegations. On Dec. 21, 1910, the Committee on Privileges and Elections majority report exonerated him while minority reports did not. On Mar. 1, 1911, the Senate vote to unseat him failed 40-46. On May. 20, 1912, the Committee on Privileges and Elections Subcommittee issued another majority and minority report, the former recommending he keep the seat and the minority that he not. On Jul. 13, 1912, the Senate unseated him by a vote of 55-28.

Rep. Henry Cassel [R-PA9, 1907-1909]

other crimes conviction in court

Cassel faced an allegation of fraud related to the construction of the Pennsylvania State Capitol. In 1909, he was convicted and was not re-elected.

Rep. George Lilley [R-CT-1, 1907-1909]

ethics violation

Lilley faced an allegation of contempt of House for making false charges of corruption regarding another member. On May. 20, 1908, the Select Committee concluded Lilley made false allegations against another member and acted in contempt of House. On May. 20, 1908, the House of Representatives approved the report and conclusions of Select committee, 159- 82.

Sen. Reed Smoot [R-UT, 1927-1933]

ethics violation

Smoot faced an allegation of Mormonism, which was indeed his religion. On Jun. 2, 1906, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended expulsion 7-5 solely because he was a Mormon. On Feb. 20, 1907, the Senate first decided to require a 2/3 majority for expulsion which failed 27-43, and second to unseat him, which also failed 28-42.

Sen. John Mitchell [R-OR, 1901-1905]

other crimes conviction in court

Mitchell faced an allegation of using political influence in the federal government to help clients with land claims. In 1905, his indictment and conviction occured during Senate recess. On Dec. 8, 1905, he died.

Sen. Charles Dietrich [R-NE, 1901-1905]

bribery & corruption

Dietrich faced an allegation of improprieties in postal appointments while Nebraska governor. On Feb. 1, 1904, Dietrich requested an investigation into charges he had accepted bribes for postal appointments even though the charges were dismissed in January 1904. On Apr. 14, 1904, the special committee unanimously exonerated Dietrich and no further action was taken.

Sen. Joseph Burton [R-KS, 1901-1907]

ethics violation resignation conviction in court

Burton faced an allegation of accepting compensation for services before a federal agency (convicted). On May. 21, 1906, his final conviction was upheld after the first had been overturned and he'd been convicted again. From 1904 to this point, Burton had not voted in the Senate to avoid triggering an explusion vote. On May 22, 1906, the issue was referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections. On Jun. 4, 1906, he resigned.

Sen. John McLaurin [D-SC, 1897-1903]

ethics violation censure

McLaurin faced an allegation of an altercation on February 22, 1902 in which Sen. Tillman accused Sen. McLaurin of treachery while McLaurin was off the Senate floor for a committee meeting. Upon hearing about the remarks, McLaurin rushed to the Senate floor and accused Tillman of lying. Tillman then attacked McLaurin physically and efforts to separate them resulted in collateral punching injuries to other senators on the floor. On Feb. 22, 1902, the Senate referred to Committee on Privileges and Elections and both senators were declared in contempt of the Senate and would not be allowed to speak on the floor except at the request of another senator. Another senator did so and both apologized although in such an unpleasant manner the fight almost broke out again. On Feb. 28, 1902, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended that both should receive the same punishment even though Tillman started it. The punishment was censure and the suspension of duties they'd already been experiencing. On Feb. 28, 1902, the Senate censured them 54-12 with 22 senators not voting.

Sen. Benjamin Tillman [D-SC, 1907-1919]

ethics violation censure

McLaurin faced an allegation of an altercation on February 22, 1902 in which Sen. Tillman accused Sen. McLaurin of treachery while McLaurin was off the Senate floor for a committee meeting. Upon hearing about the remarks, McLaurin rushed to the Senate floor and accused Tillman of lying. Tillman then attacked McLaurin physically and efforts to separate them resulted in collateral punching injuries to other senators on the floor. On Feb. 22, 1902, the Senate referred to Committee on Privileges and Elections and both senators were declared in contempt of the Senate and would not be allowed to speak on the floor except at the request of another senator. Another senator did so and both apologized although in such an unpleasant manner the fight almost broke out again. On Feb. 28, 1902, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended that both should receive the same punishment even though Tillman started it. The punishment was censure and the suspension of duties they'd already been experiencing. On Feb. 28, 1902, the Senate censured them 54-12 with 22 senators not voting.

Sen. William Clark [D-MT, 1901-1907]

bribery & corruption resignation

Clark faced an allegation of bribery to win a Senate seat. On Apr. 23, 1900, the Committee on Privileges and Elections unanimously concluded he was not entitled to his seat and recommended a vote to unseat him. On May. 15, 1900, he resigned rather than be voted out. In 1901, he was elected to fill the vacancy he'd just created by a Montana legislature filled with winning candidates he'd financially supported. His prior antagonist had died in 1900 and no new charges challenging his seat were filed.

Sen. Marcus Hanna [R-OH, 1899-1905]

bribery & corruption

Hanna faced an allegation of bribery to win a Senate seat. On Feb. 28, 1899, the Committee on Privileges and Elections majority report found in favor of Hanna.

Sen. William Roach [D-ND, 1893-1899]

other crimes

Roach faced an allegation of embezzlement. In 1893, he was not expelled because the embezzlement had occured 13 years earlier.

Rep. William Bynum [D-IN7, 1893-1895]

ethics violation censure

Bynum faced an allegation of insulting another member during debate on May 17, 1890. On May. 17, 1890, he was censured 126-104.

Sen. David Turpie [D-IN, 1893-1899]

campaign & elections

Turpie faced an allegation of misconduct by the Indiana Senate to secure Turpie's election. On Mar. 4, 1888, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended no action since even if the charges were true the U.S. Senate had no jurisdiction over the Indiana Senate. On May. 15, 1888, the Senate voted by voice to discharge the committee from further investigation.

Sen. Henry Payne [D-OH, 1885-1891]

bribery & corruption

Payne faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in the election. On Jul. 15, 1886, the Committee on Privileges and Elections submitted multiple reports with no conclusive recommendations. On Jul. 23, 1886, the Senate voted to discharge the committee from further investigation.

Rep. William Kellogg [R-LA3, 1883-1885]

bribery & corruption

Kellogg faced an allegation of corruption for conduct that occurred prior to election to the House. On May. 23, 1884, Kellogg asked the Department of Justice to investigate and the resolution was referred to the Judiciary committee, 82-49; but no report appears to have been made.

Rep. John Van Voorhis [R-NY31, 1893-1895]

ethics violation

Voorhis faced an allegation of insulting another member during debate on March 1, 1883. Voorhis apologized prior to a censure vote and on Mar. 1, 1883, the House of Representatives failed to censure him, 66-78.

Sen. Elbridge Lapham [R-NY, 1881-1885]

bribery & corruption

Lapham faced an allegation of election corruption. On Dec. 3, 1881, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended in an oral report that no further action for lack of evidence of wrongdoing. On Dec. 13, 1881, the Senate discharged the committee from further action.

Sen. Warner Miller [R-NY, 1881-1887]

bribery & corruption

Miller faced an allegation of election corruption. On Dec. 3, 1881, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended in an oral report that no further action for lack of evidence of wrongdoing. On Dec. 13, 1881, the Senate discharged the committee from further action.

Sen. John Ingalls [R-KS, 1885-1891]

bribery & corruption

Ingalls faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in the election. On Feb. 17, 1880, the Committee on Privileges and Elections concluded that while bribery and corruption were present, there was no evidence tying them to Ingalls or that it had altered election results and therefore the charges should be dismissed.

Sen. Stanley Matthews [R-OH, 1877-1879]

bribery & corruption

Matthews faced an allegation of corruption before serving in the Senate. On Mar. 1, 1879, a Select Committee unanimously found Matthews had not committed fraud, but had given the appearance of impropriety.

Sen. La Grover [D-OR, 1877-1883]

bribery & corruption

Grover faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in the election. On Jun. 15, 1878, the Committee on Privileges and Elections dismissed the charges.

Rep. Robert Smalls [R-SC7, 1885-1887]

bribery & corruption conviction in court

Smalls faced an allegation of accepting a bribe while a state legislator in 1872. On Nov. 11, 1877, he was convicted and was sentenced to three years imprisonment, for which he served three days. On Dec. 3, 1877, he was released on bail pending appeal. On Jan. 25, 1878, the House Committee on the Judiciary investigated the circumstances of the conviction and determined that arrest by state authorities for an alleged state crime and detention for trial did not violate any right or privilege of the House. On Apr. 23, 1879, he was pardoned by governor.

Sen. James Blaine [R-ME, 1876-1881]

other crimes resignation

Blaine faced an allegation of selling worthless bonds to Union Pacific Railroad for $64,000. On Jun. 6, 1876, the House Committee on the Judiciary ordered a report. On Jul. 10, 1876, he resigned.

Rep. Charles Hays [R-AL4, 1875-1877]

bribery & corruption

Hays faced an allegation of accepting money to nominate an individual not from his district to military academy and making false certification regarding residency of the nominee. On Jul. 19, 1876, the committee recommended 4-2 that the House take no further action but concluded Hays' actions “excites grave suspicions, and shows in any possible view a carelessness which ought not to be tolerated”. On Aug. 6, 1876, the report of the Judiciary Committee was tabled.

Rep. William King [R-MN3, 1875-1877]

bribery & corruption

King faced an allegation of corruption and false testimony before congressional committee. On Aug. 9, 1876, the majority report of the Judiciary committee concluded 16-7 that the House had no jurisdiction to investigate an alleged offense committed in a previous Congress that was being reviewed by the courts.

Rep. John Schumaker [D-NY2, 1875-1877]

bribery & corruption

Schumaker faced an allegation of corruption and false testimony before congressional committee. On Aug. 9, 1876, the majority report of the Judiciary committee concluded 16-7 that the House had no jurisdiction to investigate an alleged offense committed in a previous Congress that was being reviewed by the courts.

Rep. John Brown [D-KY2, 1875-1877]

ethics violation censure

Brown faced an allegation of insulting a member in debate and lying to the Speaker on February 4, 1875. On Feb. 4, 1875, the House of Representatives censured him, 161-79. On May. 2, 1876, the House of Representatives unanimously agreed to resolution rescinding portion of censure regarding comments to Speaker because the former Speaker concluded Brown “did not in any way intend to prevaricate or deceive the House”.

Sen. Lewis Bogy [D-MO, 1873-1877]

bribery & corruption

Bogy faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in the election. On Mar. 25, 1873, the Committee on Privileges and Elections recommended no further action and the Senate voted to adopt committee report.

Sen. William Allison [R-IA, 1903-1909]

bribery & corruption

Allison faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee made no recommendation.

Sen. James Bayard [D-DE, 1867-1869]

bribery & corruption

Bayard faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee made no recommendation.

Sen. George Boutwell [R-MA, 1873-1877]

bribery & corruption

Boutwell faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee made no recommendation.

Vice President Schuyler Colfax [R, 1869-1873]

bribery & corruption

Colfax faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee made no recommendation. On Feb. 20, 1873, the House of Representatives impeachment resolution was introduced. On Mar. 4, 1873, his term as Vice President and President of the Senate ended.

Sen. James Harlan [R-IA, 1867-1873]

bribery & corruption

Harlan faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee recommended censure. On Mar. 4, 1873, his term ended.

Sen. John Logan [R-IL, 1885-1887]

bribery & corruption

Logan faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee dismissed the charges.

Sen. Roscoe Conkling [R-NY, 1873-1881]

bribery & corruption

Conkling faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee dismissed the charges.

Vice President Henry Wilson [R, 1873-1875]

bribery & corruption reprimand

Wilson faced an allegation of bribery and corruption in management of Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier of America. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee no formal recommendation, but he was reprimanded in report.

Sen. James Patterson [R-NH, 1867-1873]

bribery & corruption

Patterson faced an allegation of corruption in Credit Mobilier stock share purchases. On Feb. 27, 1873, the Morrill Committee made an unanimous recommendation of expulsion. In 1873, the Senate took no action due to expiration of Patterson's term.

Sen. Samuel Pomeroy [R-KS, 1861-1873]

bribery & corruption

Pomeroy faced an allegation of bribery to secure votes for a Senate seat. On Jun. 3, 1872, the Committee on Privileges and Elections dismissed the charges. On Mar. 3, 1873, having lost re-election, Pomeroy requested another investigation and the special committee investigating issued majority and minority reports. However, because the report came on the last day of his term, no further action was taken.

Sen. Alexander Caldwell [R-KS, 1871-1873]

bribery & corruption resignation

Caldwell faced an allegation of bribery to secure votes for a Senate seat. On Feb. 17, 1873, the committee reported unanimously that Caldwell had bribed legislators for their votes and recommended a declaration of a voided election. On Mar. 24, 1873, he resigned before a Senate vote.

Sen. Powell Clayton [R-AR, 1871-1877]

bribery & corruption

Clayton faced an allegation of corruption while governor of Arkansas. On Feb. 26, 1873, the charges were dismissed. On Mar. 25, 1873, the Senate accepted the committee report 33-6.

Rep. James Brooks [D-NY6, 1873-1875]

bribery & corruption censure

Brooks faced an allegation of soliciting and accepting 50 shares of Credit Mobilier stock at undervalued price. On Feb. 13, 1873, a special committee recommended expulsion. On Feb. 27, 1873, the House of Representatives censured him, 174-32.

Rep. Oakes Ames [R-MA2, 1865-1873]

bribery & corruption censure

Ames faced an allegation of selling $33 million in Credit Mobilier stock to members of Congress and officials of the executive branch at undervalued price with intent to influence votes and decisions of the members. On Feb. 18, 1873, a special committee recommended expulsion but the Judiciary committee recommended against expulsion because the acts in question occurred three years before his election to the 42nd Congress. On Feb. 27, 1873, the House of Representatives censured him, 182- 36.

Rep. Roderick Butler [R-TN1, 1887-1889]

bribery & corruption censure

Butler faced an allegation of accepting money for recommending appointment to military academy. On Mar. 16, 1870, the Committee on Military Affairs recommended censure. On Mar. 16, 1870, the House of Representatives censured him, 150-0.

Rep. John Deweese [R-NC4, 1867-1871]

bribery & corruption censure resignation

Deweese faced an allegation of accepting money for recommending appointment to military academy. On Feb. 28, 1870, he resigned. On Mar. 1, 1870, the Committee on Military Affairs recommended censure and the House of Representatives censured him, 170-0.

Sen. Hiram Revels [R-MS, 1870-1871]

campaign & elections

Revels faced an allegation of, officially, not holding citizenship for the required nine years at the time of presenting his credentials to the Senate on February 23, 1870 in order to become the first black American to serve there. However, based on the racist arguments offered during debate on the issue, the allegation was actually that he was black. On Feb. 25, 1870, the Senate voted to accept his credentials 48-8.

Rep. Benjamin Whittemore [R-SC1, 1867-1871]

bribery & corruption censure resignation exclusion

Whittemore faced an allegation of selling appointments to military academies. On Feb. 21, 1870, the Committee on Military Affairs recommended expulsion. On Feb. 24, 1870, the House of Representatives censured him, 187-0. On Jun. 21, 1870, he resigned prior to censure, but then was reelected to the same session of the House and then excluded from the House again, 130-76.

Rep. Edward Holbrook [D-ID-1, 1865-1869]

ethics violation censure

Holbrook faced an allegation of accusing another member of lying during debate on February 4, 1869. On Feb. 4, 1869, he was censured by the Speaker with no recorded vote.

Rep. Fernando Wood [D-NY-1, 1881-1883]

ethics violation censure

Wood faced an allegation of describing Reconstruction legislation as a “monstrosity” on January 15, 1868 and that day the House of Representatives censured him, 114-39.

Rep. John Hunter [D-NY3, 1865-1867]

ethics violation censure

Hunter faced an allegation of accusing another member of lying during debate on January 26, 1867 and on that day the House of Representatives censured him, 77-33.

Rep. Lovell Rousseau [U-KY5, 1865-1867]

other crimes censure resignation

Rep. Rousseau faced an allegation of assaulting Rep. Grinnell with a cane outside the Capitol for an alleged insult spoken in debate. On Jul. 2, 1866, a special committee recommended expulsion. On Jul. 17, 1866, the House of Representatives censured him, 89-30. On Jul. 21, 1866, he resigned. On Dec. 3, 1866, he was re-elected to fill the vacancy his own resignation created.

Rep. John Chanler [D-NY7, 1865-1869]

ethics violation censure

Chanler faced an allegation of “[A]ttempted a gross insult to the House” by proposing a resolution supporting vetoes issued by President Johnson on May 14, 1864 and on the same day the House of Representatives censured him, 72-30.

Rep. Alexander Long [D-OH2, 1863-1865]

ethics violation censure

Long faced an allegation of supporting recognition of the independence of the Confederacy in speech on floor of the House on April 8, 1864 and on the same day the House of Representatives censured him, 80- 70.

Rep. Benjamin Harris [D-MD5, 1865-1867]

ethics violation censure

Harris faced an allegation of encouraging the Confederacy on April 9, 1864 during House debate on resolution to expel Long. On Apr. 14, 1864, the House of Representatives censured him, 98-20.

Rep. Henry Burnett [D-KY1, 1861-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Burnett faced an allegation of open rebellion against the government of the United States. On Dec. 3, 1861, the House of Representatives expelled him, but no vote recorded.

Rep. John Reid [D-MO5, 1861-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Reid faced an allegation of taking up arms against the government of the United States. On Dec. 2, 1861, the House of Representatives expelled him, but no vote recorded).

Rep. John Clark [D-MO3, 1861-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Clark faced an allegation of taking up arms against the government of the United States. On Jul. 13, 1861, the House of Representatives expelled him, 94-45.

Sen. James Simmons [R-RI, 1857-1863]

bribery & corruption resignation

Simmons faced an allegation of corruption. On Jul. 14, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended that Senate take such action as it deemed appropriate, but also that the charges were all true. On Aug. 15, 1862, he resigned.

Sen. Benjamin Stark [D-OR, 1861-1863]

other crimes

Stark faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Feb. 27, 1862, the Senate voted to seat him 26-19 since his public statements came before he was in the Senate. On Feb. 28, 1862, Stark requested another investigation, presumably to more fully exonerate him. On Apr. 22, 1862, the committee reported that based on Stark's public statements, he supported the rebellion and Charles Sumner introduced a resolution to expel him. On Jun. 6, 1862, the Senate expulsion vote was defeated 21-16, apparently because Stark had only a few more months to serve.

Sen. Jesse Bright [D-IN, 1857-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Bright faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jan. 13, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended against expulsion. On Feb. 5, 1863, the Senate expelled him, 32-14.

Sen. Waldo Johnson [D-MO, 1861-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Johnson faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jan. 9, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended expulsion since he had not appeared that session and was rumored to be a Confederate officer. On Jan. 10, 1862, the Senate expelled him, 35-0.

Sen. Trusten Polk [D-MO, 1857-1863]

other crimes expulsion

Polk faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jan. 9, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended expulsion since he had not appeared that session and had written public letters urging Missouri to secede. On Jan. 10, 1862, the Senate expelled him, 36-0.

Sen. Lazarus Powell [D-KY, 1859-1865]

other crimes

Powell faced an allegation of support for the Confederate rebellion. On Mar. 12, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended against expulsion. On Mar. 14, 1862, the Senate expulsion was defeated, 11-28

Sen. John Breckinridge [D-KY, 1861-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Breckinridge faced an allegation of disloyalty to the union. On Dec. 4, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 36-0.

Sen. James Mason [D-VA, 1857-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Mason faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Robert Hunter [D-VA, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Hunter faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Thomas Clingman [D-NC, 1858-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Clingman faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Thomas Bragg [D-NC, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Bragg faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. James Chesnut [D-SC, 1858-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Chesnut faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Alfred Nicholson [D-TN, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Nicholson faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. William Sebastian [D-AR, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Sebastian faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Charles Mitchel [D-AR, 1861-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Mitchel faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. John Hemphill [D-TX, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Hemphill faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Louis Wigfall [D-TX, 1859-1861]

other crimes expulsion

Wigfall faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Jul. 11, 1861, the Senate expelled him, 32-10.

Sen. Clement Clay [D-AL, 1859-1861]

other crimes

Clay faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Robert Toombs [D-GA, 1859-1861]

other crimes

Toombs faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Jefferson Davis [D-MS, 1857-1861]

other crimes

Davis faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Albert Brown [D-MS, 1859-1861]

other crimes

Brown faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Stephen Mallory [D-FL, 1857-1861]

other crimes

Mallory faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Judah Benjamin [D-LA, 1859-1861]

other crimes

Benjamin faced an allegation of disloyalty to the Union. On Mar. 4, 1861, the Senate voted to pronounce his seat vacant after he withdrew from the Senate in the wake of Secession.

Sen. Henry Rice [D-MN, 1858-1863]

bribery & corruption

Rice faced an allegation of corruption prior to Senate term. On Jun. 9, 1858, the Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia reported that while he did charge more for land he sold as agent than was recorded on receipts, that this was not disqualifying and no further action was taken.

Rep. Orsamus Matteson [R-NY20, 1857-1859]

bribery & corruption

Matteson faced an allegation of corruption during a preceding Congress. On Mar. 22, 1858, a special committee recommended no further action. On Mar. 22, 1858, the expulsion resolution was tabled, 96-69.

Sen. Simon Cameron [R-PA, 1873-1877]

campaign & elections

Cameron faced an allegation of election irregularities and electoral misconduct. On Mar. 9, 1857, Cameron asked for a Judiciary Committee investigation. On Mar. 13, 1857, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary dismissed the charges.

Rep. Francis Edwards [A-NY33, 1855-1857]

bribery & corruption resignation

Edwards faced an allegation of accepting money for supporting legislation. On Feb. 19, 1857, a special committee recommended expulsion in the majority report. On Feb. 28, 1857, the House of Representatives expulsion resolution was tabled after his resignation.

Rep. Orsamus Matteson [R-NY20, 1857-1859]

bribery & corruption censure resignation

Matteson faced an allegation of “defam[ing] character of House” by accepting money in exchange for supporting the Minnesota land bill. On Feb. 19, 1857, a special committee recommended expulsion in the majority report, but the minority report found committee lacked jurisdiction. On Feb. 27, 1857, the House of Representatives censured him, 145-17 while the expulsion resolution was tabled. On Feb. 27, 1857, he resigned prior to House action; reelected later in 1857.

Rep. William Gilbert [I-NY23, 1855-1857]

bribery & corruption resignation

Gilbert faced an allegation of accepting money for supporting the Minnesota land bill. On Feb. 19, 1857, a special committee recommended expulsion in the majority report. On Feb. 28, 1857, in the House of Representatives the expulsion resolution was tabled after his resignation.

Rep. William Welch [A-CT4, 1855-1857]

bribery & corruption

Welch faced an allegation of accepting money for supporting the Minnesota land bill. On Feb. 19, 1857, a special committee recommended expulsion in the majority report. On Feb. 28, 1857, the House of Representatives found insufficient evidence to expel him, 119-42.

Rep. Laurence Keitt [D-SC3, 1859-1861]

other crimes censure resignation

Keitt faced an allegation of complicity in the assault on Sumner. On Jun. 2, 1856, a select committee recommended censure in a majority report. On Jul. 15, 1856, the House of Representatives censured him, 106-96. On Jul. 16, 1856, he resigned after the vote. On Aug. 6, 1856, he was reelected.

Rep. Henry Edmundson [D-VA12, 1859-1861]

other crimes

Edmundson faced an allegation of complicity in assault on Sumner. On Jun. 2, 1856, a select committee recommended censure in a majority report. On Jul. 15, 1856, the House of Representatives censure resolution failed, 60-136.

Rep. Preston Brooks [D-SC-1, 1857-1859]

other crimes resignation

Brooks faced an allegation of assaulting Sen. Sumner on the Senate floor after the Senate had adjourned for the day. On Jun. 2, 1856, a select committee recommended expulsion. On Jul. 14, 1856, the House of Representatives failed to expel him, 121-95. On Jul. 15, 1856, he resigned after the expulsion vote. On Aug. 1, 1856, he was re-elected to fill the vacancy he created.

Rep. Philemon Herbert [D-CA-1, 1855-1857]

other crimes

Herbert faced an allegation of fatally shooting a hotel waiter who refused him after-hours breakfast service for which he was arrested on May 8, 1856 and imprisoned prior to trial. On May. 15, 1856, the House of Representatives tabled the resolution to refer the case to Judiciary Committee, 79-70. In Jan. 1856, he was acquitted.

Rep. Thomas Benton [D-MO1, 1853-1855]

ethics violation

Benton faced an allegation of breach of comity on April 17, 1850 for threatening Foote. On Jun. 30, 1850, a committee recommended no further action against Benton or Foote since Foote had no intention of actually shooting and Benton had been threatening but hadn't acted.

Sen. Henry Foote [D-MS, 1847-1853]

ethics violation

Foote faced an allegation of breach of comity on April 17, 1850 when, feeling threatened by Benton, Foote started brandishing his pistol. On Jun. 30, 1850, a committee recommended no further action against Benton or Foote since Foote had no intention of actually shooting and Benton had been threatening but hadn't acted.

Sen. James Shields [D-MO, 1879-1879]

campaign & elections

Shields faced an allegation of not yet being a United States citizen. On Mar. 15, 1849, the Senate declared the election void based on the committee's recommendation since Shields was indeed six months short of the required period for residency and naturalization.

Sen. John Clayton [I-DE, 1853-1857]

other crimes

Clayton faced an allegation of disloyalty to the United States during negotiations on the boundary of Oregon Territory in newspaper articles. On Mar. 16, 1846, a committee exonerated all senators (and the Senate agreed) and expelled the newspaper from the Senate gallery after the publisher admitted he didn't know if what he printed was true or not.

Sen. Spencer Jarnagin [W-TN, 1843-1847]

other crimes

Jarnagin faced an allegation of disloyalty to the United States during negotiations on the boundary of Oregon Territory in newspaper articles. On Mar. 16, 1846, a committee exonerated all senators (and the Senate agreed) and expelled the newspaper from the Senate gallery after the publisher admitted he didn't know if what he printed was true or not.

Sen. Walter Colquitt [D-GA, 1843-1849]

other crimes

Colquitt faced an allegation of disloyalty to the United States during negotiations on the boundary of Oregon Territory in newspaper articles. On Mar. 16, 1846, committee exonerated all senators (and Senate agreed) and expelled the newspaper from the Senate gallery after the publisher admitted he didn't know if what he printed was true or not.

Sen. Benjamin Tappan [D-OH, 1839-1845]

ethics violation censure

Tappan faced an allegation of violation of injunction of secrecy regarding President Tyler's terms for an agreement on the annexation of Texas. On May. 8, 1844, when a select committee reported to the full Senate, Senator Archer submitted a resolution for expulsion. On Aug. 10, 1844, the Senate adopted a substitute resolution of censure, 38-7.

Rep. Joshua Giddings [R-OH20, 1857-1859]

ethics violation censure resignation

Giddings faced an allegation of violating House "gag rule" on slavery discussions by introducing a series of resolutions defending a slave rebellion aboard the Creole, a ship that had sailed from Virginia carrying 135 persons to be sold in New Orleans. On Mar. 22, 1842, the House of Representatives censured him, 125-69. On Mar. 22, 1842, he resigned. On May. 5, 1842, he was re-elected to fill the vacancy caused by his own resignation.

Rep. John Adams [W-MA8, 1847-1849]

ethics violation

Adams faced an allegation of breaching of privileges of the House by presenting a petition to the House from his constituents regarding dissolution of the Union on January 24, 1842. On Feb. 7, 1842, the House of Representatives tabled the censure resolution, 106-93.

Rep. Alexander Duncan [D-OH1, 1843-1845]

ethics violation

Duncan faced an allegation of violating privileges of the House by publishing remarks in a newspaper insulting to another member on February 19, 1839. On Feb. 22, 1839, the House of Representatives tabled the censure resolution.

Sen. John Ruggles [D-ME, 1835-1841]

bribery & corruption

Ruggles faced an allegation of corruption in using Senatorial influence to secure positive outcomes for a patent application. On Apr. 12, 1838, Ruggles effectively discredited his accuser and the committee reported that the charges should be dismissed. On Apr. 25, 1838, the Senate agreed with the committtee.

Rep. William Graves [W-KY8, 1839-1841]

other crimes

Graves faced an allegation of breach of the privileges of the House because on February 24, 1838 he killed Jonathan Cilley in a duel over words spoken in debate while Wise acted as a second. On Apr. 21, 1838, the Select Committee of Investigation recommended expulsion for Graves and censure for Wise. On May. 10, 1838, the House of Representatives tabled the expulsion resolution .

Rep. Henry Wise [D-VA7, 1843-1845]

other crimes

Wise faced an allegation of breach of the privileges of the House because on February 24, 1838 Graves killed Jonathan Cilley in a duel over words spoken in debate while Wise acted as a second. On Apr. 21, 1838, the Select Committee of Investigation recommended expulsion for Graves and censure for Wise. On May. 10, 1838, the House of Representatives tabled the censure resolution.

Rep. John Adams [W-MA8, 1847-1849]

ethics violation

Adams faced an allegation of gross disrespect on February 6, 1837 because Adams violated the House "gag rule" on slavery discussions by requesting to present a petition to the House purported to be from slaves. Adams knew a censure resolution would require debate for a vote and thus would provide a way around the gag rule. On Feb. 9, 1837, the House of Representatives withdrew the censure resolution, 21-137.

Rep. Sherrod Williams [W-KY4, 1839-1841]

ethics violation

Williams faced an allegation of insulting the chair of the Committee of the Whole during debate by yelling "I shall not take my seat. You take yours!" and "I call you to order!" on July 2, 1836. On Jul. 4, 1836, the House of Representatives informally censured him, then later revoked the censure.

Sen. George Poindexter [J-MS, 1830-1835]

other crimes

Poindexter faced an allegation of conspiracy to assassinate President Andrew Jackson. On Feb. 23, 1835, Poindexter requested an investigation, and if the charges were proved, to be expelled from the Senate. On Mar. 2, 1835, the Senate voted 41-0 to accept the committee's recommendation to dismiss charges.

Rep. John Adams [W-MA8, 1847-1849]

ethics violation

Adams faced an allegation of committing a breach of the rules of the House by refusing to vote on Stanbery censure after having his application to be excused from the vote rejected on July 11, 1832. On Jul. 12, 1832, the House of Representatives tabled the censure resolution, 89-63.

Rep. William Stanbery [A-OH8, 1831-1833]

ethics violation censure

Stanbery faced an allegation of insulting the Speaker during floor debate on July 9, 1832 by saying the House Speaker was too focused on trying to become Speaker. On Jul. 11, 1832, the House of Representatives censured him, 92- 44.

Sen. Ephraim Bateman [A-NJ, 1826-1829]

ethics violation

Bateman faced an allegation of casting the deciding vote for himself in his election, which it was suggested was improper. On May. 22, 1828, the Senate committee recommended no further action and the Senate agreed. On Jan. 12, 1829, he resigned due to ill health and died on the 28th.

Rep. Timothy Pickering [F-MA2, 1815-1817]

ethics violation censure

Pickering faced an allegation of reading confidential documents in open Senate session on December 31, 1810 without realizing the injunction of secrecy had not been removed. On Dec. 31, 1810, the Senate introduced a resolution of censure. On Jan. 2, 1811, the Senate censured him, 20-7 In 1811, he lost the election.

Sen. John Smith [R-OH, 1803-1809]

other crimes resignation

Smith faced an allegation of involvement in Aaron Burr's plot to lead the western territories in rebellion. On Dec. 31, 1807, a commitee reported that it looked like Smith was involved, but did not recommend any specific action. On Apr. 9, 1808, the Senate expulsion failed, 19-10 (one vote short of the 2/3 majority needed). On Apr. 25, 1808, he resigned.

Rep. Matthew Lyon [R-KY1, 1807-1811]

other crimes conviction in court

Lyon faced an allegation of violating Sedition Act on October 9, 1798 by accusing President John Adams of having a taste for excessive pomp, for which he was convicted and fined and served four months in prison while a member of the House. On Feb. 22, 1799, the House of Representatives failed to expel him, 49-45. In 1799, he was re-elected after conviction and while still in jail.

Sen. William Blount [R-TN, 1796-1797]

other crimes expulsion

Blount faced an allegation of disloyalty to the United States by attempting to start a war between the Creek, Cherokee, and Spain in order to transfer land to Great Britain. On Jul. 3, 1797, President John Adams sent an incriminating letter of Blount's to the Senate and the House demanding Blount's impeachment and conviction. On Jul. 6, 1797, a Senate committee reported a recommendation that Blount be expelled. On Jul. 8, 1797, the House of Representatives demanded that the Senate suspend Blount from his seat and guarantee his appearance at an impeachment trial. On Jul. 8, 1797, the Senate expelled him, 25-1 and ordered him to appear on July 10 for impeachment, which he promised to do, but did not. On Dec. 17, 1798, the Senate held an impeachment trial in the Senate and in absentia, but the resolution that he was impeachable failed.

Rep. Roger Griswold [F-CT-1, 1805-1807]

ethics violation

Griswold faced an allegation of “disorderly behavior” when, incensed that the House failed to expel Lyon for spitting tobacco juice at him in January and unsatisfied with Lyon's apology, Griswold attacked Lyon on February 15, 1798 with a cane while Lyon defended himself with a pair of fireplace tongs. On Feb. 16, 1798, both members pledged to keep the peace. On Feb. 20, 1798, the Committee on Privileges recommended against expulsion. On Feb. 23, 1798, the House of Representatives failed to censure either member, 47-48.

Rep. Matthew Lyon [R-KY1, 1807-1811]

ethics violation

Lyon faced an allegation of “disorderly behavior” when, incensed that the House failed to expel Lyon for spitting tobacco juice at him in January and unsatisfied with Lyon's apology, Griswold attacked Lyon on February 15, 1798 with a cane while Lyon defended himself with a pair of fireplace tongs.. On Feb. 16, 1798, both members pledged to keep the peace. On Feb. 20, 1798, the Committee on Privileges recommended against expulsion On Feb. 23, 1798, the House of Representatives failed to censure either member, 47-48.

Rep. Matthew Lyon [R-KY1, 1807-1811]

ethics violation

Lyon faced an allegation of spitting tobacco juice at Griswold on January 30, 1798. On Feb. 2, 1798, the Committee on Privileges recommended expulsion. On Feb. 1, 1798, he sent a letter of apology. On Feb. 12, 1798, the House of Representatives failed to censure him, 44-52 and failed to expel him, 52-44.

Sen. Humphrey Marshall [F-KY, 1795-1801]

ethics violation

Marshall faced an allegation of misconduct prior to serving in the Senate. On Mar. 11, 1796, having requested the investigation in order to clear his name of the informal charges of perjury, the committee reported that since there were no charges, there was nothing to investigate and the Senate should take no further action. On Mar. 22, 1796, the Senate voted 16-7 to investigate no further.